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Cornell University Library 
F 12708 R98 

liiillif \ 

3 1924 028 832 693 H 

olln Overs 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



oUange county, 















In submitting tliis volume to its patrons, its publishers are quite confident it will be appar- 
ent from its pages that every reasonable effort has been made by them to make it complete in 
its several departments. Notwithstanding this, however, they are conscious that to some of 
its readers it may appear that historic records have been omitted which should have been given, 
and that in other cases record has been made of matters without consideration of their un- 
importance. On behalf of its compilers, it is proper to say that its publishers have the fullest 
confidence that the most ample care has been taken to catch up all the threads of history 
and unite them in a common woof ; that, if some are worthless, the mass is valuable ; that 
if any have been lost or overlooked, the fault is not one of intention, the primary object 
having been to preserve even the minutest detail of the history of a county which ranks 
among the first in the State in its organization, in its development, in its intelligence, and 
in the patriotism and worth of its sons. 

Of many of the pioneer families of the county it may be said that they have now no 
known representatives within its borders. While the footsteps of their sons may be traced 
in almost all of the States, the record of themselves can scarce be found, even on graven 
monuments where their remains were interred. The friendly voice of neighborhood tra- 
dition — perhaps the imperishable record of services performed to the State — is all that remains; 
but these have been gathered up as completely as possible, that their life-work may be placed 
in rank with those of their contemporaries, that they, with them, may go down to the future 
in a common remembrance of the toils and struggles and dangers which they alike endured. 
While this attention has been given to those of past years, the biographical record of the 
men of the living present has been amply cared for. 

To the different departments of the volume special attention need not be directed. It 
may be proper to say, however, that the General History of the county, as well as the history 
of Newburgh and of New Windsor, were prepared by Mr. Rdttenbeb, and will be found com- 
plete and reliable. That department necessarily embraces many facts relating to the towns 
which could only be presented in consecutive narrative to convey a correct view of the sub- 
jects considered. The histories of the remaining towns were compiled by Mr, Lewis H. 

Claek, and the biographies by other writers. Acknowledgment has been made in the body 



of the work for assistance kindly given to the compilers. The persons referred to have also 
the thanks of the publishers. 

The illustrations speak for themselves, and will, the publishers believe, challenge admi- 
ration. The maps are the most complete and accurate, so far as they claim to furnish details, 
that have ever been given to the public. In the lists of volunteers in the war of the Re- 
bellion, while there are perhaps errors and omissions which would gladly have been avoided, 
there is also a mass of inforr otherwise, perhaps, never have had the 

published record which it deserve 

The publishers, however, have no desire to appear as unnecessarily commending the 
volume, nor do they conceive it necessary to apologize for any of its imperfections. Ap- 
preciating fully the generous support which has been extended to them by the representative 
men of the county, they are content to await their verdict. 
Sbftembeb, 1881. 




Abori&ikai. Bistort.. 

Land Titlks — First Settlejients 


Civil Gotersment — Origi.val County op Orange — The 
Present Coctntt of Orange — Codrts, Public Buildings. 
Etc ■ 20 


Churches — Religious and Benetolent Societies. 


The Lutheran Church — Fresbyterian Cbnrch — Church of England — Be- 
formed Dutch Church — Congregational Church — Aesociate and Asao- 
ciate Reformed Fresbyterlaa Churches — Baptist Church — Methodism 
— Roman Catholics — Friends — Beligious Societies — Benevolent Ot^ 
ganizations 126 

Bench and Bar op Orange County 


Location — Physiology — Geographical 
Climate — Geology. 

Mountains and Valleys — Ponds, Streams, Etc, 


Nouenclatcre — Physicians — Medical Societies 162 

- Climate, 


Military History- 

-French and Indian War- 

•War of the 

Col. Allison's Goshen Begiment, 1776 — Col. Hathorn's Florida Regiment 
— Col. WoodhuU's Cornwall Regiment — Col. Hasbrouck*8 Newburgh 
Regiment — Col. Clinton's New Windsor Begiment — Special Organiza- 
tions and Continental Begimente — Uniforms and Equipage — French 
and Indian War — War of the Bevolution — Col. Lewis Dubois' Fifth 
Continental Infantry — Col. William Allison's Goshen Begiment Militia 
— Col. Haabrouck's Newburgh Begiment Militia — Col. WoodhuU's 
Oomwall Begiment Militia 46 


Revolutionary Events — Pledge op Association. 

Revolutionary Associations — Freciuct of Newburgh — Precinct of New 

Windsor — Precinct of Hanover — Precinct of Walllcill — Precinct of 

Uamakating — Precinct of Goshen — Cornwall Precinct — The Story of 

Claudius Smith 62 


Second War with England — War with Mexico 73 I 



Orange County in the Rebellion. i 

Third Begiment, Company B— Eighteenth Begiment— Fifty-sixth Begi- 
ment— Seventieth Begiment — One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Begi- 
ment— Seventy-first Militia, Company I — Nineteenth Begiment Mili- 
tia — One Hundred and Sixty-sixth Regiment — One Hundred and 
Sixty-eighth Begiment — One Hundred and Seventy-sixth Begiment — 
First Mounted Bifles, Company C — Second Begiment Cavalry (Harris 
Light) — Fifteenth Cavalry— Fifteenth Heavy Artillery, Company M — 
Seventh Independent Battery — First Begiment of Engineers — Ninety- 
eighth Regiment, Company C — Moneys Expended by the Town and by 
the County for War Purposes 78 

Commercial History — Original Roads — Turnpikes — Rail- 
roads AND Canals — Plank-roads — Banking — Agricul- 
tural AND Mechanical Statistics, Etc 105 


The Prkss of Orange County. 

i Press of Goshen — Press of Newburgh — Press of Middletown — Press of 
Montgomery — Press of Port Jervis — Press of Warwick — Miscella- 
neous 186 

Orange County Civil List. 
Representatives in Colonial Assembly — Delegates from the Colony of 
New York to the First Continental Congress, 1774 — Second Continental 
.Congress, 1775 — Delegates to the Provincial Congress of New Tork, 
1775-77— Members of the Committee of Safety, 1775-76— Delegates to 
the Conventiou Called to Deliberate upon the Adoption by the State 
of New York of the Constitution of the United States, held June 17, 
17S8 — Delegates to the State Convention of 1801, called to Amend the 
Constitution of 1777 — Delegates to the State Convention of 1821, 
called to Amend the Constitution of 1801 — Delegates to the Conven- 
tion of 1846, called to Amend the Constitution of 1821 — Electors of 
President and Yice-Fresideut — Bepreseotatives in Congress— Repre- 
sentatives in State Senate — Membera of Assembly — Administrative 
OfBcers — Members of Council of Appointment — Begents of the 
University — Surveyors-General — Canal Commissioner — Inspectors of 
State Prisons — Master of Chancery — Masters and Examiners in Chan- 
cery — Puisne Justice Supreme Court — Judge Circuit Court — Justices 
of Supreme Court — Judges of Court of Common Pleas— Judges of the 
County Courts — Special County Judges — Surrogates — District Attor- 
neys — County Clerks — Sheriffs — County Treasurers — County Superin- 
tendents of Schools — School Commissioners — Board of Supervi- 
sors 201 

Town Boundaries 206 


General— Patents and First Settlements — Villages, Etc. 
— Revolutionary Localities — Revolutionary Inci- 
dents — Civil List — Rebellion Record. 

Location, Physiology, Etc. — Civil Organization — Name — Town Becords 
— Boads — Schools — Support of Poor — Licenses — Post-offices — Creeks, 
Streams, Swamps, Etc. — Village of New Windsor — Orangeville, or 



Moodna— Quasaalck Valley— Vail's Gate, or Mortonville— Little Bri- 
tain—The Square— Eagville, Eock Tavern, Etc.— Wasliington's Head- 
qnarters — Plum Point — Lafayette^a Headquarters — EdmonBton House 
— Falls House- Knox's Headquarters— The Camp-Ground and Tem- 
ple—Arrest of Cadwallader Golden, Jr.- The Full of the Highland 
Forts— Morgan's Kiflemen— Seizure. of Salt— A Tea Riot— Dominie 
Annan— Boy Soldiers— St. Thomas' Church— New Windsor Presby- 
terian Church— Associate Reformed Church, Little Britain— Union 
Methodist Episcopal Church, Vail's Gate — Little Britain Methodist 
Episcopal Church — Burial-Grounds 210 



BCROH — Villages, Hahlets, Streaks, Etc. — Census 
Returns — Newburgh Poor System — Turnpikes and 
Plank-roads — Banks — Incorporated Companies — Firr 
Department — Newburgh Regatta Association — Nbw- 
burgh Horticultural Society — Churches, Schools, Etc. 
— Civil List. 
Settlement of the German Patent — Settlement of Other Patents — Pre- 
cincts of Newburgh — Subsequent General History — Second War with 
England — General Incidents— War of the Rebellion — City of New- 
burgh — Review — Balmville— Middlehope— The Dauskamer — Hamp- 
ton — ^Fostertown — RossTiile- Luptondale — Rocky Forest — Gardner- 
town — Gidneytown — DuBois' Mills — New Mills- West Newburgh — 
Powder Mills — Belknap's Ridge — East Coldenham — Orange Lake — 
Quassaick Creek — Fostertown Creek — Teut-Stone Meadow Creek — 
Bushfield's Creek — Benton's Creek— Powellton Brook — Raccoon Hill 
— Acker's Creek — Trout Brook — Poll Rose's Pond — Springs — Fitzpat- 
rick'e Pond — King's Hill — Cronomer's Hill — Limestone Hill — Much- 
attoes Hill — Washington's Headquarters — The Vale — Public Stocks — 
Newburgh Market — Hay-Scales — Newburgh Steam-Mills — Gas-Light 
Companies — Newburgh Ferr.v — Churches — Comparative Statistics — 
Theological Seminary — Public Libraries— Newspapers — Literary, Re- 
ligious, and Benevolent Societies-Cemeteries— Precinct and Town 
OfQcets — Village and City Officers — Seals of the City and Village of 
Newburgh 245 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — Natural Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Burial-Places — Towns, Socikties, Banks, 
Incorporations, Etc. — Places of Historic Interest — 
Industrial Pursuits — Military. 
Extracts from Town Records — Lieutenant-Governor Cadwallader Golden 
— ^Montgomery Village— Walden — St. Andrew's — Coldenham — Allard's 
Corner — Scott Town — Scott's Corners — Keisertown — Montgomery 
Academy — Montgomery Public School — The Walden Union Free School 
— The Goodwill Presbyterian Church — St. Andrew's Church, Walden 
— Coldenham Church — Reformed Dutch Chnrch of Berea — First Re- 
formed Dutch Church of Walden — First Presbyterian Church at Mont- 
gomery — Methodist Episcopal Church at Montgomery — Methodist Epis- 
copal Church of Walden— Church of the Holy Name of Mary — WallklU 
Valley Cemetery Association — Masonic — Temperance Societies— Banks 
— The Insurance Agency — Indian Localities — Old Homesteads — Orange 
County Scientific and Practical Agricultural Institute- Woolen Fac- 
tory at Walden — New York Knife Company — Walden Condensed Milk 
Company — Brickyard at Walden — Walden Knife Company — Walden 
File-Works — Steam Flouring-Mill- Montgomery Woolen-Mill— Titus 
& Stratton's Grist-Mill- Walker's Faper-Mill at Montgomery — New 
York Condensed Milk Company— Creameries — Various Manufactories 
—War of 1861-65 370 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, and Title — Natural Fea- 
tures — Early Settlement — Orqanizatio.v — Villages — 
Schools — Churches — Burial-Places — Towns, Societies, 
Etc. — Places of Special Note or of Historic Interest — 
Industrial Pursuits — Military. 
Physicians — First Town-Meeting — Hopewell — BullviUe — Searsvllle 
— Thompson's Ridge — Collaburgh — Pine Bush — Presbyterian Society 
of Hopewell — Graham's Church (Associate Reformed} — Methodist 
Episcopal Church of Crawford — Methodist Episcopal Church, Pine 
Bush— Mills 412 

; Situation, Boundaries, Area, and Title — Natural Fea- 
' TUREs— Early Settlement — Organization — Schools 
I Churches — Societies, Libraries, Banks, Incorpora- 
tions, Etc. — Industrial Pursuits — Military. 
Manumission of Slaves- Taverns- Assessment-Roll, 1803— First Town- 
Meeting of Wallkill after the Division— Middletown— Scotchtown— 
Mechanictown— Circleville— Phillipsburgh- Recollections of Half a 
I Century— Howell's Depot— Van Burenville— Sand Station— Fair Oaks 
i —Crawford Junction— Purdy's Station — Lockwood's—Eockville — 
I Millsburgh— Stony Ford— Brimstone Hill— Michigan— La Grange— 
Davistown-Honey-Pot— Guinea— Bull Hack— Pierce Valley— Wall- 
I kill Academy— The State Homoeopathic Asylum for the Insane at 
[ Middletown, N. Y.— First Congregational Church— Congregational 
Church of Howell's Depot— The Primitive Baptist Cliurch, Middletown 
—Presbyterian Church of Scotchtown— Congregation of Union Church 
at New Shawangnnk— The First Presbyterian Church at Middle- 
town— Second Methodist Episcopal (or Mount Johnson) Church— Pres- 
byterian Church of Circleville— Second Presbyterian Church at Mid- 
dletown— Firet Baptist Chnrch of South Middletown— Grace Church 
of .South Middletown (Episcopal)— Methodist Episcopal Chnrch of 
Middletown— St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church— The Separate 
American Methodist Church of Phillipsburgh- The Methodist Episco- 
pal Zion Church of Middletown— The Free Christian Chnrch of Middle- 
town— Old Bnrial-Ground of Congregational Church— Old Cemeterj- 
opposite the Academy— South Middletown Cemetery Association- 
Hillside Cemetery of Middletown— Scotchtown Cemetery Association 
—Howell's Cemetery Association— St. Joseph's Cemetery— The Webb 
Cemetery Association, Wallkill— Hoffman Lodge, No. 300, P. and A. M. 
—Hoffman Lodge, No. 412, F. and A. M.— Midland Chapter, No. 240, 
R. A. M.— Middletown Lodge, No. 112, 1. 0. 0. F.— Luther Lodge, No. 
380, I. 0. 0. F.— Orange Encampment, No. 93, I. O. 0. F.— Excelsior 
Lodge, No. 829, I. 0. G. T.— Germania Mannerchor — Middletown 
Bank— First National Bank of Middletown — Middletown Savings- 
Bank— New York and Erie Insurance Company— The Wallkill Bank 
— Middletown Library — The Orange County Milk Association — The 
Sutherland Falls Marble Company, Wallkill — Oil and Mining Com- 
pany — Draper Oil Company — Adams Mining Company — Middletown 
and Unionville Telegraph Company — Middletown Building and Loan 
Association — The Evening Standard Association — The Zetesin De- 
bating Society — Middletown Gospel Temperance Union' — Wallkill 
Council, No. 57, Royal Templars of Temperance — The Middletown 
Hebrew Union— Indian Spring— The Manufitctnre of Hats— The Mid- 
dletown Tannery — Saw Manufactory — The Monhagen Steam- and 
Water-Mills — The Manufacture of Files- Carpet - Bag Factory — 
Orange County Furnace — Book-Bindery — Morgans & Wilcox Manu- 
facturing Company — Decker's Milts, Etc 429 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — Natural Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — TownSocieties, Libraries, Incorporations, 
Etc. — Places of Historic Intkrest — Industrial Pur- 
suits — Military. 
Physicians— Lawyers — Mount Hope Village — Otisville — New Vernon — 
Flnchville — Guymard — Old-School Baptist Church, New Vernon — Con- 
gregational Church at Wallkill and Deerpark Patent— First Presby- 
terian Church of Mount Hope — Methodist Episcopal Church of Otis- 
ville — Flnchville Methodist Episcopal Church — Presbyterian Church, 
Otisville— Catholic Church at Otisville— The Farmers' Library — The 
Washington Lead Company — Empire Mining Company— Wallkill Lead 
Company — Savoss Copper-Mine — Champion Lead-Mining Company — 
New York Central Mining and Mineral Company — Mount Hope Min- 
eral Company — Guymard's SilveivLead Company — Erie Mining Com- 
pany — Empire Mineral Company— Finch Homestead— The Peddler'a 
Spring— Old Coin— Location of the Mastodon— Old Orchards 605 


Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — Natural Features — 

Early Settlem ent — Organization — Villages — Schooia 

— Churches— Industrial Pursuits — Military. 

Assessment-Roll of 1776— Special Notes on Families- Old Tavemi of 

Goshen— Goshen Village— Mapea' Comefs— County Farn>— East and 

West Divisions — Presbyterian Church of Qoahqu — St, Jamea' E^copal 


Church of Goshen— The Separate Methodiat Church of Goshen — 
The AMcan Methodist Episcopal Zion Church of Goshen— Gath. 
olic Church of Gosheo — Slate Hill Cemetery AsBociation — Westcott 
Burial-Place— Cemetery of the Episcopal Church — Webb Burylng- 
Ground— The Vauduzer Family Lot— The Haight Family Ceme- 
tery, Goahen — The Case Family— The Catholic Burial -Place— The 
Wallkill Valley Cemetery Association- The Goahen Library Asso- 
ciation — Goeben Gas-Light Company — Orange County Fire Insurance 
Company — National Bank of Orange County — The Goshen Na- 
tional Bank — Goahen Sayings-Bank — Old Westcott Well — Orange 
County Agricultural Works— G(wben Brickyard and Tile-Works — The 
Rider Engine Company of Goshen — Flaning-Milla — Goahen Foundry 
and Gas Machinery Company — Creameriea— Old French War— Revo- 
lutionary War— Celebration of July 22, 1862 — Centennial Celebration, 
July 22, 1879 — Revolutionary Recorda — Mexican War — Regular 
Army 520 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — NatUkal Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Societies, Libraries, Banks, Incorpora- 
tions, Etc. — Places op Historic Interest — Industrial 
Pursuits — Military. 
The Seward Family — General Notes from the Records — Warwick — In- 
corporation—Fire Department — Water- Works — Poat-Office — Florida — 
Amity — Pine Island— Bloom^s Cornera— New Milford — Edenville — 
Liberty Corners — Newport — Sandfurdville — Stone Bridge — Big Island 
— Lawton — Dutch Hollow — Bellvale — ^Warwick Institute — Amity 
Home^lohool— Seward Institute, Florida — Baptist Church in Warwick 
— Preebyterian Congregatiuu of Florida— Presbyterian Church of 
Warwick— Preabyteiian Church of Amity— St. PauPs Church in War- 
wick-Protestant Episcopal Church of Warwick — Methodiat Epiaco- 
pal Church, Florida — Preaby teilan Congregation of Florida— Methodist 
Episcopal Church of Warwick Village — Methodiat Episcopal Church of 
New Milford— Methodiat Episcopal Church of Eden— Bellvale Metho- 
diat Episcopal Church — Union Methodiat Epiacopal Church of Stirling 
— Af^can Methodiat ^pisoopal Church of Florida^St. Stephen's 
Church, Warwick Village — Cavalry Baptist Church — Methodist Episco- 
pal Church of Mount Bethel — Warwick Cemetery — Wawayanda Lodge 
-Patrons of Husbandry — ^Warwick Cornet Band— Temperance League 
of Warwick — Young Men's Christian Association of Warwick Village 
— Army and Navy Association of Veterans at Warwick — Warwick 
Library— Franklin Library — First National Banlt-if Warwick — ^War- 
wick Savings-Bank— Warwick Valley Farmers* Milk Association- 
Thomas Smith's Creamery — Producers' Milk Company, Warwick — 
Chouckhaas Hill— Birthplace of W. H. Seward 664 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — Natural Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Burial Places — Societies, Libraries, 
and Banks— Places op Historical Interest — Indus- 
trial Pursuits — Rebellion Record; 
Chester Proper— Chester— Wust Chester— East Cheater— Gray Court Sta- 
tion — Salem Neighborhood — Sugar-Loaf Village — Cheater Academy 
— Cheater Union Free School, No. 1 — Preabyterlan Church of Chester 
— Methodiat Episcopal Church of Salem— Methodist Protestant Church 
of Salem — Methodist Episcopal Church of Sugar>Loaf— Methodiat 
Episcopal Church of Cheater— Gray Court Cemetery Association- 
Standard Lodge, No. 711, F. and A. M.— The Cheater Library— Cheater 
National Bank — Gray Court— Sugar-Loaf Mountain 613 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — Natural Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Burial-Places — Town Societies, Libra- 
ries, Incorporations, Etc. — Places op Historic Interest 
— Industrial Pursuits — Military. 
General Notes from the Records — Justices of the Peace — Washlngton- 
viUft— Salisbury Mills Village — Blooming-Grove— Craigville — Sat- 
terly's Mills— Oxford Depot— Presbyterian Church, Blooming-Grove- 
Congregational Church at Wauhingtonville— Presbyterian Church at 
Waahingtonville— WashlngtonTille Old-School Presbyterian Church- 

Oxford Methodist Episcopal Church— Methodist Episcopal Church at 
Granville — Methodist Episcopal Church at Craigville— Methodiat 
Epiacopal Church of Salisbury'e Mills— Blooming-Grove Methodist 
Episcopal Church— Satterlytown Methodist Episcopal Church — 
Friends' Meeting-House—Farmers' Creamery Association of Blooming- 
Grove — Library Society of Blooming-GroTe- Salisbury Mills Manu- 
facturing Company- Town-Meetings of the Period 1765 to 1797 — 
Wigwam of Marin gamus-Official Action, War of 1861-65 629 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title— Natural Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 

— Churches — Burial-Places — Societies — Places op 
Historic Interest — Industrial Pursuits — Military. 

Campbell Hall— Hamptonburgh— Neelytown— Bumaide— Kipp's- Pur- 
gatory- Paradise— La Grange— Decker*8— First Presbyterian Church 
at Hamptonburgh— St. David's Church of Hamptonburgh— Methodist 
Episcopal Church of Otterville— The Bull Homestead— The Stone 
House 649 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — Natural Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 

— Churches — Burial-Places — Lodges, Societies, Li- 
braries, Etc. — Places op Historic Interest — Indus- 
trial Pursuits — Military. 

Families in Town, 1810 to 1815— Slavery— Early Physicians— Extracts 
from Records— Union ville— Incorporation — Westtown — Gardnerville 
—Mitlaburgh— Johnson PostrOfBce— Smith Village— Waterloo Milla— 
Presbyterian Society at Weattown — Presbyterian Church of Weattown 
— Firat Preabyterian Church of Unionville — Orange Baptist Church of 
TTnionville- Old Rome Church— Methodist Episcopal Church at West^ 
town— Presbyterian Congregation of Drovpned Lands — Meadville Bap- 
tist Church — Union Meeting-House— The Miuieink Cemetery Associa- 
tion—The Westtown Library — Westtown Circulating Library Associa- 
tion 659 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — Natural Features — 

— Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — 
Churches — Burial-Places — Places of Historic In- 
terest — Industrial Pursuits — Military. 

Firat Town-Meetiug— Hampton— Millsburgh—Ridgehury—Centreville 
— Gardnerville — Brookfield — Wawayanda — Denton — First Baptist 
Church of Brookfield — Presbyterian Church at Ridgebury — Centre- 
ville Presbyterian Church — Centreville Methodist Episcopal Church — 
First Presbyterian Church of Denton— Society of United Christian 
Friends— Pine Hill Cemetery— Jogee Hill 676 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — Natural Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 

— Churches — Burial-Places — Societies, Incorpopa- 
tions. Etc. — Industrial Pursuits — Military. 

Physicians— First Town*Meeting — Greenville — Centre Points-Smith's 
Corners— Bushville— Baptist Society of Greenville — Methodist Epiaco- 
pal Church of Greenville— Mineral Spring Mining Company — Green- 
ville Mineral and Mining Company 692 


Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title — Natural Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Burial-Places — Societies, Banks, Libra- 
RiKs, Incorporations, Etc. — Places op Special Note — 
Industrial Pursuits — Military. 
An Early Trip to the Minisink Region— Asaeaament-Roll of 1775 — Fami- 
lies in Southern Deerpark, 1810 to 1815- Early Physicians — General 
Notes from the Records— Slaves — Assessment-Roll of 1825— Town Offi- 
cers— Bonding of the Town of Deerpark — Fort Jervis — Incorporation 
— Fire Department— Westbrookville — Port Orange— Cuddebackville — 
Rose Point— Port Clinton — Gumaer's— Huguenot— Carpenter's Point— 


Sparrowbush—Bushkill— Quarry Hill— Shin Hpllow— German town— 
Honeaville — Bolton— Paradise — Brooklyn — Hatanioras — High School 
in the Fowler House— St. Mary'e Orphan Asylum— The Public Schools 
of Port Jervia— The JBeformed Protestant Dutch Church of Magagh- 
keneck — First Presbyterian Church of Port Jervis — Separate Ameri- 
can Methodist Church, Port Jervis — The Sparrowbush Union Free 
Church, town of Deerparlt— Grave Church of Port Jervis— Drew Cen- 
tennial Methodist Episcopal Church of Port Jervis— Ruformed Church 
of Ouddebackville — German Lutheran Protestant Churclt, Port Jervis 
— Port Jervis Baptist Church — Church of the Immaculate Conc(>ptioD 
— The Old Gumaer Graveyard — The Old Burial-Place of Port Jervis — 
Laurel Grove Cemetery — Weeping Willow Cemetery Association — Re-" 
formed Church Cemetery — Catholic Cemetery — Rural Valley Ceme- 
tery Association — Port Jervis Lodge — Neversink Chapter — Delaware 
Commandery — Tri-States Masonic Relief Association — Mount William 
Lodge— Ustayantha Lodge — Neversink Lodge — Attila Lodge— Mount 
WilHam Lodge— Delaware Council, No. 9— Delaware Council, No. 10— 
Orange County Building and Loan Association — Deerpark Mining 
Company— Neversink Mineral Company — Montana Mill Company — 
Deerpark Lead Company — German Roman Catholic St. Joseph's 
Benevolent Society— Port Jervis Building and Loan Association, No. 1 
— The Deerpark and Westfall Building and Loan Association— The 
Delaware Building and Loan Association — The Neversink Building and 
Loan Association — The Mutual Building and Loan Association — The 
Tri-States Medical Society — The Port Jervis Co-operative Association 
— Deerpark Council, No. 66, Royal Templars of Temperance — Mini- 
sink, No. 28, Improved Order of Bed Men — Port Jervis Gas Company — 
Port Jervis Mannerchor — Riverside Lodge of Good Templars— Invin- 
cible Lodge — Women's Christian Temperance Union — Port Jervis 
Temperance Union — Young Men*s Social Union — National Bank of 
Port Jervis— First National Bank of Port Jervis— The Port Jervis 
Savings -Bank— Tri-States Rock— Site of the Old Dutch Church— Van 
Etten School-House — The Forts — Old Stone House in Germantown — 
Indian Burial-Place — Glass Manufacture — Erie Machine-Shop — Glove 
Manufacture-rSash and Blind Factory, Port Jervis— Foundry of Swin- 
ton, Shimer & Co. — Foundry of St. John & Malven — Stone Grist- Mill 
at Fort Jervis — Goodale's Furniture Factory — Preservation of Green 
Fodder — French War of 1755 — War of the Revolution — Donations for 
Soldiers and Soldiers' Families 696 

Situation, Bodndaries, Area, and Title:— Natural Fea- 
tures — EarlySettlembnt— Organization— Villages — 
Schools — Churches — Burial- Places — Societies, Libra- 
ries, Incobporations, Etc. — Places of Hiktoric Inter- 
BST — Military. 
Settlers prior tn the Revolution- First Town-Meeting- Cornwall — 
Canterbury— Comwall-on-the-Hudsoii — Idiewild — Garnerville~Riv- 
erside — Boeville- Montana Woolen-Mills— MountainviUe-Salisbury 
Mills — Bethlehem — Presbyterian Congregatiou, Bethlehem — Frieuds' 

Meeting, Cornwall— First BaptUt Congregatiou, New Cornwall— First 
Presbyterian Society of Canterbury— Friends' MeeUng, Cornwall (Or- 
thodox)— Methodist Episcopal Church, Cornwall— Cornwall Presbyte- 
rian Church— Methodist Episcopal Church, MountainviUe— Church of 
St. Thomas, Cornwall— Masonic— Temperance— Odd-Fellowebip—yi™ 
Departments-Cornwall Circulating Library Aasociat ion— Cornwall 
Pleasnre-Ground and Driving-Park Association— Hudson River Paint 
Company— West Point and Cornwall Turnpike Company— Cornwall 
Oxide Paint ManufacturingCompany— CornwHll Manufacturing Com- 
pany-Cornwall Saviiigs-Bank- Butter Hill— Sloop Hill— C^mtinental 
Spring— Black Rock— Grant's Haunt— Picnic Rock— Briin's Bluff- 
Natural Bridge— The Old Ring Homestead— Idiewild— Mead & Taft— 
Orr's Mills— Summer Boarding— Soldiers' List.. '^ 


Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title— Natural Features- 
Early Settlement — Oroanization^Villages — Schools 
-Churches.— Burial- Places — Societies, Libraries, 
Incorporations, Etc.— Places of Historic Interest — 
Industrial Pursuits — Military. 
Toryism— Its Principal Leader— An Unusual Case of Arrest long after 
the Commission of a Crime— First Town-Meetit\g— The Three Towns 
—Monroe— Woodbury FaUs-Seanianville— Highland Mills Post-Office 

Central Valley— Greenwood Lake— Turner's— Queensbonugh— 

Greenwood Iron-Works—Southfiold—Helmsburgh— Augusta— Hagle 
Valley— Other Localities — Presbyterian Congregation of Smith Clove 
—Friends' Meetings— Methodist Episcopal Cliurch— St. Johu^s Frt-e 
Church, (Jreenwood — Grace Church- Monroe Library Association— 
The Forest of Dean Iron Company— Stirling Iron and Bidl way Com- 
pany— The Forebt of Dean Iron Ore C()mpauy — Greenwood Luke 
Association— Farmers* Creamery Associationof Turner's— The Pairott 
Iron Company— Stirling Furnace— Forest of Dean Furnace — Queens- 
borough Furnace — Greenwood Furnace— Monroe Saw-Factory — Mon- 
roe Works — Houghton Farm 787 

Situation, Boundaries, Area, Title— "if atural Features — 
Early Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Burial- Places — Societies — Places of 
Historic Interest — Industrial Purscits — Military. 

West Points- Highland Falls- Fort Montgomery— West Grove — West 
Point Military Academy— Highland Falls School — First Presbyterian 
Society of the Highlands— First Methodist Episcopal Church of Fort 
Montgomery— First Protestant Methodist Church at Buttermilk Falls 
— Methodist Episcopal Church of Highland Falls-rChurch of the Holy 
Innocents, Cornwall — Church of the Sucred Heart— Highland Union 
Cemetery — West Point— Grave of Molly Pitcher — Fort Montgomery 
and Fort Clinton 810 





William SiUlman 98 

Henry WilemaD 141 

Phineas Mcintosh 141 

John Alsop 141 

John Chamlerd 141 

ViDcetit Matthews 141 

George Cliutou 142 

Phineas Bowman 143 

Jonathan Fisk 143 

JonRB Storey 144 

Wm. Boaa 144 

Henry G. Wisuer 144 

Walter Cs»e 145 

John Duer 146 

Gilhert O. Fowler 146 

Poter V. Hunn 147 

Ogden HoiTman 148 

John W. Brown 149 

SamuelJ. Wilkin 149 

John G. Wilkin 151 

Joeeph M. Wilkin 162 

George M. Grier facing 153 

Isaac R. Van Duzer 153 

Wm.C. HaabloucU 154 

Nathan Weetcott 154 

Joseph W. Gott 155 

David F. Gedoey 166 

James K. Prouk 157 

Oliver Young 168 

Thomas J. -Lyon 158 

Abram S. Caasedy r. 159 

William Tanamee 160 

Frederic Bodine 160 

Joseph Whelan 163 

Increase Crueby - 164 

James M. Gardiner 166 

Isaac Garrison 167 

David C. Winfleld 108 

Kobert Shaw 169 

Harvey Everett 171 

Bartow Wright facing 171 

Samuel M. Crawford 171 

Thomas 8. Edmonston 172 

8. 6. Carpenter 173 

C. P. Smith 173 

Solomon Tan Etten 174 

James D. Johnston 175 

George Hunter 176 

H. C. Seely between 176, 177 

T. Walsh " 176,177 

H. H. Bobinson " 176,177 

W. C. Teny 177 

P. M. Barclay facing 178 

Theodore Writer " 179 

UeWitt C. Jayne 183 

J. W.Ostrom 183 

William A. M. Onlbert 184 

IraS. Bradner 185 

Charles M. Lawrence 186 

V. M. Drake 189 

Charles Mead 190 

E. M. Euttenber 184 

Lydia Sayer Hasbrouck 196 

J. W. Hasbrouck between 196, 197 

M. D. Stivers 198 

W. H. Nearpasa 201 

Eobt. H. Wallace 231 

Ohaa. Clinton and Descendants 238 

John B. Caldwell 239 

E. D. Drury 240 

Robert Burnet....';^ 241 

Jas, W. Morrison 242 

J. B, Kernochan 242 

Thos. J. Fulton facing 243 

Wm. L. McGill 243 

John S. Bull 244 

John Cromwell facing 244 

Wm. L. P. Warren 288 

Thomas C. Ring 290 

John R. Wiltsle , 291 

John Brown 303 

John Johnston 306 

Joseph McCarrell 313 

Thomas Powell 351 

Homer Ramsdell 352 

BeAjamin Carpenter 354 

David Crawford 365 

The Walsh Family 356 

Daniel B. St. John 357 

Charles Downing 358 

John Forsyth between 358, 359 

Joel T. Headloy 360 

Thomas Shaw 360 

James Mackin 361 

George Clark 362 

William Wright 363 

Peter V.B. Fowler , 366 

Daniel Merritt , 366 

John L. Foster 366 

B. K. Johnston 367 

I William I. Underbill 368 

I Nathaniel Barnes between 366, 369 

j Gilbert Williams " 368,369 

Jacob Gillies ,,... " 368,369 

Robert Whitehill 369 

' James McCord > 369 

I Charles Miller ^ 409 

.Toseph U. Decker. 409 

I Francis C. Decker 410 

George Senior. 410 

James Todd between 410, 411 

John Kidd " 410,411 

James R. W. Beattie 411 

C.J. Mould 411 

M. G. Snyder ; 412 

John H. Leggett 421 

Daniel Thompson 426 

Leander Crawford 426 

A. E.Taylor 427 

Horace Bull 428 

Siting France 428 

Daniel Bull between 428, 429 

Augustus Thompson " 428,429 

Seldon H. Taloott 455 

Wm. B. Eoyce 473 

Silas H. Stringham 488 

Robert H. Houston 488 

Edward M. Madden 489 

Saml. S. Wickham 491 

Wickham C. McNish 492 

Albert Bull > 493 

Ellsha P. Wheeler 494 

Oliver P. Eeeve 496 

B. W. Shaw : „ 497 

Horton Vail 498 

CO. Sawyer 499 

Thos. B. Hulse 499 

James B. Bell 600 



AlansoQ Slaughter 601 

John B. Hulse 602 

Hiram S. Wilkinson „ 602 

Virgil Thompson between 602, 603 

Israel H. Wickham " 502,503 

Hiram B. Webb 603 

M. F. P. Bliven 504 

H. Bull between 504, 606 

A. L. Vail " 604,505 

H. S. Linderman " 604,506 

H.B.Wilcox " 504,£06 

George Wallace facing 605 

George Smith 619 

Nathaniel Webb 632 

W. D. Snodgrass 635 

A. S. Murray 542 

Wm. Murray 54.^ 

Wm. T. Kussell 546 

Alex. Wright 553 

A. H. Sinsabaugh 664 

Henry Merrian 665 

John J. Smith ; 556 

Charles W.Keevs between 566,657 

William Knapp " 556,657 

Oliver B. Tuthill " 556,567 

De Witt C. Durland .'. " 566,567 

Alfred Wells 657 

Thomas Thprne 558 

John J. Heard 658 

John C. Walling between 568, 559 

Walter H. Sayor " 668,659 

Garret Thew 660 

William B. Tuthill 660 

James W. Hoyt between 560, 561 

Stephen Smith " 560,561 

John N. Kyerson " 560,661 

Kobert Young " 560, 661 

Johns. Crane " 660,561 

Charles F. Johnson " 661,561 

George Mapes ^ 561 

Edson Coleman 661 

JohnT. Ackley 66a 

Adrian Holbert between 562, 563 

Noah Gregory " 562,603 

Richard L. Wood " 662,663 

N.O. Coleman « 562,663 

James M. Bull .' 563 

The Seward ll'amily 670 

EzraSanford 604 

Benj. Sayer. 605 

Edward L. Welling 606 

JelTrey Wisner 607 

James Burt 607 

Gabriel Wisner 608 

James Wheeler. 608 

Gabriel Houston .' 609 

Isaac V.Wheeler 609 

A.J.Burt 610 

John Willcox 610 

Thomas Welling 611 

William H. Houston Oil 

James E. Waterbury 612 

Nathaniel B. Feagles 612 

Gardner K. Nanny between 612, 613 


.. 613 
Hezekiah Hoyt ' 

John T. Johnson „ 

Jesse Boe ^^3 

James Durland 

James J. Board 

Minard Sutton 

Nathaniel Boe 

Ira Bull f 

, . „. 626 

John King 

Robert N, Colfax °^° 

C. B Seely ^'^ 

John B. Tuthill "^ 

W. M. Bysdyk between 628, 629 

AbrumDemciest " 628,629 

J.K.Oakley ^^ 

Thomas N. Hulse ^^ 

Nathaniel D. Woodhnll 646 

Nathan H.White 646 

Edmund S.Howell 647 

Hezekiah Howell 647 

A Iden Goldsmith 648 

Jesse Bull 648 

Silas B. Horton between 648, 649 

Auselm Helme " 648,649 

C. S. Marvin " 648,839 

Charles M. Thompson facing 662 

Daniel H.Bnll " 664 

Vincent Booth - " 656 

Solomon T.Smith " 668 

Hulet Clark 874 

John C. Wisner 874 

Peter Worry between 674, 676 

Peter Kimber " 674,875 

M. S. Hayne 678 

0. E. Carpenter 691 

George W. Horton 691 

Edward J. Flynn 728 

H. H. Farnum 738 

Eli Van Inwegeu 739 

Peter P. Swartwout 760 

George Cuddeback...T;^ 761 

Moses Van Inwegen 751 

Nathan Skinner 752 

Levi Van Etten 763 

A. C. Boe 766 

Jonathan Silllman 76» 

E. P. Boe 782 

Wm. S. Brown 783 

John'Orr 784 

William Orr. 786 

ChailesH. Mead 786 

B. S. Ketcham between 786,787 

Peter Townsend 805 

Morgan Shuit 806 

Peter P. Parrott 806 

Alexander Thompson 807 

Peter Turner.^j^ 807 

Peter B. BushTTT. 808 

JohnGotf 808 

Gilbert!. Smith 808 

J. H. Thompson between 808, 809 

Isaac H. Thompson " 808, 809 

James Wilkes 809 





Outline Map of County between 8,9 

" " Land Patents " 16,17 

Portrait of William Silliman 98 

Store-House of Homer Ramsdell & Co 107 

Portrait of George Clinton 142 

S.J.Wilkin facing 148 

Jno. G.Wilkin " 150 

Jos. M.Wilkin " 152 

George M. Grier " 153 

Joseph W. Gott " 166 

David F. Geduey " 156 

James N. Pronk 157 

Oliver Young facing 158 

Thomas J. Lyon " 159 

Abram S. Cassedy 159 

William Yanamee 160 

Fredeiic Bodiue 161 

Joseph Whelan facing 16.3 

Increase drosby *' 164 

Jamps M. Gardiner 166 

Isaac Garrison facing 167 

David C. Winfield " 168 

BobertShaw " 169 

Harvey Everett " 170 

Bartow Wright " 171 

Thomas S. EdmoDston " 172 

S. G. Carpenter between 172, 173 

C.P.Smith " 172,17.3 

Solomon Van Etten facing 174 

JamesD.Johnston " 175 

George Hunter " 176 

H.C. Seely between 176, 177 

T. Walsh " 176, 177 

H. H. Kobinson " 176, 177 

W. C. Terry facing 177 

P.M. Barclay " 178 

Thoo. Writer " 179 

DeWitt C. Jayne " 183 

J. W. Ostrom 184 

Wm. A. M.Culbert faoiug 185 

IraS. Bradner between 186,187 

Chas. M. Lawrence " 186,187 

v. M. Drake 190 

Chaa. Mead facing 190 

E. M. Kuttenber " 194 

Lyditt Sayer Hitsbrouck between 196, 197 

J. W. Hasbrnuck " 196,197 

M. D. Stivers facing 198 

W. H. Nearpasa " 201 


Beaidence of Robert Morison facing 222 

Portrait of Kobert H. Wallace " 231 

" John R. Caldwell 240 

" E. D. Drury facing 240 

" Robert Burnet " 241 

" James W. Morrison ^..between 242, 243 

Residence of James W. Morrison -. " 242,243 

Portrait of Thomas J. Fulton facing 243 

" John B. Kernochan 243 

" Wm. L. MoGill 243 

" John S. Bull ; 244 

" John Cromwell facing 244 


Diagram of Patents 245 

Newburgh from the Northeast 246 

Diagram of German Patent 248 

" Township of Washington 266 


Washington's Headquarters from the East, and Ground Plan 283 

Portrait of William L. F. Warren facing 288 

" ThomasC.Eing " 290 

" John R. Wiltaie " 292 

Ringgold Hose House 299 

Portrait of John Brown facing 302 

" John Johnston " 306 

Union Presbyterian Church 311 

J. McCarrell facing 312 

Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church 318 

Portrait of Thomas Powell facing 351 

" Homer Ramsdell " 352 

" Benjamin Carpenter " 354 

" David Crawford " 355 

" William Walsh " .366 

" Henry Walsh " 357 

" D.B.St. John " 358 

" Jno. Forsyth between 368, 359 

" Charles Downing 359 

" J. T. Headley facing 360 

" Thomas Shaw 1 " 361 

" James Mackin " 362 

" George Clark " 303 

" William Wright " 364 

" Peter V. B. Fowler. " 366 

" Daniel Merritt " 366 

" Jno. L.Foster « 367 

" B. K. Johnston 307 

" W. I. Underbill between 308, 369 

" Robert Whitehill " 368, 369 

" Nathaniel Barnes " 368, 369 

" Gilbert Williams " 368,369 

" Jacob Gillies " 368,369 

*' James McCord facing370 


Portrait of Charles Miller facing 408 

" Joseph H. Decker 409 

" Francis C. Decker 410 

* " George Senior facing4l0 

" James Todd between 410, 411 

" John Kidd « 410, 411 

" J. R. W. Beattie " 410,411 

" C.J. Mould " 410,411 

" M. G. Snyder. facing 412 


Portrait of John H. Leggett facing 420 

" Daniel Thompson between 426, 427 

" Leander Ci-awfurd " 426,427 

A. K. Taylor facing 427 

" Horace Bull 428 

" Daniel Bull '. between 428,429 

" Augustus Thompson " 428,429 


Map of Middletown 444 

Homoeopathic Asylum for Insane 454 

Portrait of Selden H. Talcott facing 455 

" William B. Royce ** 473 

" Robert H. Houston « 488 

" E. M. Madden " 439 

" S. S. WIckham " 491 

W. C. McNish " 492 

" AlbertBull ; «• 493 

" Elisha P. Wheeler 494 

*' Oliver P. Reeve 490 

" B.W.Shaw facing 497 

" Horton Vail " 498 


Portrait of Thomas B. Hnlse between 498, 499 

" C.G.Sawyer " 498,499 

" James B. Bell facing 600 

" Alanson Slaughter " 501 

" JohnB. Hulse " 502 

" Virgil Thompson between 502, 503 

" Israel H. Wiclcham " 502,503 

" Hiram S. Wilkison 603 

" Hiram B. Webb 503 

U. F.P. Bliven 604 

" H. Bull between 604, 605 

A. L. Vail " 604,505 

H. S. LiDderman " 504,605 

H.B.Wilcox " 504,605 

" Geo. Wallace facing 605 

Portrait of Geo. Smith 520 


Portrait of Nathaniel Webb 532 

" W. D. Suodgrass facing 634 

Goshen Presbyterian Church 535 

Portrait of A. S. Murray facing 641 

" Wm. Murray " 643 

Wm. T. Russell " MS 

Alex. Wright " 663 

" Henry Merrian " 654 

" A. H. Sinsabaugh 555 

" Jno. J. Smith facing 556 

" C. W. Keevs between 556, 557 

" William Knapp " 556,567 

OliTor B. Tuthill " 656,567 

De Witt 0. Durland " 656,657 

Alfred Wells facing 557 

" ThomasXhurne " 568 

" Jno. C, Walling between 558, 569 

" Walter H. Sayer. " 568, 659 

" Jno. J. Heard facing 659 

" W. B. Tuthill 560 

" G. Thew ■. .-. facing 560 

" Jas. W. Hoyt between 560, 561 

Stephen Smith " 660, 561 

" Eobert Young " 660,561 

Jno. N. Ryerson " 660,161 

" Johns. Crane " 560,561 

Chas. F. Johnson " 560,661 

" Edson Coleman facing 661 

" Geo. Mapes 661 

" John T. Ackley facing 662 

" Adrian Holbert between 662, 563 

Noah Gregory " 562,563 

Richard L. Wood " 562,683 

N.C.Coleman " 582,563 

" Jas. M. Bull facing 563 


Portrait of Wm. H. Seward 571 

" Ezra Sanford facing 604 

" Benjamin Sayer 605 

" Edward L. Welling facing 606 

" Jeffrey Wisner between 606, 607 

" James Burt facing 607 

" James Wheeler " 608 

" Gabriel Wisner between 608, 609 

« Gabriel Housfem " 608,609 

" Isaac V. Wheeler facing 609 

" A. J. Burt '. between 610, 611 

" JohnWilloox " 610,611 

'• Thomas Welling " 610,611 

" William H. Houston " 610,611 

" J. E. Waterbury facing 612 

" Nathaniel B. Feagles between 612, 613 

" Gardner K.Nanny " 612,618 

" Hezekiah Hoyt facing 613 


Portrait of John T. Johnson '"''"6 *^ 

Jesse Roe ■ 

James Durland.. 

" C23 

James J. Board between 624, 625 

Minard Sutton " 624, 625 

Nathaniel Roe " 624,025 

Ira Bull " 624, 625 

John W.King " 626,027 

R. W. Colfax between 626,627 

C. B.Seely facing 627 

John B. Tuthill " 628 

Wm. M. Rysdyk between 628,629 

Abram Demerest '* 628,629 


Portrait of J. K.Oakley facing 643 

Thomas N. Hulse " 644 

N. D. Woodhull " 645 

Nathan H. White " 646 

Edmund S. Howell between 646,647 

Hezekiah Howell " 046,647 

Aldeu Goldsmith facing 648 

Silas B. Horton between 648, 649 

Anselm Helme " 648,649 

C. S. Marvin " 648, 649 

Jesse Bull facing 049 


Portrait of Charles M. Thompson facing 652 

Daniel H. Bull 

Vincent Booth 

Solomon T. Smith.. 

" 054 

" 656 

" 658 


Hartwell's School facing 667 

Portrait of Hulet Clark ; " 673 

" J. C. Wisner " 674 

" Peter Werry between 674,675 

" Peter Kimber " 674,676 

M.S. Hayne facing 675 


Portrait of 0. B. Carpenter facing 690 

" George W. Horton " 691 


Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of Deerpark 722 

Portrait of Edward J. Flyun , 728 

'• H. H. Farnum facing 73S 

" Eli Van Inwegen " 739 

" Peter P. Swartwout " 750 

" George Cuddeback " 751 

*' Moses Van Inwegen 4 751 

" Nathan Skinner ,. facing 752 

" Levi Van Etteu " 753 


Portrait of Alfred 0. Roe 

" J. Silliman 

" Edward P. Roe , 

" William S. Brown 

" JohnOrr 

" William Orr __. 

Reeideuce of William Orr '. facing 

Portrait uf B. S. Ketcham between 786, 

" Charles H. Mead facing 




Portrait of Peter Townsend facing 80B 

" Morgan Shuit 806 

" Peter P. Parrott facing 806 

" ^ Alex. Thompson between 806, SOT 

" Peter Turner. " 806,807 

" Peter B. Bush facing 808 

" John Goff. between 808, 809 

" Gilbert T. Smith " 808,808 

" J. Hortun Thompson " gQg go9 

" Isaac H. Thompson " 808,809 

" James Wilkes facing 809 


li- '. 



fO /S 



I EirLonqj:-' 




^ kit-ei/ii-rJH 








The aboriginal history of Orange County may be 
properly dated ftom Sept. 15, 1609, on the morning of 
which day Henry Hudson rode at anchor in his ship, 
the " Half-Moon," in the waters of the river now 
bearing his name, immediately above the Highlands. 
With the natives of the country which he was ex- 
ploring his experience was varied. Below the High- 
lands he made captive two young men, intending 
to take them to Holland, but when rounding West 
Point they sprang on the rocky headland and called 
from the shore to their captor in scorn. Above the 
Highlands " the people of the country," as he called 
them, visited his ship and iarought some small skins 
with them, which were "bought for knives and 
trifles." Subsequently, when anchored off Stony 
Point, "the people of the mountains" came on board, 
and when leaving a conflict was broi^ht on which 
resulted in the death of two of their number, and 
before reaching the Manhattan islands eight of the 
aboriginal lords had fallen under the power of Eu- 
ropean falcons. 

Through the early Dutch navigators who followed 
Hudson's path more definite information is obtained of 
the people whom he visited, and also the names which 
were given to the clans or chieftaincies into which 
they were divided. At "Haverstroo" they were 
called Haveratroos ; from Stony Point to the Dans- 
Kammer they were Waoranecka, — subsequently called 
"the Murderer's Creek Indians;" from the Dans- 
Kammer north through Ulster County, and west 
through the valley of the Wallkill, they were War- 
ranawonhongs ; in the district drained by the Dela- 
ware and its tributaries they were Minsia or Minisinks. 
These names were not those which the natives had 
given as belonging to themselves, but were those 
which had been given by them to the Dutch as the 
names of the streams on which they lived. The War- 
ranawonhong was the Wallkill; the Waoraneck, the 
Murderer's Creek. 

Later the tribal and national organizations of this 

people appeared. It would be no violation of fact to 
say that their political constitution was similar to our 
own. They had villages or towns, counties or en- 
larged cantons, tribes or states, nations or united 
tribes. Each in its sphere was independent, yet the 
whole strongly and firmly bound together. The sub- 
tribes or villages south of Stony Point were Unulac- 
tos, or the Turkey tribe ; those north were Minsk, or 
the Wolf tribe, with territorial jurisdiction extending 
through the Minisink country of Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey ; south of the Minds they were Vnamis, 
or the Turtle tribe.* The tribes named constituted 
the Lenni-Lenape nation, which held its council-fire 
at what is now Philadelphia. From the Unamis was 
selected invariably, by the ruling chiefs of the other 
tribes, the king or sagamore of the nation, — a king 
both with and without power ; a sovereign whose rule 
was perpetuated only through the love of his people ; 
a monarch the most polished, the most liberal, the 
poorest of his race ; one who ruled by permission, 
who received no salary, who was not permitted to- 
own the cabin in which he lived or the land he culti- 
vated, who could receive no presents that did not be- 
come the property of the nation, yet whose larder and 
treasure-chest were never empty. 

The history of the Lenapes, briefly stated, is, that 
they were the head of the Algonquin nations at the 
time of the discovery, but, by a succession of wars 
with the Dutch, the English, and the Iroquois, were 
compelled some time about 1670 to yield to the latter 
and become a " nation of women," — i.e., a nation 
without power to make war or peace on their own 
account, or to sell or convey lands. In this condition 
they remained until 1755 (having in the mean time 
become generally known as the Delawares), when 
they threw ofi" the yoke of subjugation, and under 
alliances with the Shawanoes, Mingoes, etc., were 
enabled to place themselves at the head of the West- 
ern nations, and contest every inch of soil east of the 

* Tribal organizatione were known by the totems or emblems which 
they painted on their cabins, their persons, etc., as the turkey, the 
wolf, the turtle. 




But while these facts were being ascertained, — 
years before many of them were known, — there came 
the hurrying to and fro of armed men, and the terri- 
bly echoing battle-cry of the woodland lords, " Woaoh, 
Woach, Ha, Ha, Hack, Woach !" with which the set- 
tlers subsequently became familiar. The Dutch be- 
gan their settlement at New Amsterdam (now New 
York) in 1626. A few years later, settlements were 
commenced at Paulus' Hook (now Jersey City), then 
called Pavonia, and at Breucklen, now the city of 
Brooklyn, and a few small neighborhoods were scat- 
tered along the river north of Paulus' Hook. These 
settlements brought with them frictions of opposing 
customs, which, in 1643, resulted in conflicts and 
massacres in the vicinity of New Amsterdam, by which 
the Dutch were driven from every foothold outside of 
their fort, and the whole country from the Neversink 
highlands to the hills and valleys of the Tappans was 
again in the possession of its aboriginal lords. 

Passing from these fields of conflict to the north of 
the Hudson highlands, from 1656 to 1664 the territory 
of the Warranawonkongs became the theatre of war, 
broken by occasional periods of peace. Whatever 
may have been the earlier trading-posts, permanent 
settlement was not commenced among that tribe until 
1652, and may be said to have been soon after aban- 
doned until 1656. As in other places, the settlers de- 
voted the largest portion of their time and means to 
the purposes of trade, and, with a view to secure the 
largest amount of furs, imprudently made free with 
the sale of brandy and other liquors, under the influ- 
ence of which the Indians became troublesome and 
resorted to violence. Stirring events soon clustered 
around the infant colony at Atkarkarton (now Kings- 
ton). A stockaded village and a fort were found 
necessary for protection; but even these proved of 
little avail, for on the 7th of June, 1663, the Indians 
entered the gates of the villages, two of which, known 
as the " New" and the " Old," were then in occupa- 
tion. Ostensibly seeking trade, they scattered them- 
selves among the houses of the Dutch, until at a given 
signal their vocation was changed to that of destruc- 
tion . At a single blow the New Village was destroyed. 
" Some people on horseback escaped and reached the 
Old Village, but their arrival was the signal of attack 
upon the latter, for scarce had the alarm been given 
when the Indians uttered their war-whoop and com- 
menced the work of death. The people were mur- 
dered in their houses with axes and tomahawks, and 
by firing on them with guns and pistols." Women 
and children were seized and carried ofi' prisoners; 
houses were plundered, and men, rushing to the de- 
fense of their families, were shot down by foes con- 
cealed in their own dwellings. To aid in the work of 
destruction, the Indians set fire to the village on the 
windward side. The flames spread rapidly, but when 
at their height the wind suddenly changed to the 
west and prevented further devastation. The panic 
occasioned by the sudden attack having subsided, the 

settlers rallied and drove the Indians out. By even- i 
ing all was still again, and the bereaved inhabitants 
kept mournfiil watch during the night. Twenty-on^J 
lives were lost, nine were wounded, and forty-five 
carried off" captive ; the New Village was annihilated, 
and at the Old Village twelve houses were burned.* 

Immediately on the receipt of the intelligencfe of 
this disaster, Stuyvesant dispatched Col. Martin Kre- 
gier with a company of soldiers to assist the settlers, , 
Kregier arrived at the Eonduit on the 4th of July. In 
a few days five Mohawk and Mohican chiefs arrived 
from Fort Orange, and by their mediation some of the 
Dutch captives were released ; but the Warranawon- 
kongs would not listen to propositions for peace unlaw 
the Dutch would pay " for the land named the Great 
Plot," and reward them with presents within ten 
days. The Dutch commander replied by sending out 
scouting-parties, who succeeded in bringing in a few 
prisoners, from whom it was learned that the Indians 
had retreated to their castle ; and thither it was deter- 
mined to follow them. The expedition reached its 
destination on the evening of the 26th of July. The 
castlef was a formidable structure. It was " defended 
by three rows of palisades, and the houses in the fort 
encircled by thick cleft palisades with port-holes in 
them, and covered with bark of trees ;'' in form it was 
quadrangular, but the angles were " constructed be- 
tween the first and second rows of palisades," the 
third row of palisades standing " full eight feet off 
from the others towards the interior," the whole being 
" on the brow of the hill," surrounded by table-lani 
But the object of the expedition was not accom- 
plished. Warned of the approach of their enemy, 
the Indians retreated to the Shawangunk Mountains 
and took their captives with them. From a captured 
squaw it was learned that the Indians were some four 
miles distant, and a force was sent thither ; but when 
they arrived at the designated place, it was found that 
they had again retreated. Kregier, however, de- 
stroyed the Kahanksen castle by (ah, cut down the 
corn-fields which the Indians had planted, and de- 
stroyed " about a hundred pits full of corn and 
beans," which had been preserved from the crop of 
the previous year. This work accomplished, he re- 
turned to Wiltwyck.J 

The settlers now engaged in harvesting their grain, 
and the soldiers guarded them while at work. Offen- 
sive operations were not resumed until September, 
when a 'force of fifty men was sent out to reduce a 
new castle which the Indians were said to be erecting. 

* The New Village was about three miles from the Old Village, and 
the Ronduit about the same distance. 

t The location of this fort, or palisaded -village, is defined in tin I 
boundary lines of lands conveyed by the treaty of 1665 : " Lying and 
being to the west and southwest of a certain creek or river called by 
name of Kahanksen, and so up to the head thereof where the old i 

t By a formal charter of date Uay 16, 1661, the settlement was orda^B 
to be called " Wiltwyck," or Indian Village. The English changed ft» 
name to Kingston. 



situated " about four hours farther than their first fort," 
which had been burned. The expedition reached its 
destination on the 5th of September. The Indians 
were taken by surprise, but made a stout resistance. 
They were busy completing their fort, and had left 
their arms at their houses, " about a stone's throw from 
the fort." Alarmed by a squaw, who had discovered 
the approach of the Dutch, they rushed to secure their 
arms, but were only partially successful so closely 
were they pursued. Retreating across the kill, they 
threw back the Dutch fire with such spirit that it was 
found necessary to send a strong party to dislodge 
them. "In this attack the Indians lost their chief 
Fapequanaehan, fourteen warriors, four women, and 
three children." On the part of the Dutch three were 
killed and wounded. Thirteen Indians were taken 
prisoners, and twenty-three Dutch captives released. 
The Dutch found plunder sufficient to " well fill a 
sloop," but were obliged to leave it. Everything was 
destroyed that could be. "The fort was a perfect 
square, with one row of palisades set all around, being 
about fifteen feet above and three feet below ground," 
but it was not completed. Two angles of " stout pali- 
sades, all of them about as thick as a man's body, 
having two rows of port-holes, one above the other," 
were done, and when surprised the Indians were " busy 
at the other angle.'' The victorious expedition re- 
turned to the settlement laden with spoil, and the 
Indians fled to the mountains to brood over their 
defeat and loss. 

On the 1st of October another expedition was sent 
out on the same route, and arrived at the fort last de- 
stroyed on the 2d. The Indians had meanwhile re 
turned to it and thrown the bodies of their dead com- 
rades into five pits, from which " the wolves had rooted 
up and devoured some of them. Lower down on the 
kill four other pits were found containing bodies ; and 
farther on three Indians with a squaw and child lay 
unburied and almost wholly devoured by wolves.'' A 
terrible picture of desolation was spread out on either 
hand where but a few days before the native lords 
had exulted in their strength, but who now, crushed 
and broken, had retreated southward among their 
kindred Miosis. The Dutch forces completed the de- 
struction of the fort ; the palisades were pulled down, 
the wigwams burned, and all the corn cut up and cast 
into the kill. 

The Warranawonkongs, upon whom this, chastise- 
ment had principally fallen, solicited peace in the fall, 
and an armistice was granted. They had suffered 
severely ; their villages, from Wawayanda to Esopus, 
were not without mourners ; their store-houses were 
rifled, and their crops destroyed. Nor were their allies, 
the Waoranecks, more fortunate. Although their 
territory had not been invaded nor their villages 
burned, they were not the less subdued ; the embers 
of their forest worship, which had for ages been lighted 
on the Dans-Kammer, were extinguished forever. In 
the spring following Sewackenamo, in conference at 

Fort Amsterdam, lifted up his voice in prayer to his 
God — Bachtamo — that " something good" might be 
concluded with the Dutch, and there executed a treaty, 
by the terms of which all that had passed was to be for- 
given and forgotten ; the lands claimed by the Dutch, 
and now conquered by the sword, were to remain the 
property of the conquerors, and the vanquished were 
not to approach the Dutch settlements with arms. 
This treaty was ratified (May 16, 1664) amid the roar of 
cannon, and was celebrated by a public thanksgiving. 
With its conclusion was also closed the struggle of 
the aboriginal clans for the possession of their ancient 
seats on the western slope of the valley of the Hud- 
son, from the Katskills to the sea. The retreating 
footsteps of some of their warriors were yet to be 
marked on advancing frontiers by blazing torch and 
branding tomahawk, but those who remained in the 
vicinity of the " river of the mountains" awaited in 
peace the granting of title-deeds to their European 
successors. Meanwhile, however, those who survived 
the conflict with the Dutch, more especially the Min- 
sis, in the western part of the county and the adjoining 
territory, were greatly strengthened by additions to 
their number, first in 1692, and again in 1694, of large 
colonies of Shawanoes who located in western Ulster 
and Orange. It is not impossible that these immi- 
grants left behind them in their western march names 
which have been ascribed to earlier periods. How- 
ever this may be, it is certain that from the nursery- 
beds of the Shawanoes in Orange went forth to the 
West some of the most able chiefs and warriors of 
that tribe. 



" The lands which I intend shall be first planted 
are those upon the west side of Hudson's River, at or 
adjoining to the Sopes," wrote Governor Nicolls in 
1664. With the exception of the " Great Plot," now 
occupied by the city of Kingston, embracing about 
four thousand acres, which had been given to Gov- 
ernor Stuy vesant by the Warranawonkong chiefs " to 
grease his feet," the lands to which Governor Nicolls 
refers were the first to which Europeans had a title, 
and were " conquered by the sword." They are de- 
scribed in the treaty ofl665as"a certain parcel of land 
lying and being to the west and southwest of a certain 
creek or river called by the name of Kahanksen, and 
so up. to the head thereof, where the old fort was ; 
and so with a direct line from thence through the 
woods and across the meadows to the Great Hill, lying 
and being to the west or southwest thereof, which 
Great Hill is to be the true west or southwest bounds 
of the said lands, and the creek called Kahanksen 
the north or northeast bounds of the said lands." In 
other words, they were the lands that Kregier and his 



Dutch troops had ravaged in 1663. They were limited 
in extent, embracing scarce three townships in south- 
western Ulster, and were specially designated by the 
Indians as Shawangunk, " the white man's country, '•' 
as distinguished from the lands to which they retained 
the title. 

From this extreme position on the northwest bounds 
of the present county chronology takes us to the ex- 
treme south of the old county of Orange, " the Chris- 
tian patented lands of Haverstraw.'' Here Balthazer 
de Hart and his brother Jacob, immigrants from 
Holland at an earlier date, prior to July 31, 1666, 
purchased from the Indians " all that tract of land 
lying on the west side of Hudson's River called Hav- 
erstraw, being on the north side of the hills called 
Verdrietig Hook, on the south side of the Highlands, 
on the east side of the mountains, so that the same is 
bounded by Hudson's River and round about by the 
high mountains." Presuming that the tract was in- 
cluded in the boundaries of New Jersey, he obtained 
from Carteret and the Council of that province a 
patent,* and transferred his interest to Nicholas De- 
puy and Peter Jacobs Marius. On subsequent pur- 
chase and patent he acquired (April 10, 1671) the 
" parcels of land called by the Indian names of New- 
asink, Yandakah, Caquaney, and Aquamak, bounded 
on the west by a creek called Menisakcungue, on the 
east and north by Hudson's River, and on the south 
by the mountains," which became the property of his 
brother Jacob ; and also a tract " known by the name 
of Ahequerenoy," which, with a portion of the pre- 
vious purchase, came to the possession of Hendrick 
Eyker, the whole becoming the basis of the boun- 
daries of all subsequent grants in the district. 

Turning again to the north of the district, we find 
that Louis Du Bois, a Huguenot pioneer, driven 
thither by the pending persecutions of the people of 
his faith in France, located, with some of his friends, 
at Esopus in 1660. Contributing the captivity of his 
wife and children to the Indian war of 1663, he sub- 
sequently induced several families of his countrymen, 
who were more recent immigrants, to unite with him 
in establishing a French town. Twelve men, known as 
the " Twelve Patentees," were selected to obtain title 
to lands, who, after an examination of the country, pur- 
chased from the Indian proprietors (May 26, 1677) a 
tract of thirty-six thousand acres, lying immediately 
south of the " Eedoute Creek," as the Warranawon- 
kong came to be called. On the 29th of September 
following a patent was obtained from Governor An- 
dres, in the name of " Louis du Bois and his partners, 
that is. Christian Doyau, Abraham Hasbroucq, Andrg 
le Febvre, Jean Hasbroucq, Pierre Doyau, Louis Be- 
viere, Anthoine Crespel, Abraham du Bois, Hugue 
Frere, Isaac Du Bois, and Simon le Febvre, their 
heirs and others," men whose names live in the 

* The grant wafi subsequently confirmed by the Governor and Council 
of New York. The patent is of record in New Jersey. 

annals of their adopted country. On this patent nine 
families immediately settled, and laid, in the faith 
which they professed, the foundations of New Paltz. 

Midway between the Haverstraw and New Paltz 
settlements, Patrick MacGregorie, his brother-in-law, 
David Toshuck, who subscribed his name " Laird of 
Minivard," and twenty-five others, principally Scotch 
Presbyterians, entered upon lands at the mouth of the 
Waoraneck. It was their original intention to settle 
in New Jersey, but they were persuaded by Govemoi 
Dongan to take up lands in New York. Obtaining 
a license for that purpose, MacGregorie, acting as 
their representative, purchased for his people a tract 
of four thousand acres, embracing lands on both sides 
of " Murderer's Creek," " and so settled themselvegj 
their families and sundry of their servants, on the 
land so purchased, and were not only the first Chris- 
tians that settled and improved thereon, but also 
peaceably and quietly possessed and enjoyed them- 
selves during the term of their natural lives." On 
what is now known as Plum Point, but which was 
then called, from its aboriginal owner, Couwanham's 
Hill, MacGregorie reared his cabin ; in the same 
vicinity were the cabins of his associates, while on 
the south side of the creek the " Laird of Minivard" 
and his servant, Daniel Maskrig, established a trading- 
post. Within the bounds of the present county of Oranga 
this was the first European settlement, as Haverstraw 
was the first in the original county. 

Unfortunately, MacGregorie did not perfect his 
title by patent. Trusting to Governor Dongan to 
protect his interests, he entered the service of the 
State, while Dongan obtained by purchase on his 
own account (Oct. 25, 1684), from "Mangenaett, 
Tsema, Keghgekapowell, alias Joghem, three Indians, 
native proprietors and principal owners, with the 
consent of Pemeranaghin, chief sachem of Esopus 
Indians," a tract described as extending from " the 
Paltz along Hudson's River to the land belonging to 
the Indians at the Murderer's Kill, thence westward 
to the foot of the high hills called Pitkiskaker and 
Aiaskawasting, thence southwesterly all along the said 
hills and the river called Peakadasank to a water- 
pond lying upon said hills called Meretange, compre- 
hending all those lands, meadows, and woods called 
Nescotank, Chawangon, Memorasink, Kakoghgetaw- 
narnuch, and Ghittatawagh.'' The consideration was 
the sum of ninety pounds and eleven shillings, in the 
following goods : " 10 fathoms blue dufiels, 10 fathoms 
of red duffels, 200 fathoms white wampum, 10 fathoms 
Stroud water (red cloth), 10 fathoms blue cloth, 10 
blankets, 10 guns, 10 kettles, 10 duffel coats, 10 draw- 
ing-knives, 10 shirts, 10 tobacco-boxes, 10 children's 
duffel coats, 10 children's shirts, 10 pair of hose, 50 
lbs. powder, 50 bars lead, 10 pair shoes, 10 cutlasses, 
10 hatchets, 10 hoes, 10 scissors, 10 tobacco tongues, 
100 flints, 2 rolls of tobacco, 20' gals, rum, 2 vata 
strong beer, and 1 barrel cider." 

To this purchase he added (April 16, 1684), by deed 



from Werekepea, sachem, Sackaghemeck, Sewiskka- 
mock, alias Hans, Apiskaeuw, Cashoros, Csquameck, 
Moringamaghan, Poghghock, and Kaghtsikoos, the 
lands owned by "themselves and copartners," being a 
tract beginning " at about a place called the Dancing 
Chamber ; thence south to the north side of the land 
called Haverstraw ; thence northwest along the hill 
called Skoonnenoghky to the bounds of his purchase 
from the Esopus Indians aforesaid, including the 
Murderer's Creek." The consideration was 150 
fathoms of wampum, 120 royals, 20 fathoms duf- 
fels, 6 guns, 7 brass kettles, 8 blankets, 6 fathoms 
Btrouds, 2 cloth coats, 2 broad axes, 5 pair shoes, 6 
jchildren's shirts, 20 knives, 50 lbs. powder, 30 bars 
lead, 25 lbs. shot, 2 rolls tobacco, 4 iron pots, 10 to- 
bacco tongues, 10 tobacco-boxes, 4 lbs. bood, 2 half- 
vats single beer, 2 half-vats double beer, 5 glass bot- 
tles, 5 earthen jugs, 2 pewter dishes, 2 bottles, with 
rum, 100 tobacco pipes, 10 hatchets, 6 drawing-knives, 
4 addz, 10 hoes, 10 pair stockings, 8 shirts, 6 pistols, 
10 children's blankets, 2 boys' cloth coats, 6 boys' 
duffel coate, 20 gallons rum, £2* paid Frederick 
Phillipse, £2 paid Stephanus Van Cortlandt. 

Not only had the Indians previously sold to Mac- 
Gregorie a portion of the lands which by this sale 
they conveyed to Dongan, but Stephanus Van Cort- 
landt held their deed for a tract opposite Anthony's 
Nose. The purchase was made July 13, 1683, and 
the tract described as " beginning on the south side 
of a creek called Sankapogh, and so along said creek 
to the head thereof, and then northerly along the 
high hills as the river runneth to another creek called 
Assinapink, and thence along the said creek to Hud- 
son's River again, together with a certain island and 
parcel of meadow-land, near or adjoining the same, 
called Manahawaghkin, and by the Christians, Salis- 
bury Island." Sackaghemeck, sachem of Haver- 
straw, Werekepes, and Kaghtsikoos were the grantors. 
Luckily, he preserved his deed, and under it succeeded 
in obtaining a patent attaching his purchase to his 
manor, on the opposite side of the river. 

But the MacGregorie colonists were not so fortunate. 
Governor Dongan conveyed his two purchases to Capt. 
John Evans by patent Sept. 12, 1694, under the title 
of the Lordship and Manor of Fletcherdon. Mac- 
Gregorie, after serving the province in the capacity 
of muster-general of the militia and as its agent 
among the northwestern Indians in a district of 
country which had not been previously visited, had 
yielded up his life in the Leslie revolution of 1691, 
and a peaceful death had closed the earthly cares of 
David Toshuck in the bosom of his family, at Plum 
Point. To dispossess the heirs was the first work of 
Evans, to whose shame it is written that he compelled 
MacGregorie's widow, Margaret, to sell to him the 
house in which she lived for " £30 or £35, to the 

* The pounds of thii period were of alMQt the value of a United States 

ruin of herself and family." To her and to her sur- 
viving neighbors he then granted leases, thus preserv- 
ing title and possession, as well as the continuity of 
the settlement. The Scotch settlers who remained in 
possession under these leases obtained no subsequent 
patent titles, except in the case of the heirs of Mac- 
Gregorie, to whom, some years later, a patent was 
granted for the Plum Point farm, and also for a 
mountain tracts in consideration of their claim. 

The fourth settlement, and by far the most consid- 
erable, was made adjoining the " Christian patented 
lands of Haverstraw." It was composed of immi- 
grants from Holland, principally members of the 
Reformed Dutch Church. Among them were de- 
scendants or relatives of David Pieterson de Vries, 
who had occupied a conspicuous position in the 
earlier history of the province, and had established 
a plantation which he called Vriesendael, situated 
"in a beautiful valley just below the mountains." 
Driven thence during the war of 1645, he had taken 
to Holland a memory which had been treasured by 
his family and neighbors, who, on their arrival, 
selected a location in the vicinity, if not embracing 
the site, of his ancient " little bouwerie." Obtaining, 
through trustees selected for that purpose, a title from 
" the native Indian proprietors," and being in num- 
bers sufficient to demand it, they were granted 
(March 20, 1686) a township patent, "'under the 
name of the Town of Orange," with all the powers 
" practiced or belonging unto any town within this 
Government." The trustees of the grant were Cor- 
nells Claessen Cuyper, Daniel de Klercke, Peter 
Harnich, Cattis Harnich, Gerritt Steumetts, John de 
Vries, Sr., John de Vries, Jr., Claes Mannde, Jan 
Stratemaker, Staaes de Groot, Arean Lammeates, 
Lament Arianuis, Huybert Gerryts, Johannes Gerrits, 
Eide Van Vorst, and Cornelius Lammerts. The 
boundaries of the tract were defined as "beginning at 
the mouth of Tappan Creek where it falls into the 
meadow and running from thence along the north 
side of the said creek to a creeple bush and falls into 
Hackinsack River, northerly to a place called the 
Greenbush, and from thence along said Greenbush 
easterly to the lands of Class Janse and Dowe Har- 
manse,t and from thence southerly along said land 
upon the top of the hills to the aforementioned mouth 
of Tappan Creek where it falls into the meadow 
aforesaid." The centre of the township was at Tap- 
pan, where a glebe for the support of a minister was 
laid out and a church organized.^ 

A vacant tract of land, immediately west of Hav- 
erstraw, was conveyed by deed and patent (the latter, 
June 25, 1696) to Daniel Honan and Michael Hawdon. 
This tract, which is described as beirig known by the 

t Probably Harman Dowson, who had taken up a tract called Fessa- 
tinock, on Hackinsack Biver. 

X The Reformed Protestant Dutch. It was organized Oct. 24, 1694. 
The first preacher was the Rev. Guilliam Bartholf. The first church 
edifice was erected in 1716. The glebe consisted of fifty-five acres. 



name of Kuck-quaok-ta-wake (Kakiate), was " bounded 
on the east by the Christian patented lands of Haver- 
atraw, on the north by a creek called Shamorack or 
Peasqua, which runs under a great hill, from which it 
continues a west course until the west-southwest side 
of a barren plain called Wishpegwrap bears south, 
thence to the west-southwest side of aforesaid plain, 
from thence south-southwest until the said line comes 
to a creek that runs to David Demaree's creek to the 
south side of the land called Marranchaw, and thence 
down the said creek to the Christian patented lands." 
Adjoining this tract on the south, Samuel Bayard 
was granted certain tracts called Whorinims, Perseck, 
Gemackie, and Narrashunck, " bounded north by the 
land of Daniel Honan and Michael Hawdon, south 
by the parting line of this Province and the Jerseys, 
west by Saddle River, and east by Demaree's Creek," 
containing two thousand acres. The Indian deed for 
this and several other purchases was covered by one 
to Lucas Tienhoven, embracing by survey one hun- 
dred thousand acres, but for which no patent was 

Between the township of Orange and the Haver- 
straw lands the rocky bluff known as Verdrietig 
Hook, by the Indians called Quaspeeck, including 
Rockland Lake, became the subject of controversy 
between "John Hutchins and Company" and •' Jarvis 
Marshall and Company." Both parties obtained 
deeds, but the latter apparently had priority in date 
of purchase and were granted (Sept. 27, 1694) the 
patent, the patentees being Jarvis Marshall and Wil- 
liam Welch. At a l3,ter period (April 23, 1708) a 
patent to Lancaster Syms, Robert Walter, and Hen- 
drick Ten Eycke covered the vacant river-front, de- 
scribed as " beginning by the south bounds of Hav- 
erstraw, thence west to the northermost end of the 
land or island called Mattasink or Welch's Island, 
thence southerly to the southermost end of said 
island, then east to the creek that runs out of the 
pond upon Verdrietig Hook and along the same to 
the Hudson, then north to the place of beginning, 
except the grant to Honan and Hawdon." 

The patents described covered the entire district on 
the Hudson from the New Jersey line to New Paltz, 
and extended west to the line of the Shawangunk 
Mountains. While they were being taken up, some 
entries had also been made on the Delaware River. 
Arent Schuyler, employed by the government as an 
interpreter of the Indian language and as an agent 
among the Indian tribes, obtained (May 20, 1697), on 
previous deed from the Minisinks, a patent for one 
thousand acres, more particularly described as a " tract 
of land in the Minisink countrj called by the native 
Indians Sankhekeneck, otherwise Mayhawaem ; also 
another tract, called Warinsayskmeck, situated upon 
a river called Mennessincks before a certain island 
called Menagnock, which tract is adjacent or near to 
a tract of land called Maghaghkemek." In the same 
year (October 14th) a patent was granted to Jacob 

Codebec, Thomas Swartwout, Anthony Swartwout, 
Bernardus Swartwout, Jan Tyse, Peter Gimar, and 
David Jamison, for " a certain quantity of land at a 
place called Maghaghkemek, being the quantity of 
one thousand two hundred acres; beginning at the 
western bounds of the lands called Nepeneck, to a 
small stream of water called by the Indian name of 
Assawagkemeck, and so along said run of water and 
the lands of Mansjoor the Indian." 

It has been claimed that there was a settlement fn 
the vicinity of the Swartwout Patent some time prior to 
the date of that instrument. At an early period what 
was known as " the old mine road" was opened be- 
tween Esopus and the Delaware, constructed, it is 
said, by a company of Dutch miners. This road ran 
through the Mamakating Valley, north of the Shaw- 
angunk Mountains, was continued in the valley of 
the Maghaghkemek branch of the Delaware, and pen- 
etrated the Minisinks proper east of that river. Here, 
it is added, the company discovered copper, worked 
a mine, and transported its product over the road 
which they had constructed to the Esopus settlement. 
Unfortunately for the value of the tradition, the road 
was simply the enlargement of an Indian trail which 
had been followed for ages, while the mine referred to 
was in what is now the town of Warren, Sussex Co., 
N. J. The boundaries of the question are still fur- 
ther circumscribed by the fact that the Dutch at Esopus, 
during the war of 1660-63, had little knowledge of 
the country even east of the Shawangunk Mountains, 
and that the Minisink country was penetrated, if at 
a much earlier period, by the way of the Delaware 

Nor is it true that the first settlement was on the 
Swartwout Patent. At the date of issue of that patent, 
Jacob Codebec, Thomas Swartwout, Anthony Swart- 
wout, and Peter Guimar* were residents of New Paltz 
or of Kingston. They certainly had not made set- 
tlement on the Delaware in 1690. But there was set- 
tlement there, about that time, by one William Tiet- 
soort, a blacksmith, who in a petition to the Governor 
and Council of New York, dated April 10, 1708, states 
that he was formerly a resident of Schenectady, and 
that from the massacre at that place, in 1689, he 
barely escaped with his life ; that having friends in 
the Esopus country he removed thither, where, being 
known by the friendly Indians, he was invited by 
them to take up his residence in the Minisink country, 
the Indians voluntarily granting unto him a tract of 
land situate and being at Maghaghkemek, named and 

t Peter Guimar, a native or Molr Saintonge, vraa married to Esther 
Hasbroiicq, native of tlie Palatinate, at New Paltz, April 18, 1692. He 
left his native place in company with Codebec in 1685, or rather the 
families of Abraham Gnimar and Jamee Codebec, of which he and Jacob 
Codebec were minor membetis, came out together. That Codebec, Swart* 
wont, and Guimar were what may be regarded as the first permanent se^ 
tiers on the patent will not be disputed, but there were three settiV 
ments in the ancient precinct,—" Big" and " Little Minisink," and the 
" neighborhood of Maghaghkemek," and were recognized by the law of 



known by the name of Schaikaeckamick, in an elbow ; 
that he obtained license to purchase Oct. 15, 1698, 
that he so purchased,* and that his possessions were 
subsequently assumed to be included in a purchase 
by and patent to Matthew Ling, against which he 
asked protection. There is very little room to doubt 
that he was the first settler on the western border. 
His deed from the Indians was obtained subsequently, 
as his gift-title could not be regarded as strictly legal. 
It bears date June 3, 1700, and is duly recorded in 
Ulster records. 

Active competition in the extinguishment of In- 
dian titles by purchase and obtaining patents sprung 
up at the opening of the succeeding century. Asso- 
ciations were formed, not unfrequently mainly com- 
posed of those holding ofBcial positions under the 
government, and large grants obtained. Three prin- 
cipal patents of this class necessarily require notice 
in this connection. The first, the Chesekook Patent, 
was included in a purchase from " Moringamaghan, 
Skawgus, Ughquaw, Onickotapp, and Aioqhquaherae, 
native Indians, proprietors," Dec. 30, 1702, by " Doc- 
tor John Bridges, Hendrick Ten Eycke, Derick Van- 
denburgh, John Cholwell, Christopher Denn, Lan- 
caster Syms, and John Merritt," of a " certain tract 
of upland and meadow called Chesekook, bounded 
north by the patent line of Capt. John Evans, to the 
west by the high hills of the Highlands, to the south 
by Honan and Hawdon's Patent, and to the east by 
the lands of the bounds of Haverstraw and Hudson's 
Kiver," and for which they received a patent March 
25, 1707. The second, the Wawayanda Patent, was 
on a purchase {March 5, 1703) from " Rapingonick, 
Wawastawa, Moghopuck, Cornelawaw, Nanawitt, Ar- 
awinack, Rombout, Claus, Chouckhass, Chingapaw, 
Oshasquememus, and Quilapaw, native Indians and 
proprietors," by "Doctor John Bridges, Hendrick 
Ten Ey.cke, Derick Vandenburgh, John Cholwell, 
Christopher Denn, Lancaster Syms, Daniel Honan, 
Philip Rokeby, John Merritt, Benjamin Aske, Peter 
Mathews, and Cornelius Christianse," for a " certain 
sum of money and goods," of " certain tracts or par- 
cels of vacant lands named Wawayanda, and some 

* From a Joint afildavit made by him and his son Jacob, in 1717, it ap- 
peals that he sold two parcels of land at Maghaghkemek, in 17L3, to Jan 
Decker, who, with his cousin, " young Jan Decker," were to occupy one of 
the parcels, and hia brother, Hendrick Decker, the other. He was then a 
resident of Dacheas Connty, to which he prolnbly removed immediately 
after his sale to Decker, In a list of residents of Duchess County in 1714 
is the following entry : " William Tetsort, number of male persona above 
sixty years, one ; number of male persons from sixteen to sixty, two ; num- 
ber of females from sixteen to sixty, two ; number of females under sixteen, 
tme.^* From which it may be inferred that he was then over sixty years 
of age, and that bis family was composed of himself, hia wife, two sons, 
and two daughters. His wife is said to have been Sarah Decker, and that 
her name, with his own, is recorded in the records of Magbaghkemek 
Church in 1739, at the baptism of their son Bemardus, The truth of 
this statement may be doubted, however, unless Bernardua was a very 
old boy, or Sarah Decker was a second wife, for Tietsoort himself must 
have been over eighty-two years of age at the time. The family subse- 
quently settled in Wantage, N, J., where the name is now written Tits- 

other small tracts or parcels of land, being bounded 
on the eastward by the high hills of the Highlands 
and the patent of Capt. John Evans, on the north by 
the division line of the counties of Orange and Ulster, 
on the westward by the high hills to the eastward of 
Minisinks, and on the south by the division line of 
the provinces of New York and East Jersey." The 
patent was granted April 29, 1703. 

The third grant, the Minisink Patent, was still more 
extensive. It was issued Aug. 28, 1704, to Matthew 
Ling, Ebenezer Wilson, Philip French, Derick Van- 
denburgh, Stephen de Lancey, Philip Eokeby, John 
Corbett, Daniel Honan, Caleb Cooper, William 
Sharpas, Robert Milward, Thomas Wenham, Lan- 
caster Syms, John Person, Benjamin Aske, Petrus 
Bayard, John Cholwell, Peter Fanconier, Henry 
Swift, Hendrick Ten Eycke, Jarvis Marshall, Ann 
Bridges (widow of John Bridges), and George Clark, 
and conveyed to them " all that part of Orange and 
Ulster Counties, beginning at a place in Ulster County 
called Hunting House, or Yagh House, lying to the 
northeast of land called Bashe's land, thence to run 
west by north until it meets the Fishkill or main branch 
of Delaware River, thence to run southerly to the south 
end of Great Minisink Island, thence due south to the 
land lately granted to John Bridges and Company 
(Wawayanda), and so along that patent as it runs 
northward and the patent of Capt. John Evans, and 
thence to the place of beginning." The grant con- 
solidated two grants, one to Philip French and Com- 
pany, and one to Ebenezer Wilson and Company, and 
only excepted from its sweeping boundaries the tract 
called Sankhekeneck or Mayhawaem, with a parcel of 
meadow called Warinsayskmeck, previously granted 
to Arent Schuyler, and a tract called Magbaghkemek, 
near Nepeneck, granted to Jacob Codebec and others. 

Had the purchasers a deed from the Indiana? Not 
only is there none on record, but Sir William Johnson 
writes, " An elderly man who lived in the Highlands, 
and at whose house I dined on my way from New 
York some years ago, told me that he lived with or 
in the neighborhood of Depuy, and was present when 
the said Depnyt purchased the Minisink lands from 
the Indians ; that when they were to sign the deed of 
sale he made them drunk, and never paid them the 
money agreed upon. He heard the Indians fre- 
quently complain of the fraud, and declare that they 
would never be easy until they had satisfaction for 
their lands."! When in 1757 the wronged red men 
swept the western border with devastation, it was 
their declaration that they would never "leave off 
killing the English until they were paid for their 
lands, mentioning Minisink almost to the Hudson 

t Samuel Depuy was settled on the west bank of the Delaware, three 
miles above the Water Gap. He was one of the Walloons who came to 
New York about 1697. He became a large land-owner in Pennsylvania, 
and was well known to all who traveled "the mine road." It is possible 
that he is referred to in the text, 

X MSS. of Sir William Johnson, xxiv. U. 



The boundary lines of the Chesekook, Wawayanda, 
Minisink, and Evans Patents were for a long time a 
disturbing element. They were entirely undefined, 
except in general terms. The west line of Chese- 
kook and the east line of Wawayanda was designated 
by a mountain range ; the east line of Minisink and 
the west line of Wawayanda was also a mountain 
range, and so in part was the north line of both the 
Chesekook and the AVawayanda, or rather the south- 
west line of the Evans Patent, to which they ran. In 
the subsequent adjustment of the latter, together with 
that of the county line, a portion of the territory 
claimed by the Wawayanda patentees was cut off, 
while on the west an angle was formed, known as the 
Minisink Angle, embracing a tract of one hundred 
and thirty thousand acres. 

The granting of immense tracts, of land aroused 
the attention of the English government in 1698. 
Investigation followed and resulted in annulling the 
patent to Capt. Evans, by act of the Assembly, May 12, 
1699. Notwithstanding the policy of issuing patents 
for small tracts, upon which the repeal of the Evans 
Patent was predicated, was abandoned in the almost 
immediately following issue of the Wawayanda, Mini- 
sink, and similar large grants, the territory which the 
Evans Patent covered was conveyed in small tracts 
by patents issued at different periods from 1701 to 
1775, but principally prior to 1750, and were — exclu- 
sive of those not included in the present boundaries 
of the county — as follows : 

1. Roger and FiDhorne Mompesson, 1000 acres, March 4, 1709. 

2. Ebenezer Wilson and Benjamin Aslte, 2000 acres, Marcli 7, 1709. 

3. Bip Van Dam, Adolph PhilHpse, David Provost, Jr., Lancaster 
Symes, and Thomas Jones, 8000 acres, March 23, 1709. 

4. Gerardus Beekman, Rip Van Dam, Adolph Pbillipse, Garrett Brass, 
Servas Vleerborne, and Daniel Van Vore, 3000 acres, March 24, 1709. 

, 5. Peter Matthews, Williiim Sharpas, and William Davis, 2000 acres, 
Sept. 8, 1709. 

6. William Chambers and William Southerland, 1000 acres, Sept. 22, 

7. Samuel Staats, June 5, 1712. 

8. Henry Wileman and Henry Van Bael, 300(1 acres, June 30, 1712. 

9. Archibald Kennedy, 1200 acres, Aug. 11, 1719. 

10. Alexander Baird, Abuer Van Ylacque, and Hermanus Johnson, 
6000 acres, Feb. 28, 1716. 

11. Jeremiah Schuyler. Jacobus Van Courlandt, Frederick Pbillipse, 
William Sharpas, and Isaac Bobbin, 10,000 acres, Jan. 22, 1719. 

12. Edward Gatehouse, 1000 acres, Jan. 22, 1719. 

13. Cornelius Low, Gerard Schuyler, and John Schuyler, 3292 acres, 
March 17, 1719. 

14. Thomas Brazier, 2000 acres, March 17, 1719. 

15. Phineas Mcintosh, 2000 acres, April 9, 1719. 

16. John Lawrence, 2772 acres, April 9, 1719. 

17. John Haskell, 2000 acres, April 9, 1719. 

18. James Alexander, 2000 acres, April 9, 1719. 

19. Cadwallader Golden, 2000 acres, April 9, 1719. 

20. David Galatian, 1000 acres, June 4, 1719. 

21. Patrick McKnight, 2000 acres, July 7, 1719. 

22. Andrew Johnston, 2000 acres, July 7, 1719. 

23. Melchoir Gilles, 300 acres, Oct. 8, 1719. 

24. German Patent, 2190 acres, Dec. 18, 1719. 

^ 25. John Johnston, Jr., two tracts, Feb. 3, 1720. 

26. Thomas Noxon, 2000 acres. May 28, 1720. 

27. William Huddleston, 200O acres, June 2, 1720. 

28. Vincent Matthews, 800 acres, June 17, 1720. 

29. Richard Van Dam, 1000 acres, June 30, 1720. 

30. Francis Harrison, Oliver Schuyler, and Allen Jarratt, 5000 acres, 
July 7, 1720. 

31. Philip Schuyler, Johannes Lansing, Jr., Henry Wileraan, and 
Jacobus Bruyn, 8000 acres, July 7, 1720. 

32. Patrick MacGregorie, two tracts, 660 acres, Aug. 6, 1720. 

33. Mary Ingoldsby and her daughter, Mary Pinhorne, and Mary 
Pinhorne and Wm. Pinhorne, her children, two tracts, 5:i60 acres, Aug. 

11.1720. ' 

34. Jacobus Kipp, John Cniger, Philip Cortland, David Provost, Oli- 
ver Schuyler, and John Schuyler, 7000 acres, Oct. 17, 1720. 

35. Lewis Morris and Vincent Pearce, two tracts, 1000 acres each, July 

21. 1721. " 

36. John Haskell, 2000 acres, Aug. 24, 1721. 

37. Patrick Hume, 2000 acres, Nov. 29, 1721. 

38. James Henderson, two tracts, one not located, 1600 acres, Feb. 12, 

39. Jacobus Bruyn and Henry Wileman, 2500 acres, April 25, 1722. 

40. James Smith, 2000 acres, Dec. 15, 1722. 

41. Charles Congreve, 800 acres. May 17, 1722. 

42. Ann Hoaglandt,* 2000 acres, May 24, 1723. 

43. Francis Harrison, Maiy Tatbam, Thomas Brazier, James Graham, 
and John Haskell, 5600 acres, July 10, 1714. 

44. William Bull and Richard Gerrard, 26C0 acres,* Aug. 10, 1723. 

45. William Bull and Richard Gerrard, two tracts, 1500 acres, Dec. 14, 

46. Isaac Bobbin, 600 acres, March 28, 1726. 

47. Edward Blagg and Johannes Hey, two tracts, 2000 acres each, 
March 28, 1726. 

48. Nathaniel Hazard and Joseph Sackett, two tracts, 4000 acres, Jan. 
11, 1727. 

49. William Bradford, 2000 acres, Sept. 1, 1727. ' 

50. John Spratt and Andriee Maischalk, 2000 acres, April 12, 1728. 

51. James Wallace, 2000 acres, March 2, 1731. 

52. Gabriel and William Ludlow, six tracts, 4000 acres, Oct. 18, 1731. 
, 53. Thomas Smitb, 1000 acres. May 8, 1732. 

54. Daniel Everett and James Stringham, 3850 acres, Jan. 17, 1736. 

55. Elizabeth Denne, 1140 acres,* Dec. 12, 1734. 

V 56. Joseph Sackett and Joseph Sackett, Jr., two tracts, 2000 acres, Jnly 

7, 1736. 

^'57. Nathaniel Hazard, Jr., 2000 acres, Aug. 12, 1736. 

58. Thomas Ellison, three tracts, 2000 acres. May 13, 1737. 
" 59. Joseph Sackett, five tracts, 2000 acres, Sept. 1, 1737. 

60. Ann, Sarab, Catharine, George, Elizabeth, and Mary Bradley, two 
tracts, 4690 acres, Oct. 14, 1749. 

61. Cornelius DuBois, two tracts, one not located, July 2, 1739. 
02. Richard Bradley, 800 acres. May 17, 1743. 

' 63. Jane and Alice Golden, two tracts, 4000 acres, Oct. 30, 1749. 

64. John Moor^ 280 acres, Oct 30, 1749. 

65. Peter Van Burgb Livingston and John Provost, 3000 acres. May 
26, 1750. 

66. George Harrison, three tracts, 2000 acres, July 20, 1750. 

67. Jacobus -Bruyn and George Murray, 4000 acres, Sept. 26, 1750. 

68. Thomas Ellison and Lawrence Roome, six tracts, 4000 acres, Nov. 
12, 1750. 

69. Alexander Phoenix and Abraham Bockel, 1000 acres, July 13, 

70. Thomas Ellison, 1080 acres, Dec. 1, 1758. 

71. John Nelson, 550 acres, Oct. 4, 1754. 

72. James Crawford, Jr., Samuel Crawford, James White, and David 
Crawford, 4000 acres, May 17, 1761. 

73. Cadwallader Golden, Jr., and Daniel Golden, 720 acres, June 20, 

74. Vincent and David Matthews, 1800 acres, Nov. 26, 1761. 

75. John Nelson, 1266 acres, Oct. 4, 1762. 

78. Thomas Moore and Lewis Pintard, 2000 acres, Dec. 23, 1762. 

77. Peter Hassenclever, March 25, 1767. 

78. William Smith and Edward Wilkin, 2000 acres, April 17, 1768. 

79. William Arisen and Archibald Breckenridge, 400 acres, 1770. 

80. Daniel Horsemanden, Miles Sherbrook, Samuel Camfleld and Wil- 
liam Sidney, 3210 acres, 1772. 

81. Thomas Moore and John Osborne, 2000 acres, March 14 1775. 

82. Henry Townsend, 2000 acres.t 

» Cut off ftom Wawayanda by boundary line. Other patents of this 
class are similarly designated. 

t It is not claimed that this list has no omissions, but that it contains 
substantially all the pHtents granted. There are traces of small lots. 



X from 


M by 





The precise location of these several patents will 
not be attempted. Some of them became centres of 
population ; especially is this true of the German 
Patent of 1719, which was issued to fiigitives from 
the Palatinate of the Rhine, who had been settled 
thereon in 1709, and is now embraced in the city of 
Newburgh. A comparatively small portion of the 
Minisink Patent extended over the present county. 
The Wawayanda and Chesekook Patents were wholly 
within its limits, the former being the largest, and 
embracing its most fertile sections. The progress of 
settlement of the district during the century suc- 
ceeding the discovery, aside from the extinction of the 
aboriginal title and the issue of patents, is approxi- 
mately conveyed in the census of 1702, by which it 
appears that the population at that time, exclusive of 
the MacGregorie settlement, consisted of forty-nine 
men between the ages of sixteen and sixty, forty mar- 
ried women, fifty-seven male and eighty-four female 
children, thirteen male negroes, seven negresses, and 
thirteen negro children. 

Adverting more particularly to the Wawayanda 
Patent, we find it an undefined district both in pur- 
chase and in grant. The Indian deed of March 6, 
1702-3, to Dr. John Bridges, Hendrick Ten Eyck, 
Derrick Vandenburgh, John Cholwell, Christopher 
Denne, Lancaster Symes, Daniel Honan, Philip 
Eokeby, John Merritt, Benjamin Aske, Peter Mat- 
thews, and Cornelius Christianse, described the con- 
veyance as of "certain tracts and parcels of vacant 
lands in the county of Orange, named Wawayanda, 
and some other small tracts and parcels of land, being 
bounded eastward by the high hills of the Highlands 
and the patent of Capt. John Evans, on the north by 
the division line of the counties of Orange and Ul- 
ster, on the westward by the high hills to the east- 
ward of Minisink, and on the south by the division 
line of the province of New York and East Jersey ;'' 
and the patent of April 29, 1703, repeats these boun- 
daries literally. Standing on one of " the high hills 
of the Highlands," on the east, the eye could sweep 
the outline of the valley below and trace the circling 
line of "the high hills to the eastward of Minisink" 
until they faded away in the south, but no eye could 
estimate its actual surface, and its proprietors were 
themselves surprised at the extent of their grant. It 
was held by deed in common until 1705, when it was 
agreed to divide it in twelve parts and release sur- 
vivorship rights. This release was executed Sept. 23, 
1706, at which time the number of original holders 
had been reduced to eight, viz. : Derrick Vanden- 
burgh, bricklayer ; John Cholwell, merchant ; Chris- 
topher Denne, merchant; Lancaster Symes, gentle- 
man; Daniel Honan, gentleman; Benjamin Aske, 

priDcipally overplna in Burreye of other patenta, obtained at later 
periods, but the acreage in them Is not sufflciently large to justify ex- 
tended reeearch. It may be well to add that, through heirs and devisees 
of the original grantees, some of the patented lands becume known by 
the names of other parties. 

merchant ; Peter Matthews, gentleman ; and John 
Merritt, gentleman, all of the city of New York. 
The remaining four of the patentee interests were 
held as follows : the Bridges share by Ann Bridges, 
the Eokeby share by Daniel Cromeline and others, 
the Christianse share by Derrick Vandenburgh, and 
the Ten Eyck share by Daniel Cromeline. In 1713 
the number of shares was increased to thirteen by 
the admission of Dr. Samuel Staats, each of the 
twelve proprietors yielding to him a twelfth share of 
their respective interests, in satisfaction of a claim 
which he had set up to a portion of the tract by virtue 
of prior purchase (1702). 

The sale and settlement of the patent made little 
progress prior to 1714. The several shares were sur- 
veyed, at least partially, and located, and the general 
fact ascertained that it would be perhaps prudent to 
conceal the actual acreage. To do this more eflFect- 
ually it was assumed that each share was two thousand 
acres, and so published it, when in reality they were 
over five times that number, as appears by a subse- 
quent or "second division," which was maSe some 
years later. Of the " first division" maps were made 
and exposed at the land-oflSces in New York, accom- 
panied by a description of the soil, rivers, ponds, etc., 
as shown by the partial surveys ; but purchasers either 
came not or were better pleased with offers elsewhere. 

In March, 1706, the patentees agreed to add six 
hundred acres to the share of that one of their 
number who should make settlement on the patent 
before the end of May, 1709, or, as we understand it, 
that six hundred acres should be given to the first 
settler ; but the offer was not taken. In September, 
1706, they constituted and appointed " any number of 
themselves" who 'might be conveniently got together, 
" with full power to convey, bargain, sell, or devise 
one full fourth part of all the said tracts" to any 
person or persons who should erect thereon, prior to 
1716, "saw-mills, grist-mills, or other water-mills," 
the " runs, creeks, and rivers" not to be' disposed of, 
however, in fee simple, but " leased or devised for a 
term of years or life;" but it does not appear that 
this proposition was received with more favor than 
that first made. 

The patent stood unoccupied until 1712, when the 
active surviving share-holders determined to make 
settlements themselves. These were Christopher 
Denne, Daniel Cromeline, and Benjamin Aske, who 
were made justices of the peace of Orange County to 
facilitate the end in view. In their effort they were 
joined by at least one person who had obtained an 
interest in the patent, Christian Snedeker, of Long 
Island. Laborers were hired and supplies procured, 
and in person or by proxy they simultaneously entered 
the patent, — Christopher Denne preceded, it is said, 
by Sarah Wells ; Daniel Cromeline by William Bull ; 
Benjamin Aske by Lawrence Decker ; and Snedeker 
by Johannes Wisner, his wife, and sons Hendrick and 
Adam. It is perhaps unnecessary to discuss the ques- 



tion of priority in actual occupation. Wisner's deed 
from Snedeker for two hundred acres bears date June 
23, 1714, he then being in "possession and occu- 
pation," and clearly so at a prior date, while tradition 
asserts that Sarah Wells was the first white woman — 
and a remarkable woman she was in her age and in 
her descendants — on the patent,* and that she came 
in 1712. Whatever may be the facts of the case, the 
record is clear that the settlement of Goshen, War- 
wick, and Chester was commenced simultaneously by 
parties sent out by the proprietors named. Soon after 
this John Everett and Samuel Clowes, of Jamaica, 
L. I., were induced to take charge of the settlement 
of the patent. They appear to have been land specu- 
lators, but were nevertheless the direct agents in in- 
ducing immigration and in founding prosperous 

Strictly in the line of this chapter, as relating to 
land titles, may be here enumerated the recorded sales 
by the proprietors to actual settlers and others, as well 
as to Everett and Clowes, prior to 1721. They were 
as follows : 

1. Philip Eokeby sold his undivided twelfth part 
to Daniel Cromeline, John Merritt, and'Elias Boudi- 
not, June 10, 1704. Merritt sold his third to Crome- 
line in 1705. Boudinot sold his third to George Mc- 
Nish, who sold to Clowes, Feb. 5, 1714, for ^150. 

2. Cornelius Christianse sold to Derrick Vanden- 
burgh, Sept. 8, 1704, all his twelfth part. Vandenburgh 
sold to Elias Boudinot, and the latter sold one-sixth 
of same to Everett and Clowes, July 20, 1714, for £66 
13«. Boudinot's heirs subsequently sold five-sixths to 
Everett and Clowes for £41 13«. 4c?. This tract em- 
braced New Milford, in the present town of Warwick. 

3. Hendrick Ten Eyck sold his twelfth part to 
Daniel Cromeline, Dec. 8, 1704. Cromeline, who also 
owned two-thirds of the Eokeby share, sold to Everett 
and Clowes, Jan. 1, 1714, the sixth part of his interest 
for £83 6a., excepting two tracts, one of which con- 
tained three thousand seven hundred and six acres. 
This tract was principally in the present town of 
Chester, and embraced the site on which he had made 
settlement and erected a stone dwelling, and to which 
he had given the name of " Gray Court." 

4. Ann Bridges sold to John Van Home, merchant, 
of New York, July 4, 1705, all the equal undivided 
twelfth part held by her husband. Dr. John Bridges, 
for the sum of £250. Van Home was also the pur- 
chaser of a part or the whole of another share, and 
sold to Everett and Clowes one-sixth part of one-sixth 
of one-thirteenth part for £58 6s. 8d. Amity was in 
Bridges' parcel. 

5. Daniel Honan sold to John Merritt, 1705, all his 
twelfth part. Margery Merritt, widow, and John 
Merritt, son, sold to Adrian Hoaglandt one-half, and 
to Anthony Eutgers one-half. Eutgers sold to Ever- 

* Or ill the township of Goshen. The claim is not miide that she was 
the ilrst white woman on the patent, although there is no record of a 
predecessor even on the patent, unless it may have been Mre. Wiener. 

ett and Clowes one-twelfth of his half, and Anna, 
widow of Hoaglandt, sold to the same parties one- 
twelfth, the latter, April 12, 1714, for £75. 

6. Derrick Vandenburgh died holding his original 
share, and his wife Eymerich, and his son Henry, his 
heirs, sold the same to Elias Boudinot, Aug. 8, 1707. 
Boudinot sold this entire share to Clowes, Oct. 27, 
1713, for £355. This parcel embraced what is called 
in the old deeds the "Florida tract;" the name 
" Florida" is still retained. 

7. John Cholwell sold his twelfth part to Adrian 
Hoaglandt, Oct. 5, 1706, for £350. Anna Hoaglandt, 
his widow, sold to Everett and Clowes one-sixth of 
the share, and the remainder descended to Christopher 
Banker and Elizabeth his wife, James Eenanst and 
Bertilje his wife, and Petrus Rutgers and Helena his 
wife, her heirs. 

8. John Merritt held his share at the time of his 
death, and his heirs, Margery Merritt, widow, and 
John Merritt, eldest son, sold one-half to Adrian 
Hoaglandt. John (then a resident of New London] 
sold to John Everett, Feb. 25, 1714, the remaining 
half for £120. 

9. Benjamin Aske sold to Everett and Clowes, July 
20, 1714, one-sixth of his thirteenth part for £50. 
He subsequently sold a portion to Lawrence Decker, 
Feb. 28, 1719; another to Thomas Blain, May 20, 
1721 ; and another to Thomas De Kay, Dec. 8, 1724. 
In all cases the land conveyed is described as part of 
his farm, " called Warwick," and in all cases the par- 
ties to whom the deeds were made were described as 
residents of the county and upon the land conveyed. 

10. Lancaster Symes sold to Everett and Clowes, 
July 20, 1714, one-sixth of his thirteenth part for £50. 

11. Peter Matthews, then living in Albany, sold all 
his thirteenth part to Clowes, Feb. 11, 1713, for £200. 

12. Christopher Denne sold, July 20, 1714, to 
Clowes and Everett one-sixth of his share for £50. 
He also sold to Robert Brown three hundred and ten 
acres, Sept. 3, 1721. Elizabeth Denne sold to William 
Mapes, Joseph Allison, John Yelverton, Ebenezer 
Holly, Joseph Sears, John Green, and John Worley, 
the Mapes deed bearing date March 1, 1729. The 
remainder of her interest in the patent passed by her 
will to Sarah Jones, spinster, of New York, and 
Vincent Matthews. Sarah Jones afterwards married 
Thomas Brown. 

13. Dr. Samuel Staats' thirteenth part descended 
to his children, Gertury, wife of Andries Codymus ; 
Sarah, wife of Isaac Gouverneur ; Catlyria, wife of 
Stevanus Van Cortlandt ; Anna, wife of Philip Schuy- 
ler ; Johanna White, widow ; and Tryntie Staats, who 
sold to Clowes and Everett one-sixth of said part for 
£50, Sept. 2, 1720. 

John Everett and Samuel Clowes, by these deeds, 
came into possession of one-third of the Eokeby, one- 
half of the Christianse, all of the Vandenburgh, one- 
half of the Merritt, all of the Matthews, two-twelfths 
of the Honan, and one-sixth of each of the shares 



held by the other patentees, in all equaling four of the 
thirteen parts. Obliged thereto by the terms of the 
deeds to them, they laid out as early as 1714 the 
township of Goshen. This township plot was divided 
into farms of varying quantities, and roads opened and 
reserved. The roads ran north and south and east and 
west, and divided the plot into what became known as 
the East Division, West Division, North Division, and 
South Division. Everett and Clowes were also obli- 
gated to assign two hundred acres of land to a minis- 
ter, whenever the owners and occupants of the plat 
should agree in the selection of one. It would per- 
haps be impossible to certainly determine who the 
first settlers were, the deeds on record being the only 
guide to dates, which may be anterior to or after set- 
tlement was made. They are : 

Jan. 8, 1714, to Michael Dunning, of Jamaica, L. I. 

June 23, 1714, to Johannes Weasner, late of the 
Swiss contingent. 

July 21, 1714, to Solomon Carpenter, of Jamaica, 

July 31, 1714, to Abraham Finch, of Stamford, 

July 81, 1714, to Samuel Seeley, of Stamford, Conn. 

July 31, 1714, to John Holly, of Stamford, Conn. 

Oct. 7, 1715, to John Yelverton, of Jamaica, L. I. 

Oct. 31, 1718, to William Jackson. 

April 25, 1719, to Daniel Coole. 

April 15, 1720, to William Burch, of Hempstead, 
L. I., who sold to John Yelverton, July 16, 1723. 

May 22, 1721, to Joseph Allison, of Southold, L. I. 

That there were deeds which were not recorded is 
apparent from the names attached to one which was 
given to the first blacksmith. This deed is dated July 
21, 1721, and recites that the proprietors had "lately 
caused two small lots to be laid out in the south di- 
vision of the township for the encouragement of a 
blacksmith, which was much needed ;" that " William 
Thompson is lately settled there," and in considera- 
tion thereof the lands were bargained and sold to 
him. The proprietors and resident owners appearing 
as grantors were : 

John Everett. 
Samael Clowea. 
John Carpenter. 
Thomas Watson. 
Hope Khodea. 
John Holly. 
Charlea Williaoison. 
Solomon Carpenter. 
Michael Dunning. 
Samuel Webb. 

James Jackson. 
Isaac Finch. 
John Bears. 
Samuel Seeley. 
George McNlsh. 
James Sands. 
John Knapp. 
John Alsop. 
Samuel Gilston. 
Cornelins Jones. 

In 1722, April 17th, a deed was executed " designed 
as an encouragement to the first minister." The re- 
cipient was John Bradner, who had been " lately 
settled and established the first minister of the said 
precinct of Goshen.'' Lands " for a parsonage and 
other public uses," and " for a burying-ground and 
whereon to build the minister's house," then being 
erected, were also deeded. In the execution of these 

deeds we have in the first instance the names of the 
holders of lots in the patent at that time, and in the 
second the names of proprietors of the township. The 
former were : 

Lancaster Symes. 
Gbristopher Denne. 
Sei^amin Aske. 
Daniel Cromeline. 
John Van Home. 
Anthony Butgers. 
Michael Dunning. 
William Jackson. 
Richard Halstead. 

John Everett. 
'Samuel Clowes. 
Solomon Carpenter. 
John Carpenter. 
Wait Smith. 
Samuel Seeley. 
John Gale. 
Isaac Ludlum. 
Hendrick Weasner. 

Isaac Finch. 

The proprietors in the township were : 

John Everett. 
John Gale. 
Nathaniel Higby. 
G. McHish. 
Thomas Watson. 
John Holly 
> Isaac Finch. 
John Bears. 
Samuel Seeley. 
William Jackson. 
John Knapp. 
John Alsop. 

John Carpenter. 
■William Ludlum. 
John Carpenter, Jr. 
James Sandys. 
Hope Rhodes. 
James Jackson. 
Solomon Carpenter. 
Michael Dunning. 
John Nicolls. 
Alexander MdDre. 
Samuel Webb. 
Bichard Halstead. 

In this connection may be recapitulated facts 
already stated in regard to settlements on other parts 
of the patent. The house erected by Cromeline was 
completed in 1716 and occupied ; that of Christopher 
Denne was also completed and occupied, as well as 
that of Benjamin Aske, at Warwick, at about the 
same time. William Bull, the mason and architect 
of Cromeline's house, married Sarah Wells, who had 
been sent out by Denne with the men in his employ, 
in 1718, and put up a cabin near Denne's (now in 
Hamptonburgh), on a farm given to Sarah. Johan- 
nes Weasner was certainly in the township in 1714 
with his family, and it is safe to say that Lawrence 
Decker was in Warwick, under Aske, at as early a 
date. The written record cannot be successfully con- 
troverted by tradition upon any point, no matter with 
what attraction the tradition may be recited, or how- 
ever honestly it may be believed. 

The settlement of other patents may be more satis- 
factorily treated in connection with the towns in which 
they were located. As a general guide to determine 
the question of priority of settlement in the patents 
composing the .northeastern and western portions of 
the present county, the following ofiicial lists are 
given. Further approximative dates may be obtained 
from the military rolls hereinafter quoted : 

" The freeholders, inhabitants, residents, and sojourners in the county 
of Ulster, their real and personal estates, are rated and assessed by the 
Assessors (on their death) chosen for the same on the 26th day of Janu- 
ary, 1714-5, and are to pay at the rate of one penny half-pence fi £ to 
discharge this year's payment of said county's quota, levyd by an act of 
the Assembly, entitled an act for levying the sum of ten thousand 
pounds,"* viz. • 

* The pounds of that pexiod were only about equivalent of one dollar 
each of the present United States issue. Some of the parties were rich 
in uncleared acres of land, however. 



Pfecitul of SJiawangotictr.* 

Amt. Tax. 

Severgn Tenhout £240 £01 10«. OOd. 

ZacharlM Hoff.uan 130 00 14 03 

Jacobus Brujn 120 00 16 00 

Benjamin Smedes 150 00 10 09 

John MacKlane 5 00 00 07U 

Kichard Windfleld 5 00 00 07V| 

Jacob Decker, Sen J5 00 01 lOU 

Abraham Schutt 35 00 04 04}^ 

Jacob Gerritsen Decker 60 00 06 63 

LeendertCool.Jun 10 00 01 03 

Evert Terwillege 60 00 07 06 

Col. Peter MattheWB & Compy 15 00 01 lOU 

Johannes Terwillege 3 00 00 04}J. 

Phillip Miller 10 00 01 03 

Total Bum 840 05 06 00 

Neig}iborkood of WagacTtemeek. 

Amt. Tax. 

Thomas Swartwout £25 £00 0»«. OlUd. 

Harmon Barentsen 10 00 01 lOJ^ 

Jacob Coddebecq 10 00 01 03 

Peter Guymard 50 00 06 04 

Jacobus Swartwout. 6 00 00 07^ 

Total sum 105 00 13 OlJ^ 

Precinct of EighlaniU, 

Amt. Tax. 

Peter Magregotyt £30 £00 03«. OOd. 

Swervert 6 00 On 071^ 

William Southerlandf 46 00 06 07V| i 

Michael Wynantt 15 dO 01 10J| 

Burger MyndertaenJ 10 00 01 03 

Jacob Webert 18 00 01 lOJ^ 

Peter La Kosel 10 00 01 03 

John risAert 10 00 01 03 

Andres Volckt 12 00 01 06 

George Lockste.'kA 10 00 01 OS , 

Pieter .lansent..-. ; 10 00 01 (8 

Henry Eennaut 25 00 03 Oil. 

William Ellsworth's widow t 6 00 00 07 

Dennis BeUe.t 3 00 00 04] 

Alexander Griggs B 00 00 07 

Thomas Harris 6 00 00 07 

Capt. Bondt 15 00 01 10] 

Melgert, the joyner 16 00 01 10 

Christian Hennecke 3 00 00 04; 

Jacob Decker, J r 10 00 01 03 

Cornelia Decker 6 00 00 07J^ 

Total sum 293 01 16 07}^ 

** Pursuant aud by order to me directed out the Supreme Court, re- 
quiring me to make a General List of the Freeholders within my Bayli- 
wick, soe that a Special Jury be struck thereout to trey the cause be- 
tween Major Hardenbergh and the Corporation of Kingston, wherefore 
I have accordingly taken all the care to not forgitt any of the Free- 
holders to the best of my Nollege, and hereof I Doe make my returne 
this 7th day of July, 1728. Jacobus Van Dick, Sheriff." 

Freeholders for Bhawengongh. 
Capt. Jacobus Bruyn. James Spennik. 

Capt Zagharias Hoffman. Cornelius Cool.g 

Benjamin Smedes. Henry Wileman, attomey-at- 

Abraham Schutt. law.g 

Jacob Decker. John North. 

Evert ter Willige. George Andrew. 

Josua Smedes. John MacKneel.g 

John ter Willige. Jeronimus Miogus.g 

Cornelius Schoonmaker. Thomas Mackolm. 

Hendrik Decker. Cbristoffel Moul.g 

Mattys Slimmer.g Samuel Neely.g 

Hendrik Newkerk.g Israel Rogers.§ 

Bendrick Krans.g John Neely.g 

Edward OatebouBe.g John Williams. 

Galatie.g Caleb Knapp, Senr. 

Jeronimus Weller,g Caleb Knapp, Junr. 

JohannlB Decker. Alexander Neely.g 

John Howard. Coll. Cortlandt. 

* Although a repetition of facts elsewhere stated, it is perhaps well to 
say here that this tax-list covered Shuwangunk, Montgomery, Crawford, 
Wallkfll, and part of Hamptonburgh. The " neighborhood of Wagac- 
kemeck ' was probably wholly confined to the Swartwout Patent, and 
did not include the whole of Deerpark, nor of original Minisink. 
t Besidents of district now embraced in New Windsor. 
X Besidents of district now embraced in town and city of Newburgh. 
g Names marked thus (§) are known to have been freeholders in the 
present town of Montgomery, which was then and until 1743 included 
in the precinct of Shawangunk. 

Freeholders of WagaghJtemek, 
Harme barentse Van Emwee- Samuel Swartwout.fl 

gen. Barnardus Swartwout, Jr.| 

Peter Gomar.) Jacob 

John Van Vliet, Junr. 

Freeholders of the 
William Chambers, Esqr.lf 
Phineas MacKentosh, Esqr.f 
Thomas Ellison.Tl 
James Ellsworth.** 
Juris Quick. 
William Bond.** 
Burger Mynderse.** 
John Alsop, Keqr.U 
William Ward. 
John Haskell.V 
John Van Tien. 
George Wayagont.** 
Burger Mynderse, Junr. 
William Sanders. 
Doct. Colden, Esqr. 
George Ebina. 
Tobias Wayagont.** 
Bobert Kirkland. 

John Umphry.lT 
Peter Long. 
David Sutherland.^ 
John Davis.lf 
Melgert GiUi.** 
Henry Haskell.lf 
Beujamin Ellsworth.** 
Nathaniel Foster.** 
Francis Harrison, Esqr.** 
James MacKneel, Junr.f 
James Gamwell.^ 
Stephen Bedford.** 
Thomas Shaw.^f 
Joseph Gale.^ 
George Speedwell. 
John Monte. 
Christian Chervis. 



Until the conquest of the province by the Eng- 
lish in 1664, its civil government was an extension of 
the laws and customs of Holland, in which local gov- 
ernment was the prerogative of towns. The English 
system difiFered from this in many respects, but in the 
nature of the situation in which the province came to 
their hands, they were compelled to combine their 
own with that of Holland. Without disturbing the 
Dutch towns of New York, Albany, Kingston, and 
Esopus, further than in a change of names, courts 
and sheriffs were introduced in the English counties 
by what was known as " the Duke's Laws," in 1665. 
In this crude condition — th'e sparcity of population 
scarcely requiring that which was more complete — 
the government remained until 1682, when Col. 
Thomas Dongan was appointed Governor of the prov- 
ince with instructions to organize a Council, to be 
composed of not exceeding ten of " the most eminent 
inhabitants," and to issue writs to the proper officers 
for the election of " a General Assembly of all the 
freeholders by the persons who they shall choose to 
represent them," in order to consult with him and his 
Council " what laws are fit and necessary to be made 
and established" for the good government of the prov- 
ince " and all the inhabitants thereof." On the 17th 
of October, 1683, the Assembly thus authorized met 
at Fort James in New York. It was composed of 
delegates from all parts of the province, and during 

II In the present town of Deerpark. 
If In present town of New Windsoi;. 

** In present town and city of Newburgh. Francis Harrison was a fires- 
holder, but not a resident. 



its session of three weeks passed fourteen several acts, 
which were assented to by the Governor and his 
Council. Among these laws was one " to divide this 
province and dependencies into shires and counties," 
and one " to settle courts of justice." Twelve coun- 
ties were established by the former: New York, 
Kings, Queens, Suffolk, Richmond, Westchester, 
Albany, Ulster, Duchess, Orange, Duke's, and Corn- 
wall, which, with the exception of Duchess, which 
was placed under the care of Ulster, and Orange, 
which was similarly associated with New York, were 
to be entitled to representation in future General As- 
semblies. The law relating to courts established four 
distinct tribunals : Town Courts, for the trial of small 
causes, to be held each month ; County Courts, or 
Courts of Sessions, to be held at certain times, quar- 
terly or half yearly ; a General Court of Oyer and 
Terminer, with original and appellate jurisdiction, to 
sit twice in every year in each county, and a Court 
of Chancery, to be the " Supreme Court of the Prov- 
ince,'' composed of the Governor and Council, with 
power in the Governor to depute a Chancellor in his 
stead, and appoint clerks and other oflBcers. The old 
Court of Assizes was replaced by the Court of Oyer 
and Terminer. This system continued until 1691, 
when courts of justices of the peace were organized 
in every town, and one of Common Pleas for every 

One of the leading features in the early civil divi- 
sions established by the English was the organization 
of precincts. Cities and towns had been established 
by the Dutch prior to the English occupation ; a few 
English towns existed on Long Island, and a few town 
charters were subsequently granted by the Governor 
and Council to companies or associated colonists; 
but precincts were entirely different in their constitu- 
tion and government, and of necessity became more 
numerous. Primarily, they were composed of the 
scattered settlements of contiguous territory, organ- 
ized by the courts as court districts, and attached to 
some adjoining town for assessment and local govern- 
ment. Their boundaries were crude; their popula- 
tion small ; their officers such as were known only to 
the county at large. Subsequently, as population in- 
creased, their boundaries were more clearly defined, ' 
and officers assigned to them. So numerous did these 
divisions ultimately become that towns were almost 
entirely lost sight of until after the Revolution, when 
the distinction, which then existed only in name, was 

In 1701 the Assembly, by act of October 18th, pro- 
vided that the justices of the peace of the several 
counties, " or any five or more of them, two whereof 
to be a quorum," should, once in the year, at a court 
of general or special sessions, supervise, examine, 
and allow the public and necessary charge of their 
respective county, and of every town thereof," in- 
cluding the " allowance made by law to their repre- 
-sentative or representatives." For the assessment 

and collection of the accounts allowed by them, 

they were " empowered to issue their warrant to the 

several towns for the election of two assessors and 


one collector in each town." The act further pro- 
vided that the "justices at the respective general 
sessions" should, " once in the year, make provision 
for maintenance and support of the poor" of their 
several towns or precincts. 

This law continued in force until June, 1703, when 
it was enacted that there should be " elected and 
chosen, once every year, in each town, by the free- 
holders and inhabitants thereof, one of their free- 
holders and inhabitants, to compute, ascertain, ex- 
amine, oversee, and allow the contingent, public, and 
necessary charge of each county, and that each and 
every inhabitant, being a freeholder in any manor, 
liberty, jurisdiction, precinct, and out-plantation, shall 
have liberty to join his or their vote with the next 
adjacent town in the county, where such inhabitants 
shall dwell, for the choice of a supervisor." The law 
also provided that there should be annually chosen 
"in each town, ward, manor, and precinct, by the 
freeholders and inhabitants thereof, two assessors and 
one collector." The elections were to be held " on 
the first Tuesday in April," or on such other days as 
were " appointed by their charters and patents." The 
supervisors were required to meet annually, " at the 
county town in each respective county, on the first 
Tuesday in October," and at such other time and 
times as they should "judge and find necessary.and 
convenient," and then and there " compute the public 
necessary contingent charges against their respective 
counties," together with " such other sum and sums 
of money" as should be " brought and exhibited to or 
before them," to be levied on their respective " coun- 
ties by the laws of the colony." When the computa- 
tion was " perfected, and the proportion of each town, 
manor, liberty, jurisdiction, and precinct ascertained 
and appointed," it was to be transmitted to the asses- 
sors, who were " required, equally, duly, and impar- 
tially, to assess and make a rate for their respective 
proportions," being first sworn to make such assess- 
ment equally and impartially. The assessment, when 
completed, was to be delivered to the collectors, who 
were empowered to collect and pay the same to the 
county treasurer, who was to be " annually chosen 
in each county by the supervisors." 

The changes which up to this time had been made 
in the civil government, it will be observed, consisted 
in substituting courts of justices of the peace for the 
courts held by overseers under the law of 1665. Con- 
stables were continued in each town, and in addition 
the towns were authorized to elect supervisors, asses- 
sors, and collectors. Officers equivalent to the present 
commissioners of highways were given to the towns in 
1691, by an act "impowering" the freeholders "to 
nominate and make choice in each of their respective 
towns, annually, three persons to be surveyors and 
orderers of the work for laying out and the amend- 



ment of the highways and fence? within the bounds 
and limits of their respective towns." This law also 
gave power to the freeholders of the towns, when as- 
sembled for the election of the officers to which they 
were entitled, " to make, establish, constitute, and 
ordain such prudential orders and rules, for the better 
improvement of their lands in tillage, pasturage, or 
any other reasonable way," as the majority should 
deem " good and convenient." 

It was under these general laws that the district of 
country now forming the county of Orange, as a part 
of the original counties from which it was taken, had 
its organization and early development. The act of 
1683, dividing the province into shires and counties, 
provided : " The County of Ulster to contain the towns 
of Kingston, Hurley, and Marbletown, and all the vil- 
lages, neighborhoods, and Christian habitations on the 
west side of Hudson's River, from the Murderer's 
Creeke, near the Highlands, to Sawyer's Creeke. The 
County of Orange* to beginne from the limitts or 
bounds of East and West Jersey, on the west side of 
Hudson's River; along the said river to Murderer's 
Creeke, or bounds of the county of Ulster ; and west- 
ward into the woods as far as Delaware River." These 
boundaries, though crude and illustrative of the im- 
perfect knowledge of the country which then prevailed, 
were destined to be substantially maintained for over 
one hundred years. 

The organization of the towns and precincts in the 
origpal county of Orange began with that of the 
town of Orange in 1686. Soon after its organization 
the inhabitants of the adjoining patents, including 
Haverstraw, were attached to it for court jurisdiction 
and assessment. By act of Assembly, June 24, 1719, 
— in response to a petition of the inhabitants of 
Haverstraw, reciting the inconveniences of associa- 
tion with Orangetown, — the northern settlements 
were included in a precinct under the title of the 
Precinct of Haverstraw, thereby creating two pre- 
cincts, viz. : Orangetown, with Tappan as its centre, 
and Haverstraw, with the " Christian patented lands 
of Haverstraw" as its centre. The boundaries of the 
latter were " from the northernmost bounds of Tap- 
pan to the northernmost bounds of Haverstraw." Its 
inhabitants were authorized to elect on the first Tues- 
day in April annually the officers common to a town, 
viz. : " One supervisor, one collector, two assessors, 
one constable, and two overseers of highways," who 
should be " invested with all the powers, and be 
obliged to perform such services and duties" as per- 
tained to similar officers. 

The settlements of Goshen, Warwick, Gray Court, 
etc., on the Wawayanda Patent, were given organ- 
ization as the Precinct of Goshen some time about 
1714, the township of Goshen becoming the political 

* " So called in compliment to the Dutch sun-in-law of James II." — 
JBrodhead. Known tie the Prince of Orange, subsequently William III., 
of England. 

centre.t Under the general law of 1703, it was entitled 
to two assessors, a collector, overseers of highways, and 
a constable. It remained without change until 1743, 
when it was empowered to' elect, in addition to its other 
officers, two constables, one of whom should be " from 
and out of such of the inhabitants" as had their res- 
idence in the south part of the precinct " commonly 
called Wawayanda," and the other from "the inhabi- 
tants to the northward, near the meeting-house com- 
monly called the water-side meeting-house.'' The 
territory embraced in the precinct included the entire 
county, with the exception of the Haverstraw and 
Orangetown districts, and extended from the Dela- 
ware to Hudson's River. J By act of Assembly, Oct. 
20, 1764, it was divided by " a straight line to be run, 
beginning at the borders or verge of the county of 
Ulster, near the new dwelling-house of John Manno, 
thence on a course which will leave the house of Bar- 
nabas Horton, Jr., ten chains to the westward to the 
most extreme parts of said precinct;? all the lands- 
lying to the west of said line to be Goshen Precinct, 
and all eastward to be called New Cornwall Precinct. 
These two precincts, with the precincts of Haver- 
straw and Orangetown, constituted the political divi- 
sions of the county until after the Revolution. Sub- 
sequently, and prior to 1797-98, the following changes 
were made : The title of precinct was changed to that 
of town in the cases of Orangetown, Haverstraw, 
Goshen, and New Cornway, in 1788, || at which time 
the towns of Warwick and Minisink were erected 
from Goshen ; from Haverstraw the towns of Clarks- 
town and Ramapo were erected in 1791 ; New Corn- 

t Goshen was founded as a township, precisely as was OrangetowjQ,. 
and was similarly included in the subsequent precinct organization with 
other settlements. It should be observed, however, that in these and- 
other cases of prior township organizations the adjoining settlements- 
were the jirecincta of the town to which they were attached. 

t That portion of the precinct lying west of the Minisink Mountains- 
was subjected to several political changes : By act of Oct. M, 1701, " for 
the more regular proceedings in election of Kepresentativcs,"the inhab- 
itants of " Wagachemeck and Great and Little Minisink" were " impow- 
ered to give their votes in the county of Ulster." By act of Nov. 14, 
1Y09, " to determine, settle, and ascertain the bounds and limits of the- 
county of Orange," the act of Oct. 18, 1701, was repealed so far as it re- 
lated to the settlements named, which were in effect declared to be a part 
of Orange County. By subsequent survey Maghaghkemek (puddeback- 
ville) was found to be north of the line of Orange, and hence passed to 
the jurisdiction of Ulster, appearing on the tax-roll as the " Neighbor- 
hood of Maghaghkemek." It remained in this political relation until 
1799, when the town of Deerpark was erected as one of the consequences 
of the reorganization of Orange County, of which it became part. The 
other settlements were included (after 1709) in the-precinct of Goshenj 
subsequently that portion lying north of the New Jersey line became 
part of the town of Minisink (1788), from which they were taken (1798) 
and included in the boundaries of Deerpark. It may be added that a 
portion of the district, embracing what subsequenHy fell to New Jersey, 
appears to have had organization as the precinct of Minisink, and as such, 
through its assessors, raised its quota of the tax for the erection of the 
court-house at Goshen in 1739. Its constitution, as a precinct was no 
doubt by order of the court j it has no record of that character in the 
acts of the General Assembly. 

8 This line is said to have been parallel with the west Hue of the pres- 
ent town of Monroe. 

I The erection of towns at this date, wherever situated in the State, 
was under a general law passed March 7, 1788, entitled " An act for 
dividing the counties of this State into towns»" 



wall changed its title to Cornwall in 1797. These 
changes gave to the county, in 1798, the towns of 
Orangetown, Haverstraw, Clarkstown, Bamapo, 
Goshen, Warwick, Minisink, and Cornwall. 

From this survey of the original county of Orange 
we pass to notice the civil divisions of Ulster County 
so far as they were embraced in the district which we 
are considering. Immediately north of Murderer's 
Creek there was no civil organization until the advent 
of the Palatines in 1709,* when the precinct of the 
Highlands was erected and attached to New Paltz. 
The boundaries of the precinct are not stated, but 
the order is understood to have applied more espe- 
cially to the territory extending from New Paltz to 
Murderer's Creek, in which district the Palatines at 
Quassaick were then the principal settlers. At the 
same time or soon after, the constitution of the Pre- 
cinct of the Highlands, and evidently by order of the 
court, the Precinct of Maghaghkemek,t and the Pre- 
cinct of Shawangunk were constituted, the latter at- 
tached to New Paltz. As in the case of the Precinct 
of the Highlands, no boundaries are given ; but from 
deeds, tax-rolls, and other papers of record, it is clear 
that the present towns of Montgomery, Crawford, and 
Wallkill were embraced in the limits of this precinct. 
Under this limited organization the territory which 
these precincts covered remained until 1743, when, by 
act of Dec. 17, three full precincts, having all the 
officers of towns and exercising all their duties, were 
established by act of the Assembly. These precincts 
were to be known and called " by the name of the 
Wallkill Precinct, Shawangunk Precinct, and High- 
land Precinct." The first, the Precinct of Wallkill, 
was bounded on the north "by the north bounds of 
ten thousand acres of land granted to Jeremiah 
Schuyler and others, by the south bounds of four 
thousand acres of land granted to Gerardus Beekman 
and others, by the north bounds of three thousand 
acres of land granted to Henry Wileman and others, 
by the east bounds of three thousand acres of land 
granted to John Johnson, and by the east bounds of 
two thousand acres of land granted to Cadwaliader 
Colden ;" on the south " by the north bounds of two 
thousand acres of land granted to Patrick Hume, by 
the north and west bounds of the land granted to . 
Cornelius Low and others, and by the northwest and 
southwest bounds of two thousand acres of land 
granted to Phineas Mcintosh, and by the line di- 
viding the counties of Orange and Ulster to Shawan- 

* So mnch of the dietrict as was embraced in the Evans Patent was, by 
the terms of tha^ instrument, erected into the " Manor and Lordship of 
Fietcherdon," with tlie usual authority conferred in manorial grants, 
hut, in the absence of other population than that included iu the Mac- 
Gregorie settlement, it is not probable that even the civil jurisdiction of 
a manorial court was established during the few years the grant was 

t The correctness of this statement having been questioned, we quote 
from the act of Dec, 17, 1743 : "And whereas Shawangunk, Highlands, 
and Maghaghkemek have formerly been deemed and esteemed three 
precincts, and have been assessed by their own assessors,^' etc. Mag- 
haghkemek was subsequently included in the Precinct of Maniakating. 

gunk Mountains." In more general terms, the district 
was defined as "bounded westerly by the Shawan- 
gunk Mountains as they run from the county of 
Orange to a creek or river called the Plattekill, then 
along the Plattekill to Shawangunk Eiver, then all 
along Shawangunk River to the north bounds of the 
ten thousand acres granted to Jeremiah Schuyler 
aforesaid." The freeholders were required to " meet 
at the house of Matties Millspaught on the first Tues- 
day of April yearly," or at such other place as should 
be selected by the inhabitants after the first meeting, 
and elect one supervisor, two assessors, a collector, a 
constable, and an overseer of the poor. One of the 
assessors was to be located on the west side of the 
Wallkill, "and because the said Wallkill Eiver, 
which crosses the said precinct, is sometimes danger- 
ous to pass," one collector and one constable were 
added to the officers of the precinct "for that part 
thereof which lieth to the westward of said river.'' 

The second, the Precinct of Shawangunk, was 
bounded on the west " by the foot of Shawangunk 
Mountains ; on the south and west by the precinct of 
Wallkill ; on the east by the line or bounds of three 
thousand five hundred acres granted to Rip Van Dam 
and others, by the east bounds of two thousand acres 
of land granted to Barbaric, and by the east bounds or 
line of two thousand acres of land granted to Huddles- 
ton; and on the north by the north bounds or line of 
the said two thousand acres granted to Huddleston, 
by the north bounds of two thousand acres granted to 
Peter Matthews and others ;" on the south by a line 
" crossing the said Wallkill River to the mouth of 
Shawangunk River, and running thence southwest- 
erly all along the northwest side of said Shawangunk 
River to the southwest corner of the land granted to 
Col. Jacob Rutzen ;" and on the west by the " west- 
erly bounds or line of said land granted to Rutzen to a 
salt pond, called ' the great salt pond,' and from thence 
upon a west line to the foot of Shawangunk Moun- 
tains aforesaid." The first precinct meeting was to be 
held at the house of Benjamin Smedes, Jr., at which 
a supervisor, two assessors, and the usual precinct 
officers were to be chosen, and the place of subse- 
quent meetings designated. 

The Precinct of the Highlands embraced the patents- 
lying along the Hudson from Murderer's Creek to 
New Paltz, and was more particularly described as 
"bounded on the east by Hudson's River; on the 
south by the line dividing the counties of Ulster and 
Orange ; on the west by the precincts of Wallkill and. 
Shawangunk and the neighborhoods annexed to the 
New Paltz,? and on the north by the bounds or line 

X Millspaugb was a very early settler in the present town of Mont- 
gomery. He married the widow of Johannes Mingus, who erected the 
first grist-mill in the town (1721-22), and through this marriage obtained 
the Mingus mill and farm. 

g The " neighborhoods annexed to New Paltz" were " Guilford and 
several otlier patents, from the south bounds of New Paltz to the north 
bounds of Shawangunk precinct, and from the foot of the high moun- 
tains eastward to the east line of the patent granted to Thomas Garland, . 



of New Paltz town." The precinct meetings were to 
be held "at the house of John Humphrey, Jr.," who 
resided in the present town of New Windsor, " on the 
first Tuesday of April annually," for the election of 
precinct officers. 

The same act gave primary constitution to the Pre- 
cinct of Mamakating, in which was included " all the 
land to the southward of the town of Rochester as far 
as the county of Ulster extends, and to the westward 
of the precincts of Wallkill and Shawangunk as far as 
the county extends." ■ The first precinct meeting was 
to be held at the dwelling-house of Samuel Swartwout, 
at which one constable, two assessors, two overseers of 
the poor, and two surveyors of highways were to be 
elected. In the election of supervisor the fireeholders 
were associated with the town of Rochester. Under 
the law of 1798, the northern part of the territory in- 
cluded in the then town of Deerpark was taken from 
this precinct. 

The Precinct of the Highlands continued in exist- 
ence until 1762, when it was divided into the Precincts 
of Newburgh and New Windsor, " by a line begin- 
ning at the mouth of Quassaick Creek, and running 
thence along the south bounds of a tract of land com- 
monly called the German Patent to another tract 
granted to Alexander Baird, and then along the 
southerly bounds of the said last mentioned tract to 
the Wallkill Precinct ; all the lands heretofore com- 
prehended within the said Higliland Precinct lying 
to the southward of the aforesaid dividing line to 
be called by the name of New Windsor Precinct, and 
all the lands heretofore comprehended within the said 
Highland Precinct lying to the northward of the said 
line to be called by the name of Newburgh Precinct." 
The latter was divided in 1772 by a line running 
along the north bounds of the Harrison, Bradley, 
Wallace, Kip and Cruger, and Jamison Patents, to 
the Precinct of Shawangunk, " all the land lying to 
the northward of said line to be called and known by 
the name of New Marlborough Precinct, and all the 
land south of said line to continue to be called New- 
burgh Precinct." 

The same law divided the Precinct of Wallkill by 
a line beginning at the southwest corner of the Mcin- 
tosh Patent and the southeast corner of McKnight's, 
" thence along the southwest bounds of Thomas Noxon, 
the southwest bounds of Harrison and Company, the 
southwest bounds of Philip Schuyler, to the Pakada- 
sink River or Shawangunk Kill ;" all northeast of this 
line " to be called the Precinct of Hanover, and all 
the land southwest of said line, heretofore compre- 
hended in the Precinct of Wallkill, to continue to be 
called the Precinct of Wallkill." 

The precincts named carried with them their desig- 

and by the south and east by the land granted to Hugh Freer and others, 
And to the eastward by an east line from the said Hugh Freer's bounds 
to the bounds or line of New Paltz." The freeholders were to vote with 
the freeholders of Kew Paltz, and in all respects to be considered a part 
of that town. 

native titles in their organization as towns under the 
act of 1788, with the exception of Hanover, whos6 
inhabitants, for the purpose of attesting their detestiS 
tion of the English go.vernment, as well as their appre- 
ciation of the heroic services of Gen. Richard Mont- 
gomery, obtained consent from the Provincial Con- 
vention of the State in 1782 to change the precinct 
name to Montgomery.* By the act of 1788 they were 
severally erected as the towns of Newburgh, New 
Windsor, New Marlborough, Shawangunk, Montgom- ' 
ery, and Wallkill. ^ 

Incident to the history of the original county, it is 
proper to remark, in this connection, that, although 
organized in 1683, it was only a county in name, — i 
district in the wilderness with boundaries upon paper. 
It was not until nearly twenty years later that it be- 
came a county de facto. True, it was assigned a 
sheriff and a clerk, and had a jail, but it was attached 
to New York in other respects in the character of d 
borough. Governor Leisler, in his ill-starred rebel- 
lion, attempted to use it (1691) by appointing as one 
of his Council William Lawrence, of New York, as 
representing Orailge, aild when it was given repre- 
sentation in the Assembly (1699), it was not as a right 
due to population, but to serve another purpose. 

Aside from their town and precinct officers and rep- 
resentatives in the Assembly, the people had no voice 
in the selection of their "rulers. The sheriffs held the 
elections for representatives, and the choice was de- 
termined by the viva voce\ vote of the freeholders^ 
who were required to be twenty-one years of age, and 
to be possessed of " land or tenements improved to 
the value of forty pounds free from all incumbrances." 
Freeholders having property in more than one county 
could vote in as many counties as they had property 
liable to taxation, and for their accommodation the 
elections were so ordered that opportunity was given 
them to cast the full number of votes to which they 
were entitled. It could scarcely be called a represen- 
tative system, so far as representative systems are un- 
derstood to express the popular will ; it was more 
properly a property representation, under which power 
was given to a few persons. The districts were large ; 
the population was scattered ; the elections were held 
at the " county towns ;" the polls were kept open 
several days to enable all to vote who might wish to 
do so. Where the conveniences existed for transit 
from point to point, as they did along the Hudson, a 
freeholder residing in New York was enabled to vote 
in half a dozen counties if holding property therein, 
while those occupying more inland locations were in 
most cases necessarily deprived of a voice in elections. 

Until 1699 the freeholders of the county were asso- 

* This is the fact, as it appeai-s from the proceedings of a public meet- 
ing held in the precinct to petition for the change. The name selected, 
howevet, bad been applied to a township plot, now the village, or part of 
the village, of Montgomery, by Gen. James Clinton, several years bofora 
the. Revolution, as appears by deeds of record conveying township lots. 

t Until after the adoption of the constitution of 1777. Voting by bal- 
lot was regarded by the framers of that Instrument as an experiment. 



ciated with those of New York in the selection of 
representatives, but were not obliged to visit New 
York in order to give their votes. The sheriff of the 
county held the election at Orangetown, and made 
return to the sheriflF of New York, who declared the 
result. In 1699 the county was given representation 
in the Assembly. At this and subsequent elections 
until 1749, the poll was held exclusively at Orange- 
town, and those who wished to vote were compelled 
to visit that place. This was in part remedied by the 
law of 1748, by which it was provided, " for the time 
to come, all elections for representatives" should be 
opened "either at the court-house or some conve- 
nient place in Orangetown, or at the court-house or 
some convenient place in Goshen," and after being 
held for a certain time at the place where first opened, 
should be adjourned "to the other court-house or 
place of election, so that all the freeholders may, if 
they please, be polled at such elections."* 

That the system was corrupt, especially in the 
earlier years of its administration, is a fact revealed 
on every page of the history of that period. Frauds 
upon the revenue pervaded all departments of the 
public service ; piratical expeditions, including that 
of the notorious Capt. Kidd, were fitted out by men 
high in public aflfairs ; land-grants were obtained for 
considerations paid to the Governor ; there was noth- 
ing, apparently, that had money in it that was not 
prospered by official connivance. In one instance 
only is it written that the Governor's Council " was 
ashamed to consent" to one of his grants, and that 
not because of its magnitude, but that it proposed to 
give his footman a lease for " a little island called 
Nutten Island," which had hitherto been " convenient 
for grazing a few coach-horses and cows for the Gov- 
ernor's family."! Sectarianism was the cloak for all 
kinds of peculation ; to-write against another at one 
time that he was a Protestant, or at another that he 
was "a Popish tailor," or similar epithet, was the 
stepping-stone to official promotion. Indeed, it would 
seem that more modern political partisans have not 
learned much that is new, or that many who have 
since held official station have special claim to origi- 
nality in methods of abusing public trusts. 

It was when this era of corruption was at its height 
that the people of Orange County appear distinctly 
in the politics of the province. Governor Bellomont, 
who succeeded Governor Fletcher in 1698, was clothed 
with power to correct the abuses which had grown up, 
for which purpose he was given " a negative voice in 
the making and passing of all laws, statutes, and ordi- 
nances, and could " adjourn, prorogue, and dissolve 
the Assembly" whenever- he deemed it necessary.J 
Issuing a warrant for the election of a new Assembly, 
he cautioned the sheriffs, by whom it was to be held, 

• The old story of caiT7iDg the ballot-box around the country origi- 
nated in this. Unfortnnately for the story, there was no ballot-box, the 
vote of the freeholders being simply registered, 

t Col. Hist, It. 384, 393. I Ibid., i. 266. 


against " undue elections and returns ;" but the latter 
were themselves creatures of the corrupt combination 
which had been formed, or, as the record states, "were 
for the most part men of mean rank," who " had been 
continued in. their places from year to year by Gov- 
ernor Fletcher," and who, " instead of complying" 
with their instructions, " carried themselves most 
unfairly, in so much that one of them made return 
for a county (viz.. Orange County), in which he suf- 
fered not any one freeholder to vote."§ Other dis- 
tricts shared in the " corruption of the franchise" to 
such an extent that when the Assembly convened, 
eleven of the nineteen members of which it was com- 
posed, it is said, "sat by controverted elections," and, 
having the majority, " established themselves and 
brought all things into the greatest confusion." 

Finding that nothing could be done with such a 
body of men, Bellomont dissolved the Assembly and 
ordered a new election, taking care that Governor 
Fletcher's sheriffs were retired from the management. 
The result was satisfactory to him, but not to those 
who were defeated, who complained to the king that 
" the election was appointed to be upon the same day 
in all places except the two most remote counties, 
whereby the best freeholders, who had estates in sev- 
eral counties, were deprived of giving their votes at 
several elections ; that "the sheriffs performed the 
business they were appointed for by admitting some 
for freeholders who were not so, and rejecting others 
who were really so, as they voted for or against their 
party, and by nominating and appointing inspectors 
of the poll who, upon any complaint of unfair deal- 
ing, gave this general answer : ' If you are aggrieved 
complain to my lord Bellomont, and the same prac- 
tice in all places gives just reason to believe the 
orders for it came from his excellency." 

" To secure a majority of such men as he desired," 
continues this remonstrance, "his lordship, without 
any instruction from England, added two to the former 
number, viz. : one more to be chosen for the city and 
county of Albany, and one for the county of Orange, 
which last is by act of Assembly made a part of the 
county of New York, and has not twenty inhabitants 
freeholders in it, and never before had a distinct 
representation in Assembly. By this means one 
Abraham Gouverneur, a Dutchman, — so indigent as 
never to be assessed in the public taxes, and who, as 
is reasonably to be supposed, had a deed of some land 
made to him of purpose to qualify him for it, because 
he never had any land before, — was chosen an Assem- 
blyman, and is since made Speaker of the House of 
Representatives. This fellow was formerly convicted 
of murther and pardoned, || and soon after the Revo- 

g Stanley Handcock appears as sheriff of Orange County at this time. 
He was also sherifT of New York. 

II Uouverneur vfas attached to the administration of Governor Leisler, 
and was tried and condemned, with others, for his participation in the 
resistance to Governor Sloughter, during which several of the king*s 
troops were killed, including Capt. MacGregorie. He was subsequently 
pardoned by the king. It is to these facta the text refers. 



lution publicly declared that Jacob Leisler had 
carried the government of New York by the sword, 
and had the same right to it as King William had to 
the crown, having conquered the kingdom of Eng- 
land. At the meeting of the Assembly it appeared 
of the twenty-one representatives there were but 
seven Englishmen, the remainder being all Dutch 
and of the meanest sort, half of whom do not under- 
stand English, which can conduce little to the honor 
of the English interest there."* 

Notwithstanding this bitter complaint, the Assem- 
bly instituted some important reforms. Grants of 
large tracts of lands were set aside, the elections for 
representatives were regulated, and provision made 
for the severe punishment (if frauds upon the revenue. 
Had Bellomont lived, perhaps more general reforms 
would have been secured ; but his death, in 1701, was 
followed, after a short administration under the Coun- 
cil, by the appointment of Lord Cornbury, who not 
only restored the unscrupulous officials that had been 
removed by Bellomont, but earned for himself the 
" unenviable distinction of being the worst of all the 
Governors under the English crown." "Rapacious 
without a parallel, he hesitated not," says one of his 
biographers, " to apply the public money to his own 
private purposes ; and though notoriously vicious, yet 
he was so intolerant that he sought to establish the 
Episcopacy at all hazards, imprisoning and prohibit- 
ing ministers of other denominations from exercising 
their functions without his special license. He was, 
moreover, as destitute of gratitude as of courtesy, in- 
juring those most from whom he had received the 
greatest benefits. His manners were as ignoble and 
undignified as his conduct was base, and when this 
hopefiil scion of royalty wandered about the streets 
clothed as a woman (which was a common practice 
with him), the people felt that he had taken Caligula 
for a model." 

But a better state of affairs was born of the excesses 
which Cornbury committed. While at Chear Hall, 
his country-seat in Haverstraw, he surrounded him- 
self with such men as Daniel Honan, the freeholders 
looked upon his extravagance with alarm, andj through 
the Assembly, refused the grants of money which he 
asked. The rights of the people with regard to taxa- 
tion, to courts of law, to ofiS^cers of the crown, were 
speedily asserted and increased in strength with the 
political education of the people. When Cornbury 
was succeeded by Lovelace (1709), the Assembly 
began the contest that was never to cease but with in- 
dependence. The crown demanded a permanent rev- 
enue, without appropriation; the Assembly would 
only grant an annual revenue and appropriate it spe- 
cifically. The power lodged in the Governor to dis- 
solve the Assembly was invoked in vain ; the people 
were mainly of one mind that they had an " inherent 
right" to legislation, springing " not from any com- 

* Col. Hist., iv. 621. 

mission or grant from the crown, but from the free 
choice and election of the people, who ought not, nor 
justly can, be divested of their property without their 
consent." In all the long struggle which followed 
and which culminated in the war for independeno^a 
the representatives of original Orange were found in 
the interest of freedom, and gave to the final issue 
its most consistent advocates, its most devoted adher- 

Practically, the organization of the county began in 
1703, when the first session of the court and the first 
meeting of justices acting as aboard of supervisors 
was held.f Such local administration as it had, aside 
from the officers of its precincts, may be briefly stated, 
Minnie Johannes was its first sheriflf, 1685 ; Floris 
Willemse Crom in 1690, Stanley Handcock in 1694, 
John Patersen in 1699, and Theunis Toleman in 1701, 
The latter was not held in very high esteem by Gov- 
ernor Cornbury, who apparently regarded the ability 
of a man to write his own name as a qualification. 
Dirck Storm was the county clerk, or clerk of the 
court, in 1691, and William Huddleston in 1703, 
Judges of the Common Pleas came in in 1701, Wil- 
liam Merritt being the first judge. The first session 
of the court was held at Orangetown, April 28, 1703; 
present, William Merritt and John Merritt, judges. 
The first recorded sessions of justices of the peace, 
acting as a board of supervisors, was held April 27, 
1703 ; present, William Merritt, John Merritt, Corne- 
lius Cuyper, Tunis Van Houton, Thomas Burroughs, 
Michael Hawdon, justices ; John Perry, sheriff; Wil- 
liam Huddleston, clerk ; and Conradt Hauson, con- 
stable. From this time the record is continuous. 

Many franchises were dependent upon population. 
Of this character were surrogate's courts. The first 
law of the province relating to estates gave to courts 
of Common Pleas power to take proof of wills and 
grant letters of administration in remote counties. 
Other counties, including Orange and Ulster, were 
required to transact such business in New York. 
This was changed by act of Nov. 24, 1750, which re- 
lates that whereas, at the time of the enactment of the 
law providing that in remote counties courts of Com- 
mon Pleas should be authorized to take the examina- 
tion of witnesses to any will, on oath, and to grant 
letters of administa-ation, the " county of Orange was 
not considered and esteemed one of the remote coun- 
ties," but that since the passage of the said act "the 
northwest parts of the said county, being nearly one 
hundred miles distance from the city of New York," 
had " increased greatly in number of inhabitants, as . 
well by families removed to those parts as otherwise,!"^ 
who were laboring under "the like inconveniences as 
those of said remote counties;" that therefore the 
judges and justices of the said Court of Common 

t The record book contains this entry : " Kegister kept for Omnge 
County, begun y« 6th day of April, Anno Domini 170S." The earlier 
records were probably kept In New York, to which the county vr* 



Pleas, and the clerk of the said county, be vested with 
authority to take such examinations and issue such 
letters of administration. This arrangement was con- 
tinued until 1754, when William Finn was appointed 
surrogate and a Surrogate's Court established. 

The judicial history of the county properly begins 
with the Court of Common Pleas (1691), the first 
session of which was held at Orangetown, April 28, 
1703. Prior to that time, and for several years subse- 
quent, in some cases, as has been already stated, its 
primary settlements were attached to New York or 
were included in the county of Ulster. The Court of 
Common Pleas was continued until 1847, when it gave 
place to the present County Court. The Supreme 
Court (also established in 1691) held circuits in the 
county after 1703. Its bench was composed of the 
best legal talent of the province and of the State. 
Its circuits were succeeded by the Circuit Courts, 
established by the constitution of 1821, and the latter 
by the judicial system of 1846, when a new Supreme 
Court was organized having general jurisdiction of 
law and equity, and holding at least two terms annu- 
ally of the Circuit Cburt and Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner in each county. Surrogate's Courts have been 
held in the county since 1754. The original county 
was divided into two court districts in 1727, when 
courts were held at Orangetown and at Goshen alter- 
nately, the former being the shire-town. A similar 
division was made in the present county in 1798, 
when Goshen was established as the shiretown, and 
court terms alternated with Newburgh. This division 
is still preserved, and is the only practical surviving 
link between the past and the present, but without 
other use than to serve as a reminder of the wilder- 
ness era, with its log court-houses, dreary forest roads, 
pioneer jurors and pioneer justice, and of the changes 
in the modes of transit, which now render what is 
vulgarly called "half-shire towns" unnecessary. 

The changes which had been made from time to 
time in the precinct organizations of the district, 
which have been already stated, were the outgrowth 
of increasing population and the necessary conve- 
nience of local administration. But their subdivision, 
especially after the war of the Revolution, did not 
entirely meet the emergencies which the rapid in- 
crease of population demanded. The people of New- 
burgh and the neighboring southern towns of Ulster 
County were required to transact their county busi- 
ness at Kingston, while those of ComwalL and the 
northeastern part of Orange we»e compelled to attend 
courts and enter their records at Orangetown. In 
either case the county-seat was thirty miles or more 
distant, and in precisely opposite directions, while 
the facilities for communication, for a large portion of 
the time, were most exceptionable. The inhabitants 
of the western part of Orange were better accommo- 
dated, Goshen being made a half-shire district^ still, 
their records were kept at Orangetolvn, and a consid- 
able portion of their court business was necessarily 

transacted there. To inaugurate the correction of 
these inconveniences a convention of delegates from 
the several towns interested was held at Ward's 
Bridge* on the 6th of April, 1793, but without other 
result than "the agitation of the question, and the 
half-expressed willingnpss of the delegates from Go- 
shen to a union of the northern towns of Orange and 
the southern towns of Ulster in a new county organi- 
zation, with courts alternately at Newburgh and Go- 
shen. A second convention was held at the hpuse of 
John Decker, at Otterkill, in February, 1794, with no 
better result, the delegates from Newburgh being in- 
structed to decline " any union at all" unless it should 
be agreed that a court-house be erected and courts 
held at Newburgh and Goshen alternately,! a propo- 
sition which the Goshen delegates were not fully 
disposed to concede. 

Here the matter rested until 1797, when a third 
convention assembled, similarly composed, at Kerr's 
hotel, in Little Britain. At this convention. Gen. 
Wilkin and Gen. Hopkins, from Orange, and Daniel 
Niven and Isaac Belknap, Sr., irom Ulster, appointed 
a committee to report terms upon which a union 
should be formed, agreed to a stipulation that the 
courts should be held at Newburgh and Goshen 
alternately, and the convention ratified it. The sub- 
ject came before the Legislature in the winter of 1797 
-98. Two bills were presented, — one entitled "An 
Act for Dividing the County of Orange," the other, 
"An Act for Altering the Bounds of the Counties of 
Orange and Ulster." The first was passed on the 
23d of February, and enacted " That all that tract of 
land in the county of Orange, lying northwest of a 
line beginning at the mouth of Poplopen's Kill, on 
Hudson's River, and running from thence to the 
southeastermost comer of the farm of Stephen Sloat, 
and then along the south bounds of his farm to the 
southwest corner thereof, and then on the same course 
to the bounds of the State of New Jersey ,J shall be 
and hereby is erected into a separate county, and 
shall be called and known by the name of Orange ;" 
and " That all that part of the said county of Orange 
lying southward of the above described line shall be 
erected into a separate county, and shall be called and 
known by the name of Rockland." The act also made 
provision for holding courts, fixed the number of 
members of Assembly, etc. The second act was passed 
on the 5th of April following. It enacted "That the 
towns of New Windsor, Newburgh, Wallkill, Mont- 
gomery, and Deerpark, now in the county of Ulster, 
shall be and hereby are annexed to the county of 
Orange," and made provision for holding courts al- 

* Now the village of Montgomeiy. 

t Newburgh Town RecordB, Feb. 1, 1794. 

X Act of April 3, 1801, gives this line as from the middle of Hudson's 
Kiver " west to the month of Poplopen's Kill, and from thence on a di- 
rect course to the east end of the mill-dam now or late of Michael Wei- 
man across the Ramapough Biver, and from thence a direct course to 
the twenty-mile stone standing in the said division line between this 
State and the State of New Jersey." 



ternately at Newburgh and Goshen, the latter being 
the county -seat. 

With these enactments the records of the original 
county were closed, and from the heart of the patents 
and precincts covering the district was erected the 
present county, bearing, under the title of Orange, 
the colonial and Revolutionary history of the territory 
which it embraced, the most populous* and fertile of 
the lands of the original district, and more than two- 
thirds of its wealth,— elements which gave to it imme- 
diate prominence in State and national politics, and 
which, under subsequent and progressive development, 
have maintained its rank among the first counties of 
the State. The boundary lines of the new county 
were definitely fixed by the general law of April 3, 
1801, entitled " An Act to divide this State into 
Counties," as follows: "The county of Orange to 
contain all that part of this State bounded east- 
erly by the middle of Hudson's River, southerly 
by the said county ol Rockland and the division 
line between this State and the State of New Jersey, 
westerly by the river Mongaapt and the division 
line between this State and the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, and northerly by a line drawn from 
a point in the middle of said Hudson's River oppo- 
site the northeast corner of a tract of land granted 
to Francis Harrison and Company, called the five- 
thousand-acre tract, to the said northeast corner, and 
running from thence westerly along the north bounds 
of the said tract and the north bounds of another 
tract granted to the said Francis Harrison to the tract 
of land commonly called Wallace's tract, then along 
the lines of the same northerly and westerly to the 
northeasterly bounds of a tract of land granted to 
Jacobus Kip, John Cruger, and others, commonly 
called Kip and Cruger's tract, then westerly along the 
northeasterly and northerly bounds thereof, and then 

* The population of the original county of Orange, and that part of 
Ulster included in the dlBtrict, was (1790) aa follows : 


Cornwall 4,225 Mamakating 1,763 

Goshen 2,448 Montgomery 3,563 

Haverstraw 4,826 Newburgh 2,366 

Mlnisink 2,215 New Windsor 1,819 

Orangetown 1,175 New Marlborough 2,241 

Warwick 3,603 Shawangunk 2,128 

Wallkill 2,571 

Total 18,492 Total 16,460 

The following were the towns included in the new county, under the 

same census : 


Cornwall 4,225 Montgomery 3,663 

Goshen 2,448 Newburgh 2,365 

Minisink 2,215 New Windsor 1,819 

Warwick 3,603 Wallkill 2 57t 

Total 12,491 Total 10,318 

The census of 1800, immediately following the erection of the new 
county, gave its population as 29,368, and that of the towns not included 
as 14,807, — showing the population of the district at that time to be 

f Originally known as the Miuigwing. Mongaap is presumed to be 
Butch. It is entered on Southier's map, " Mangawping." While the 
old county line ran to the Delaware Biver, the new line stopped at the 
Mongaap ; it was also farther north than the old line. 

westerly to the northeast corner of a tract of three 
thousand acres granted to Rip Van Dam and others, 
thence southerly along the same to the northeast 
corner of a tract of three thousand acres granted to 
Henry Wileman, and running thence along the north 
bounds tiereof to the Paltz River, commonly called 
the Wallkill, then southerly up the said river to the 
southeast corner of a tract of four thousand acres of 
land granted to Gerardus Beekman and others, then 
westerly and northerly along the southerly and west- 
erly bounds thereof to the northeast corner thereof, 
and then northwesterly along the north bounds of the 
land granted to Jeremiah Schuyler and Company to 
the Shawangunk Kill, thence southerly along said 
kill to the north. part of the farm now or late in the 
occupation of Joseph Wood, Jr., thence west to the 
river Mongaap. By act of the 7th of April of the 
same year definite [boundary lines were given to 
the towns composing the newly-constructed county, 
namely : Blooming-Grove, Chesekook, Cornwall, 
Deerpark, Goshen, Minisink, Montgomery, New 
Windsor, Newburgh, Wallkill, and Warwick.! 

The first buildings of the original county were 
erected at Orangetown some time about 1703. At 
the first court of sessions held by justices of the peace, 
April 5, 1703, an examination of the "common goal 
of the county" was ordered and directions given to 
complete the same. By act of the Assembly, Dec. 16, 
1737, " the justices of the peace of that part of Orange 
County lying to the northward of the Highlands" 
were " authorized to build a court-house and goal for 
the said county at Goshen."g This building was 
completed under act of Nov. 8, 1740, by which one 
hundred pounds were authorized to be raised for the 
purpose on the portion of the county already named. 
It was a structure of wood and stone ; was repaired in 
1754, and was torn down in 1775 or 1776, || a new stone 
court-house having been erected. The latter was on 
the site now occupied by the office of the county clerk 
in Goshen. Its erection was provided for under an 
act of the Assembly, March 12, 1773, by which one 
thousand pounds were raised for the purpose on the 
precincts of Goshen and Cornwall. Four hundred 
pounds additional were raised in 1774 to finish it, 
and prisoners were removed to it under act of April 
1, 1775. Meanwhile the old court-house at Orange- 
town was replaced by a new structure in 1704, the 

X From the territory embraced in the towns named the following ad* 
ditional towns were erected: Chester, 1846, from Goshen, Warwick, 
Blooming-Grove, and Monroe; Crawford, 1823, fh>m Montgomety; 
Greenville, 1853, from Minisink ; Hamptonburgh, 1830, n-om Goshen, 
Blooming-Grove, Montgomery, New Windsor, and Wallkill; Mount 
Hope, 1833, from Wallkill, Minisink, and Deerpark ; Wawayanda, 13W, 
from Minisink ; Highlands, fh>m Cornwall, 1872 ; the city of Newburgh, 
1866, from Newburgh. The county now embraces eighteen towns, one 
city, and six incorporated villages. 

g The courts in Newburgh were held in the academy building, the 
upper floor having been specially fitted up for the purpofle. 

Q Fart of the dungeon wall of this structure now forms the south end 
wall of the building known as the Orange Hotel at Goshen, and is the 
only portion that was not removed from its original foundation. 



expense being borne by the " southern part of the 
county." It was subsequently destroyed by fire. 

The court-house and jail erected at Goshen under 
the act of March 12, 1773, came into the present 
county on its reorganization under the act of 1795, 
and with its history, and that of other public buildings 
erected since that time, we are more immediately in- 
terested than in those of the original county. The 
court-house of 1773 stood on the site now occupied 
by the office of the county clerk, the well on the west 
side of the latter building having stood about ten 
feet from the rear of the centre of the court-house. 
There were two periods in its architecture. As orig- 
inally constructed it was two stories high ; its first 
floor contained a hall in the centre, with sheriff's 
office and dwelling-rooms on the west, a dungeon on 
the southeast, and a staircase on the northeast. The 
court-room was at the west end of the second floor, 
the judges' bench facing the entrance ; on the south- 
east were cells for minor offenders. The building was 
plain, and without belfry; its only ornamental fea- 
tures were two windows larger than the others and 
arched, one over the front door on the north side, its 
mate directly opposite on the south side, and the date 
" 1773" worked conspicuously in brick on the east 
wall in lieu of the British crown-stone which had 
been obtained for the place, but which Gabriel Wisner 
demolished with a hammer.* Here were confined 
during the Revolution political offender* or Tories, 
and prisoners of all grades; among others Joshua 
Hett Smith, who was arrested for complicity in the 
treason of Arnold, and who presents in his narrative 
an inside view of the prison at that time. He writes : 
" The jail was filled with those who professed to be 
the king's friends : Tories, and those who were pris- 
oners of war; felons, and characters of all colors and 
descriptions. I was challenged to know if I had any 
hand in the business of aiding the Tory prisoners to 
effect their escape from the dungeon. These were a 
number of persons who were taken in ^rms while 
going to join the king's troops in Canada ; they were 
residents of western settlements where, the country 
being thinly inhabited, they had no jails, or at least 
none that were large and strong enough to contain the 
number of persons who were captured, and who were 
therefore brought to this place for greater security. 
Among them were some of the most daring and hardy 
people, belonging to Col. Brant and Butler's corps of 
whites and Indians. Fifty of these were crowded in 
a small cell, which had a window grated with strong 
bars of iron, and a sentinel to watch it.f Notwith- 
standing his vigilance, however, some implements 
were conveyed to the prisoners, who, in the night, by 

* The tradition is that a controveny arose in regard to the place where 
the stone shoDld be fixed, Wisner, who was a jnstice of the peace, asked 
that it be handed to him and be would place it where no one would ob- 
ject. Holding the stone in the wall, as if to adjust it, he suddenly struck 
it with a sledge and broke it In fragments. He was snbsequently killed 
in the battle of Iftlinisink. 

t The original dungeon of this bnildiug. 

gentle degrees, picked away the mortar from the 
heavy foundation walls, and in the course of one 
night made an aperture large enough to admit a man 
of almost any size to pass through, which they all did 
and effected their escape. Fortunately a few days 
after, several persons came to see me, as well on busi- 
ness as from friendship, and they having interest with 
the deputy sheriff, persuaded him to suffer me to come 
out of my place of confinement, and sit with them in 
the open court-room." As evening approached, he took 
occasion to ask to visit his room a moment ; but in- 
stead of doing so, " when I came near the door of my 
prison, I suddenly turned, and from a wink of my 
servant went down a staircase that was at the side of 
it, and without delay made to the outer door of the 
jail, which not being bolted, I went out." 

The building was changed by the addition of a 
third story, cupola and bell, about the commence- 
ment of the present century. On the new floor was a 
large or main jail-room at the southeast corner, and 
adjoining it on the northeast was a dungeon with one 
grated window so arranged that it could be completely 
darkened. Immediately west of these was a large 
hall separating the rooms on the east side from a jail- 
room on the west and three other rooms, one occupied 
by the county clerk and the surrogate, the others by 
a jailer, and used as occasion required for prisoners. 
The arrangement of the court-room was changed, the 
bench being placed on the northerly side, with the 
prisoners' dock on the right, and seats for jurors on 
both left and right. The building had no basement. 
When prisoners died in it who were confined for 
debt, they were buried under the floor ; or, if on the 
limits, in the prison-yard.J The death penalty was 
inflicted publicly, outside the court-house walls.? 
The building was without special architecture. Its 
length exceeded its depth ; its walls were stone ; its 
roof was hipped ; its ceilings quite high for a struc- 
ture of that period. Its little bell now calls the fire- 
men of Goshen to their duties ; the old stones in its 
walls are incorporated in the walls of the present 
jail ; its historical associations embrace all that is 
now regarded as barbarous in the old judicial system. 

The court-houses now in use at Newburgh and 
Goshen were erected by the present county in 1842, 
and were the result of a compromise on the question 
of erecting a new county, which had been agitated at 

I Among those who were buried under the floor of the building was 
Major Antill, an Englishman of high social rank, who had been im- 
prisoned for debt. Under the law, the body was held until tbe debt was 
paid. In 1876 tbe remains of several persons who had been buried in 
tbe yard were exhumed, in digging a trench, and removed elsewhere, 
giuDiug their final release from the old " limits" through the mercy of a 
laborer's shovel. The remains were not identified. 

g Claudius Smith was executed a few rods in the rear of the court- 
house, at about the point now formed by the southwest angle of the 
Presbyterian church grounds. Teed and Dunning were executed io a 
field just out of town, a mile or so south of the court-house, near what 
is known as Stewart's woods. Peter Crine was hanged in the court. 
I room, and his execution was the first in Orange County under the statute 
decreeing that capital punishment should be more privately admiuistered 



different periods* by the people of Newburgh and the 
northeastern towns. Their erection was inaugurated 
in 1839 by an application to the Legislature, on the 
part of the board of supervisors, for authority to build 
a new court-house at Goshen. This proposition was 
opposed by Newburgh, and the passage of the act de- 
feated. In December following the supervisors at an 
extra session (December 7th) adopted, by a vote of ten 
to four, a resolution to apply to the Legislature for 
power to levy a tax of thirty thousand dollars on the 
county for the building of a court-house and jail at 
Goshen and a court-house and cells at Newburgh, — 
seventeen thousand dollars to be expended in the 
former and thirteen thousand dollars in the latter 
town. The act applied for was passed by the Legis- 
lature in April, 1841, and the erection of the build- 
ings begun soon after. In their external appearance 
they are alike, and were from plans furnished by T. 
M. Niven, architect. The basement of that at New- 
burgh is occupied in part by cells, which are not 
necessary at Goshen, the county jail being a separate 
building at that place. The site of the Newburgh 
building was enlarged to an open square by private 
subscriptions of citizens. 

Originally. the county clerk and the surrogate had 
their offices at their dwellings ; subsequently in the 
reconstructed court-house. At a later period a clerk's 
and surrogate's office was erected on the west side of 
. the site now occupied by the court-house at Goshen. 
It was a small building of brick, and. was moved a 
short distance south in 1842, but in moving its walls 
were cracked, which gave rise to the necessity for the 
erection of the present clerk's office, which was built 
in 1851 and occupied in the fall of that year.f It is 
a brick structure of one story, fireproof, and was oc- 
cupied for some years by the clerk and the surrogate. 
At the annual session of the supervisors in 1873, the 
erection of a building for the use of the surrogate 
and the supervisors was authorized, from plans sub- 
mitted by Cornelius Ackerman, architect, and C. M. 
Thompson and J. H. Vail, appointed as building com- 
mittee. The contract was awarded to Thomas Dob- 
bin, of Newburgh, and the building completed in the 
summer of 1874, at a cost of seven thousand four hun- 
dred and seven dollars and eighty-five cents. The 
structure is of brick, two stories high, and presumed 
to be fireproof. 

The support of the poor of the county and of its 
several towns, with the exception of the town and 

* The first effort for a new county wajs made in 1822, when it was pro- 
posed to give it the nameof" Jackson ;'* the second in 1832, when "New- 
burgh" was fixed upon as the name. The third effort was made in 1858, 
— the Dew county to be called " Highland." The two former were pre- 
dicated upon the refusal of the western towns to consent to the erection 
of a court-house at Newburgh. 

t The resolution for its construction was introduced in the board of 
supervisors in the fall of 1850, by R M, Vail. The contract was awarded 
to Francis Boyd, of Newburgh, architect. The building committee was 
composed of B. M. Vail, of Goshen ; James R. Dickson, of Newburgh ; 
and Daniel Fullerton, of Wawayanda. The coat of the building and 
furniture was six thousand two hundred and fifty dollars. 

city of Newburgh,! is provided for by a county house 
and farm situated about four miles south of the vil- 
lage of Goshen, on the road leading to Florida. In 
the early years of the settlement of the county, this 
support devolved, under the law of 1701, upon the 
several towns and precincts. The relief provided was 
of two kinds : temporary or special assistance to the 
poor, and absolute support where the latter was neces- 
sary. In most cases those of the latter class were 
given out to board with the person who, at the annual 
town-meeting, should propose the lowest rate of com- 
pensation; although in some cases tenements were 
rented for families. Newburgh and Monroe pur- 
chased lands and erected town poor-houses, but they 
were the exception.? As population increased and 
the number of paupers became greater, the distinction 
between town and county poor was established, — the 
latter being provided for by general tax upon the 
county, and the former, which was administered in 
the form of temporary relief, by tax upon the town in 
which it was afforded. Various methods were from 
time to time considered for administering the support 
required for permanent paupers, resulting ultimately 
in the passage by the Legislature (Nov. 27, 1824) of 
an act to provide for the establishment of county 
houses for both town and county poor. This act was 
amended (April 4, 1828) by providing for the submis- 
sion to the people of the towns, at an annual town- 
meeting, of the question of adopting the county sys- 
tem, and, if approving, to so instruct their supervisors 
and file their action with the county clerk. The peo- 
ple of Blooming-Grove were the first to move for the 
adoption of the system in Orange, by appointing, at 
their town-meeting in 1828, a committee to make in- 
quiry in regard to it, and the probable expense of its 
establishment. This committee — composed of Joseph 
McLaughlin, Joseph Moffat, and Robert Denniston — 
made a lengthy report (Feb. 19, 1829), in which the 
results of the system in the county of Ontario were 
presented, and the rapidly increasing poor rates of the 
county dwelt upon, — the expense of supporting the 
town and county poor during the previous year hav- 
ing been as follows : 

Tax for Tax for 

County Poor. Town Poor. 

Walkill $10«3.08 JIOOO 

Deerpark „. 359.59 

Hioisink _ 332.25 400 

Warwick 122.84 900 

Monroe 321.65 350 

Blooming-OroTe 185.54 700 

Cornwall 262.16 450 

New Windsor 119.48 700 

Montgomery 167.82 1000 

Crawford 119.39 400 

Calhoun (Mount Hope) 208.42 250 

Newburgh ™ 263.24 500 

Goshen 391.98 750 

«3917.93 $7400 

Whole annual expense (11,317.93 

It was thought that this expense could be greatly 

X Newburgh withdrew from the connty system by act of March 13^ 

g Report, March 23, 1829. In some instances the poor were sold for 
their own support. 



reduced and a better support provided by the new sys- 
tem, the cost of the establishment of which was esti- 
mated at ten-thousand one hundred and ninety dollars. 
The committee suggested a meeting of delegates from 
the several towns, which was held on their call at 
Goshen on the 22d of March ; John McGarrah, of 
Monroe, chairman, and Stacey Beaked, of Wallkill, 
secretary. This meeting approved the county system, 
and requested the oflScers of the different towns to sub- 
mit the question to the electors at the ensuing town- 
meetings. _ The question was accordingly submitted, 
and, the towns consenting, the board of supervisors 
met at Goshen in October to take such further action 
as was required. At this meeting a committee was 
Appointed to consider and report ; and at a subsequent 
meeting, in November, full powers were given a com- 
mittee to purchase a site, with the necessary land, and 
proceed with the erection of buildings. On the 6th 
of February, 1830, the proposals for erecting the build- 
ings were opened and the contract awarded to John 
H. Corwin and Samuel Bull of Wallkill, for seven 
thousand two hundred and eighty-nine dollars. As 
the general act authorized the expenditure of seven 
thousand dollars only for land and buildings, applica- 
tion was at once made to the Legislature for power to 
raise five thousand dollars additional, and subse- 
^quently for one thousand dollars for land.* At their 
November meeting (1829) the supervisors appointed 
the following persons as the first board of superintend- 
ents: Gilbert Holmes, of Newburgh; Jesse Wood, 
Jr., of Warwick ; Daniel Corwin, of Wallkill, and 
William Smith and John Wilson, of Goshen, who 
Appointed (November) Festus A. Webb, of Minisink, 
keeper, at a salary of five hundred dollars.f The 
terms of the general law were fiilly complied with on 
the 29th of March, 1831, when the house was opened, 
and the distinction between town and county poor 
Abolished except in temporary relief, which was con- 
tinued by the towns. During the eight months em- 
braced in the first report of the superintendents, four 
hundred and thirty-two persons were relieved at an 
•expense of five thousand five hundred and eighty-nine 
dollars and eighty-eight cents ; and the apparent econ- 
omy of the system shown in the statement that for the 
support of the county poor alone, from Dec. 1, 1830, to 
March 31, 1831, had been expended four thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-four dollars and twenty-two cents.! 
The cost of the house, with one hundred and twenty- 
eight acres of land,§ was twelve thousand dollars. 
The original building has been imprpved and others 
•erected at different times, and the property now em- 
braces the main asylum, erected in 1830, fifty by one 
hundred and fifty feet, three stories and a half high, 

* The first act was passed March 3, 1830 ; the second Feb. 9, 1S33. 

t Five superintendents were appointed until 1838; after that, and until 
1857, thre«. In 1867 the number was reduced to one, to be elected by the 
people. James 0. Adams was then chosen. 

I The poor were first brought to the house from different towns in 
April, U3I. 

g Subseqnentl]' increased to two hundred and sixty-three acres. 

with accommodations for three hundred persons; a 
lunatic asylum adjoining on the northwest, erected in 
1848 by Eiley & McFarr, thirty by fifty feet, with ac- 
commodations for about thirty lunatics ; a separate 
building on the south for colored people, erected in 
1865 by B. H. Corwin, with accommodations for one 
hundred persons. || Adjoining the original asylum on 
the northwest is the new asylum for the custody and 
care of the chronic insane, furnished with all modern 
conveniences, — the first of its kind erected in the 
State. Its construction was authorized by the board of 
supervisors, whose attention was called to its necessity 
by J. H. Good ale, superintendent, at a special session 
held Aug. 12, 1874, when the board appointed Messrs. 
D. Thompson, D. M. Wade, and M. Shuit a commit- 
tee to examine the matter, who reported (December 
2d) that the representations which had been made by 
Mr. Goodale were fully sustained ; that at the county 
house thirty insane persons were confined to fifteen 
rooms ; that additional room w6s absolutely required ; 
that the annual expense of maintenance in State asy- 
lums of thirty-eight persons was seven thousand and 
twenty-four dollars, and that it was believed this sum 
could be largely reduced and at the same time the in- 
mates of the house be better cared for by the erection 
of an additional building of sufficient size to accom- 
modate all the chronic insane of the county. 

The report was accepted and the erection of the 
proposed building voted. Plans submitted by John 
C. Sloat, architect, were adopted, and Messrs. Owen, 
Bell, and Shuit, of the board, and J. H. Goodale, 
superintendent, appointed building committee. The 
contract for the building was awarded to Thomas 
Dobbin, of Newburgh ; and the corner-stone was laid 
June 11, 1875. The dimensions of the building are : 
length, eighty feet; width, forty feet; height, four 
and a half stories ; height of ceilings, average ten 
feet; walls hard-finished throughout. A corridor 
fourteen feet wide traverses each story, and the rooms, 
each ten feet ten inches deep by seven feet in width, 
are arranged on either side. It will accommodate 
about one hundred persons. The cost of the structure 
was provided for by certificates of indebtedness, issued 
by the board of supervisors for twenty thousand dol- 
lars, payable five thousand dollars annually. The 
farm now contains two hundred and sixty-three acres, 
of which two hundred are tillable, and is supplied 
with all necessary outbuildings. The present valu- 
ation of the estate is about seventy thousand dollars. 

The first board of supervisors of the present county 
assembled at Goshen, May 28, 1798, and was composed 
of John Vail, Goshen ; Francis Crawford, New Wind- 
sor ; Reuben Tooker, Newburgh ; Anselem Helme, 
Cornwall ; Jacobus Post, Warwick ; Nathan Arnout, 
Minisink ; James Finch, Deerpark ; David Galatian, 
Montgomery; and Andrew McCord, Wallkill. The 
business of the session was confined to the audit of 

11 These buildings are all of stone qtiarried on the farm. 



accounts. In the course of its subsequent history 
there are few salient points. It has erected three 
towns, — Greenville, Wawayanda, and Highlands; 
improved one and constructed two court-houses, — of 
the latter, one at Goshen with jail, and one at New- 
burgh with cells; two county clerk's offices and a 
surrogate's office at Goshen, a county almshouse, and 
a county asylum for the insane. In its expenditures 
it has been prudent, perhaps in the character of its 
public buildings too prudent; but it has never suf- 
fered the credit of the county to be impaired, or its 
people to be oppressed by taxation where the assess- 
ment was under its control. With its powers enlarged 
and entering upon a new political era, its future will 
not be without more marked influence. 



The county of Orange, erected Feb. 23, 1798, is lo- 
cated between 41° 8' S. and 41° 38' N. latitude,— 10' 
E. and 43' W. longitude from the city of New York. 
It is bounded ou the south by Rockland County and 
the State of New Jersey, on the west by the county of 
Sullivan and the State of Pennsylvania, on the north by 
the county of Ulster, and on the east by Hudson's River. 
It is centrally distant ninety miles from Albany, and 
contains eight hundred and thirty-eight square miles. 
The surface of the county is mountainous upon the 
southeast and northwest borders, and a rolling upland 
through the centre. The Kittatinny, or South Moun- 
tains extend in several parallel ranges from the New 
Jersey line northeast to the Hudson, ending in the 
rocky and precipitous bluffs known as the Highlands. 
The Shawangunk Mountains extend from the Dela- 
ware River northeast through the northwest corner of 
the county. Among the principal ridges are the 
Warwick, Bellvale, and Rough and Sterling ranges, 
near the south border of the county, and the Schune- 
munk range. The extreme northwest corner of the 
county is occupied by the series of highlands extend- 
ing from the Delaware River into Sullivan County. 
The central portion of the county, lying between the 
mountain systems, is a rolling upland, broken in many 
places by abrupt and isolated hills and the deep val- 
leys of streams. More than one-half of the entire 
surface of the county is susceptible of cultivation, 
and forms a fine agricultural district. Along the 
southwest border, extending through several towns 
and into New Jersey, is a low, flat region, lying 
upon the streams, and known as the Drowned Lands. 
This tract, consisting of about seventeen thousand 
acres, was originally covered with water and a dense 
growth of cedars ; but a large portion of it has been 
drained and reclaimed, and now forms one of the 
finest agricultural portions of the county. On the 

extreme northwest and forming in part the boundary 
line of the county, the river Mongaap flows south and 
unites with the Delaware. Neversink River flow*! 
south along the west foot of the Shawangunk Moun- 
tains, and forms a tributary of the Delaware, the 
latter stream being for a short distance at this point 
the boundary line of the State. The Pakadasink or 
Shawangunk River flows north along the east foot of 
the Shawangunk Mountains, and forms a tributary 
of the Wallkill. The Wallkill or Paltz River flows 
north through near the centre of the county, and 
forms a tributary of the Hudson at Rondout, in Ulster 
County. Murderer's Creek and its principal tribu- 
tary the Otterkill flow east through near the centre of 
the county, and discharge their waters into the Hud- 
son. Wawayanda Creek flows south into New Jersey, 
and re-entering the county as Pochuck Creek, unites 
with the Wallkill. Ramapo River rises in the south 
part of the county and flows south into Rockland. 
A number of small local streams furnish hydraulic 
power in other parts of the county. The principal 
lakes are Greenwood, Thompson's, Mombasha, and 
Orange, which, with a series of smaller bodies of 
water, add picturesqueness to the topography of the 
county. There are also swamp districts, in addition 
to the Drowned Lands, pf which the Chester meadows 
have been largely reclaimed and are very productive. 


The Highlands are the most prominent of the 
mountain ranges. Approached from the north, to 
the right of the range stands the anciently so-called 
Butter Hill, a title with which Irving embalmed it in 
his famous but fictitious "Knickerbocker" history. 
It is now quite generally known as Storm-king, a title 
bequeathed to it by the poetic fancy of Willis, from the 
fact that for years it has served as a weather-signal to 
the inhabitants of the immediate district. At one 
time a cap of fog upon its crown indicates the coming 
of rain ; at another, clouds are seen rising over the 
Shawangunk range, following its course north and 
south, separating into'two parts, the one passing over 
the Warwick Mountains to the Highlands, the other 
over the hills of Ulster to Marlborough, and both 
joining as it were over Butter Hill, pouring out tor- 
rents of rain, not unfrequently accompanied by rever- 
berating peals of thunder such as one rarely hears 
except in similarly broken mountain ranges. The 
ancient Dutch navigators, noticing the latter peculi- 
arity, preserved a record of the apparently culminating 
point of these peals in the Dunderberg, situated far- 
ther south. Butter Hill has an altitude of fifteen 
hundred and twenty-four, feet. Its ascent from the 
river-front is precipitous ; on the north, however, it is 
crossed by wagon-roads. 

Cro'-nest, adjoining Butter Hill on the south, is the . 
second peak of the range, rising above the Hudson 
fourteen hundred and eighteen feet. Its modern name 
preserves in substance its Algonquin title, which, in 



ancient records, is written Navesing, signifying " a re- 
sold for birds." The name is retained in the Sandy 
Hook highlands and in the Neversink River in Sul- 
livan and Orange, the latter as well as the Hudson 
having on its border a Cro'-nest, — its original Nave- 
sing. Bear Mountain is the third principal elevation, 
rising thirteen hundred and fifty feet above the river. 
Mount Independence forms the background of the 
plateau at West Point, and is crowned with the crumb- 
ling walls of Fort Putnam. Just below, in a gorge 
in the rocks dividing the sites of Forts Clinton and 
Montgomery, flows Poplopen's Kill, at the mouth of 
which the county line leaves the Hudson and from 
thence passes amidst the hills southwesterly. In suc- 
cessive proximity are the elevations known as Black 
Rock and Deer Hill, Ant Hill, Lawyer's Hill, Mount 
Rascal, and Peat, Pine, Cold, and Round Hills. Fol- 
lowing the range we meet Blacktop, Black-cup, and 
Long Hills, the ancient Dutch Dunderberg, Torn 
Mountain, and Cape Hill, Tom Jones' Mountain, and 
Hemlock Hill. To this may be added as objects of 
interest by the way, Kidd's Pocket-book, the Lover's 
Rocking-stone, the Giant's Haunt, the Giant's Slip- 
per, Picnic Rock, Poised Rock, and Erlin's Bluff, — a 
singular mingling of poetic and commonplace titles, 
and suggestive of paucity in proper orthologic terms. ■ 
The Dunderberg and Torn Mountain are east of the 
county line, and, though former residents of Orange, 
now grace the borders of Rockland. In this enu- 
meration they serve the purpose of territorial monu- 
ments. The Torn forms the right shoulder of the 
Ramapo Valley ; its name and its appearance alike 
suggest the violence with which it was upheaved or 
torn from its fellows, although in local acceptation 
"steeple" is understood to explain its title and re- 

No mountain range is so well known in Europe, 
nor is there one with which the history of our own 
nation is so intimately associated. The visitor at 
Westminster Abbey reads there the name of Andr§ ; the 
story of Arnold is sown broadcast through American 
schools. Both point to one centre : the Highlands of 
the Hudson, — the one awakening regret at the fate of 
the young and gifted ; the other nerving the hearts 
of, thousands to love of country. Aside from its his- 
tory, the range has an economic character. It tem- 
pers the winds of the sea-board, and bears upon its 
sheltering breast the fiercest blasts of many storms. 
Of Storm-king and Cro'-nest it has been well said, by 
a recent writer, " They have a charm that might 
induce a man to live in their shadow for no other 
purpose than to have them always before him, day 
and night, to study their ever-changing beauty. For 
they are never twice alike ; the clouds make varying 
pictures all day long on their wooded sides, and no- 
where have we seen more wonderful effects of shadow 
and sunshine. Under the frown of a low thunder- 
cloud they take on a grim majesty that makes their 
bl»ck masses strangely threatening and weird; one 

forgets to measure their height, and their massive, 
strongly-marked features, by any common standard 
of every-day measurement, and they seem to over- 
shadow all the scene around them, like the very 
rulers and controllers of the coming storm. And 
when the sunlight comes back again, they seem to 
have brought it, and to look down with a bright be- 
nignity, like giant protectors of the valley below." 

The Shawangunk range is less broken than the 
Highlands. It continues, with but slight breaks, 
from near Carpenter's Point on the Delaware to the 
Sullivan and Ulster line, and forms the boundary line 
between Deerpark and the towns of Greenville and 
Mount Hope, those being the only towns of the county 
touched by the range. The eastern slope is singularly 
uniform, and is adapted to cultivation to the summit ; 
the western is broken and precipitous, presenting 
peaks fourteen and eighteen hundred feet above tide. 
Few inland landscapes are more beautiful than the 
former. Approached from the east, the eye rests upon 
fields of grain and grass, upturned furrows, the verdure 
of waving trees, and the homes of thrifty husband- 
men, spread out from vale to crest, from south to the 
far north, in unwearying panoramic beauty, — a patch- 
work of gold and green, of brown and gray, of white 
and red, — 

" As though all tints 
Of gem, of bird, of flower, of cloud, of sky, 
Had met and blended in a general glow !" 

The name by which the range is known does not 
strictly belong to it. In the Indian deed to Governor 
Dongan, and in the subsequent patent to Capt. John 
Evans, its principal divisions are given respectively 
the names Pitkiskaker and Aiaskawasting. On Sau- 
thier's map the same divisions are called Alaskayering 
and Shawangunk. Many interpretations of the latter 
have been made. In Mather's " Geology of New York" 
the signification is given as "the place of the white 
rocks;" the late distinguished Algonquin linguist, 
Henry R. Schoolcraft, renders it, "south mountain ;" 
the Rev. Charles Scott, taking Shawangun as the 
original, "south water;" another from jewan, "swift 
current, or strong stream ;" another from shong, " mink 
river;"* an,d another, from cheegaugong, "the place 
of leeks." The error in all these cases, probably, is 
in regarding the term as descriptive of a specific place 
or physical attribute rather than as a generic phrase. 
All writers who have examined the subject are aware 
that Indian geographical terms are of two classes: 
general or generic, and specific or local, and are so com- 
pounded as to present in a single expression a complex 
idea, or several ideas among which there is a natural 
connection. In specific names the combination may 
be simple, as Coxsackie, — co, object, and acke, land ; 
in others intricate, as Maghaghkemek, in which ache, 
land, is buried in consonants and qualifying terms. 
The terminal of a word materially aids but does not 
govern its translation. Uk or unk indicates " place 

* " Shongham" is the local Dutch, and is adopted In SUIinwiiCi Jownal. 



of" in a specific sense, as in Mohunk/ ong, '' place of" 
in a more general sense, as in Warranawonkore^r, tlie 
place or territory of the clan of that name ; i&, ick, eck, 
or uk denotes rocks or stones ; ack or acke, land ; ing 
or ink, something in which numbers are presented, as 
" the place of birds ;" aia, oes, os, aus, denote a single 
small object or place, as Minnisais, a small island, — a 
number of islands, Minnisire^' or ink; ish, eesh, oosh, 
or sh indicates a bad or faulty quality ; co is object ; 
at, at or near. In some cases these root terms are 
thrown into the body of the word, as in Maghagfee- 
mek, Aiaskawasting, etc. General terms have no 
positive reference to the physiology of the districts of 
country to which they are applied. Wawayanda is of 
this class,* and also the term or phrase we are con- 
sidering, which is preserved in two forms : the Dutch 
Shawangunk, and the English Chawangong, — the first 
in translated records of the Esopus war (1663), and 
the second in English deeds, twenty years later but 
practically contemporaneous with the first. The latter 
is known to be correctly written; the former may 
perhaps correspond with the accepted modern orthog- 
raphy rather than with the original Dutch. While 
regarding Chawangong as the most pleasant, and while 
as a rule the English rendering of all Algonquin 
terms is the most correct, the only material diflFerence 
in this case is in the terminal ; the one indicating a 
specific place, the other, place or territory in a general 
sQnse. In the connection in which they are used we 
may, however, accept them, and also Shawan, Chawan, 
and Shuwun, as equivalent terms varied by dialect, 
and so accepting them the interpretation is as plain 
as that of any word in the English language, viz. : 
"the place or territory of the white man." This in- 
terpretation and no other harmonizes with historical 
facts. In no case does ii appear that the term was 
used or known to the Dutch until after they had con- 
quered the district, which then became, under Indian 
law, the place or territory of the conquerors, — liter- 
ally, "the place of the white man." In the treaty of 
peace- (1663) and in its subsequent renewal (1665), 
this recognition is distinctly made. In the latter in- 
strument the boundaries of the conquered territory 
are defined as a certain " parcel of land, lying and 
being to the west and southwest of a certain creek or 
river called by the name of Kahanksen, and so up to 
the head thereof where the old fort was, and so with 
a direct line from thence through the woods and across 
the meadows to the Great Hill lying and being to the 
west and southwest thereof, which Great Hill is to be 
the true west or southwest bounds of the said lands, 
and the said creek called Kahanksen the north or 

* " Wawayanda" is a compound term signifying a Mfirict embracing 
Beveral well-linown and occupied lands, or a vUlage and its dependencies. 
Wa is a reflective plural, and may mean he or titey^ or, by repetition, tee ; 
Aindau-ymin, is " my home ;" Amdau^jun^ " thy home ;" Aiiidau-aitd, " his 
or her home ;" da, " town or village." From these terms we have Wa- 
varyaun-da, — " our homes or places of dwelling," or " our village and 

northwest bounds of the said lands." This was the 
original Shawangunk of the Dutch, — a district em- 
bracing many specific Indian localities, the names of 
none of which were subordinated or disturbed by the 
phrase under which the conquered admitted that paH 
of their territory had become " the place of the white 
man."t That the term has, strictly speaking, beea 
improperly extended to mountain, river, meadow,, 
etc., may be conceded, yet for its history, its poetry, 
and its orthology, we may well consent to let it for- 
ever rest upon Pitkiskaker and Aiaskawasting. 

The Schunemunk range is appropriately described 
as " the high hills to the west of the Highlands." It 
extends from northeast to southwest, and is divided 
longitudinally principally by the boundary line of 
Monroe and Blooming-Grove, with a portion on the 
northeast in the town of Cornwall. It was the origi- 
nal dividing line between the Wawayanda and Cheae- 
kook Patents, and also one of the monuments in the 
line of the Evans Patent. Its name appears in sev- 
eral forms. In the deed to Governor Dongan (1684), 
one of the lines of his purchase is described as run- 
ning " northwest along a hill called SkoonneTioghly^ 
in another paper of the same period it is called Sbllf 
nemoghky ; in a deed to Joseph Sackett (1727), the 
property is described as being on the " south side of 
a high hill called Skonemugh ;" in a deed to Edward 
Blagg (1726) it is spoken of as Schunamock Hill. It 
will be observed that the prevailing orthography 
down to the Blagg deed contains sko, the Algonqoio 
generic term for fire, and that the terminal indicates » 
certain place. From this anaylsis, without con8ide^ 
ing no, na, ne, in the body of the word (signifying excel- 
lent), we have the literal interpretation, "fire place," 
the reference being (as in Skootag, now Schodac) tol 
the principal castle or palisaded village of the clan 
owning the land. This castle stood on the north spur 
of the range. At the time of the sale it was occupied 
by Maringoman and his people, and was known and 
called Maringoman's castle, to distinguish it fi-om the 
wigwam in which he subsequently lived, which was 
situated near Washingtonville. The latter is a land- 
mark in the boundaries of the Mompesson and Rip 
Van Dam Patents, issued subsequent to the Evans. 

North of Schunemunk is Muchattoes Hill, extend- 
ing north and south in the towns of New Windsoi 
and Newburgh. Its name is Algonquin, — muhi, 
black ; at, near or by ; oes, small : signifying literally 
" a small black hill near the river." 

t A general term of this character was applied by the Indians to De- 
troit after the site of that city passed to the possession of the French. 
There is one other possible solution of the name, and that is that when 
the Shawanoes, of Maryland, removed to the territory of the lIinsiM,li 
1694, they were asaigned lands on the Shawangunk range, and through 
what is DOW Sullivan County, and that the name comes from their occo* the country of the Shawanoes. There is still a hill in Sulllni 
called Shawanoes Hill. Our conclusion, however, Is baaed on the pl»' 
Sumption that the name is older than Shawanoes occupation, but of thil 
we have no other evidence than that furnished by O'Callagan and BB* 
head in their rendering of Holland documents. If they have madaN 
error in applying a modprn term to an ancieni date we cannot correct It. 



West of Schunemunk is Woodcock Hill now so 
known, but called Winegtekonk in the patent to Sir 
John Ashurst (1709), and Wenighkonk in the patent 
to Edward Blagg (1726). The present name requires 
no explanation, although a reasonable apology for its 
retention appears to be necessary. 

From Woodcock Hill southwest are a series of ele- 
vations in the following order : Bound Hill, in shape 
like an inverted bowl ; Mosquito Hill, a jagged ele- 
vation ; Rainer's Hill ; Peddler's Hill ; Tom Rocks, 
which are more rocky than mountainous and rise in 
two separate peaks to an elevation of about two hun- 
dred feet above the surrounding country ; Lazy HiU, 
whose gradual slopes, it is presumed, suggested its 
name ; and Goose-pond Mountain. 

At this point rise what are known as the Bellvale 
Mountains ; connecting peaks continue the line to the 
Sterling Mountains on the -south, the Rough Moun- 
tains and Southfleld Mountains on the east, and the 
Warwick Mountains on the southwest ; on the north- 
west are the Taylor Mountains, Bound Hill, Rocky 
Hill, and Pochuck Mountain, filling out the south- 
east and southwest borders of the county with a bat- 
tlement of mountainous elevations.* Pochuck Neck 
and Pochuck Mountain intrude upon the Drowned 
Lands. Pochuck is of course Algonquin corrupted ; 
jto should be pogh as in the original of Ramapo, 
Poughkeepsie, etc. ; uok, as in Mahicanituk, signify- 
ing " large areas of land and water," — a name most 
certainly misapplied to the mountain. Farther north, 
in Warwick, are Mount Adam and Mount Eve, con- 
joined, — the former being much the highest, the lat- 
ter much the longest, — which spring up from the bot- 
tom-lands and the rolling glades surrounding them 
and are picturesque in all their phases. Directly east, 
in Chester, is Sugar-loaf Mountain, which, when 
seen from the north, resembles a sugar-loaf; hence its 
name. Its northern ascent is quite gradual, its south- 
ern broken and precipitous. With its adjacent hills 
it is the apex from which the country descends to the 
north and to the south. It is therefore a very promi- 
nent object for a great distance on either side. North- 
west from Sugar-loaf is Mount Lookout, the principal 
elevation in the town of Goshen, where both hills 
and stones are the exception. 

Scattered through the county are minor elevations : 
the Comfort Hills, on the line between Montgomery 
and Crawford ; Pea Hill, Pine Hill, &xA Sloop Hill, 
in Cornwall; Three-mile Hill and Mount Joy, in 
Wallkill; Rough Bidge and Forge Hill, in New 
Windsor; King's Hill, in Newburgh; Jogee Hill, in 
Minisink, etc., the latter perpetuating in its name the 
name and residence of Keghgekapowell oMaM Joghem, 

* The priDclpal elevationB in Warwick are Hogback, Decker, One Fine, 
and Fine and Hull'a Hilts on the east, Bill and Coxcomb Hills in the 
centre, Long, Cedar, Food, and Bill White's Hills in the southeast. 
Bound, Bocky, and Chuck's Hills iu the south, Pochuck Muuotain, and 
Oreen and Adney's Hills in the west, and Mounts Adam and Eve and 
Bound Hill in the northwest. 

one of the grantors of the lands included in the Evans 
Patent. In Deerpark, Mount William and Point 
Peter form prominent and attractive features of the 
village of Port Jervis. 

The valleys of the county are not less numerous 
than its mountains and streams. That portion of 
Deerpark bordering on the Delaware is but a narrow 
and irregular valley, broken by mountains and tribu- 
taries of the Delaware. The valley of the Neversink 
and Basha's Kill comprises the main portion of the 
valuable and cultivated lands of the town of Deer- 
park. These together are sometimes called the Hu- 
guenot Valley, from the early Huguenot settlers who 
reclaimed it from the Indians ; those portions along 
the Basha and Pinet Kills were long known as the 
Peenpack Valley, — a name corrupted from Neepe- 
nack, the original western boundary of the Swart- 
wout Patent. The Wallkill Valley widens out on 
either side of the Wallkill. It is of singular beauty 
and fertility, and is properly classed among the finest 
bottom-lands of the State. The valley of the Shaw- 
angunk Kill is narrow and crooked. To the east of 
the valley of the Wallkill is that of the Otterkill, 
which for miles runs approximately parallel with the 
former but suddenly turns to the east, and, through a 
winding course amid the hills, reaches the Hudson 
above the Highlands. Throughout this valley, says 
a recent writer, the hills approach and retire in sin- 
gular fantasy, afibrding wide alluvial flats and pent- 
up gorges, gradual slopes and steep declivities, hither 
and thither. At Salisbury it narrows to a gorge of 
rocks, and nearer its mouth it assumes, in picturesque-' 
ness and beauty, the poetic iiame (by Willis) of 
Moodna Valley. Cromeline Valley, through which 
Cromeline Creek passes, has its head in the far east 
of Warwick, from whence it follows the tortuous 
course of the stream from which it takes its name 
until it reaches its junction with the valley of the 
Otterkill, presenting throughout scenes wild and 
beautiful, a surface varied from plain to mountain, a 
soil from rich to poor, smooth to broken and precip- 
itous. Sugar-loaf Valley runs from the mountain of 
that name to Wickham's Pond, and from thence a 
devious course to the village of Warwick, with hills 
and mountains, vales and headlands intersecting; 
from Warwick its course continues south and west 
until it passes out of the State. Bellvale Valley, or 
the lower valley of Warwick, extends from the im- 
mediate vicinity of the village of Warwick southerly 
to Greenwood Lake and the Sussex, N. J., Clove. It 
is an especially rich farming section. The valleys of 
most of the small streams have more or less local ce- 
lebrity. That of the Arackhook or Tinn Brock has 
many patches of beauty, while that of the Quassaick, 
near its confluence with the Hudson, has passed into 
history under the title of " The Vale." 

The principal cloves — so called from the Saxon 

t An affluent of Basha's Kill in Mamakating, Sullivan Co. 



word ckopan, " to split asunder," and meaning " val- 
ley," literally — are known as Blagg's Clove, in Bloom- 
ing-Grove, between the Schunemunk and Woodcock 
Mountains ; Woodbury Clove, in Cornwall and Mon- 
roe, between the Schunemunk and the Highlands, 
now traversed by the Newburgh and New York 
(Short-cut) Eailroad ; and Smith's Clove, extending 
from Highland Mills to the Kamapo Valley. Smith's 
Clove has fame in Revolutionary history from its oc- 
cupancy 'by portions of the American army, and 
as the birthplace of Chief Justice William Smith ; of 
his brother, Joshua Hett Smith,* whose name is as- 
sociated with that of Arnold in the treason at West 
Point, and also of the locally notorious Claudius 
Smith and his equally notorious sons. What relation- 
ship Claudius sustained to the chief justice and to 
Joshua it may not be well to inquire ;t it is sufficient 
to know that in their devotion to the mother-country 
they richly earned the name. of Tory, and that their 
offenses against their Whig neighbors differed only in 

Tortuous cloves from Long and Poplopen's Ponds, 
converging to the south from Black-top Mountain and 
Cat Hollow, give character to Forest of Dean, far de- 
pressed beneath Bear Mountain, where, from the south, 
Two-pond Valley intersects and thence diverges to 
the northeast and reaches the Hudson, forming a 
succession of vales where mountain cliffs and jagged 
rocks occupy the foreground, and abrupt declivities 
and broken valleys fill the picture. To the south of 
Black-rock Hill lies Eagle Valley, — so called from 
local tradition describing it as the resort of the " king 
of birds," — through which, descending as rocks and 
hills permit, in crooked course to the Hudson, the 
waters from Bog-meadow Pond chant their music and 
finally dash over the rocks in foaming spray, forming 
the " Boter Melck Val" of the early Dutch skippers, 
— the Buttermilk Falls of our times. Poplopen's 
Valley — through which pass the waters of Poplopen's 
Creek, the outlet of Poplopen's and other mountain 
ponds — is similarly constituted. Its name is appar- 
ently from that of a Highland chieftain whose rude 
castle once crowned one of the adjacent hilltops. 
The valley of the Bamapo, the largest of the moun- 
tain passes, continues Smith's Clove to the Hudson. 
The term Bamapo was, it is assumed, originally given 
to the entire district as one of " many ponds." The 
original orthography, Bamspook or Eamapogh, how- 
ever, indicates " a river into which empty a number of 
ponds," the application being specific to the river. 

Few districts of country are so bountifully supplied 
with ponds and streams as that embraced in the 

* " A place called Smith's Clove, a valley which took its name from my 
family, as possessing a greater part of the land it contained, as well as 
around its vicinity." — J. H. Smithes Narrative. 

f The latter, in his " Narrative," states that a hrother of his, whose 
name he does not give, resided in the Clove '* about three miles out of 
the main road." 

county of Orange. On hilltops or in valleys, dashin§; 
over rocks, winding through cultivated fields, lying in 
repose, or chained to the service of man in the forge, 
the factory, or the mill, they are not only a source of 
wealth but beautify the landscape. The lake system 
of the county begins in the northern part of the 
Highlands in Cornwall, continues through the towM 
of Highlands and Monroe, culminates in Warwick in 
that beautiful sheet of water known as Greenwood 
Lake, and from thence west and north appears in 
inland reservoirs of various sizes. Cornwall has on? 
pond, Sutherland's ; Bog-meadow Pond, Round Pond, 
No. 1, Long Pond, and Cranberry Pond, No. 1, are 
in Highlands ; Poplopen's Pond, Bull or AgneW 
Pond (also called Wood Lake), Summit Lake, Twrf 
Ponds or Twin Ponds (upper and lower). Slaughter"! 
Pond, Cranberry Pond, No. 2, Greenwood Pond, 
Hazzard's Pond, Round Pond, No. 2, Mombasha 
Pond, Cedar Pond, No. 1, Truedo or Duck-cedat 
Pond, Round Island Pond, Little Long Pond, No. 1, 
Little Long Pond, No. 2, Green Pond, Car Pond, 
Spruce Pond, and Nigger Pond are in Monroej 
Wickham's Pond, Stirling Lake, Cedar Pond, No. 
2, and Greenwood Lake, are in Warwick ; Thomp- 
son's Pond, on the line between Warwick and Chesi 
ter ; Binnenwater or Maretange I'ond, in Greenville; 
Washington Lake, in New Windsor; Orange Lake^- 
in Newburgh ; Big Pond and Little Pond, in Deer- 
park ; and Round Pond, No. 3, in Wawayanda. 

Sutherland's Pond, in Cornwall, lies under the 
shadow of Black-rock Hill, southwest from Cro'-nest, 
and is about half a mile long. Its name — like that 
of others in the series which will be recognized with- 
out special notice — is that of an individual owner. 
Its outlet runs west and south and unites with Mu^ 
derer's Creek, after furnishing the falls that are seen 
near the Cornwall mineral spring. 
■ Bog-meadow Pond, the first in the town of High- 
lands', lies southwest from Black-rock Hill. It 
covers about three hundred acres of land, and has a 
depth of some twenty-five feet. Its outlet dashes 
over the rocks at Buttermilk Falls and reaches the 
Hudson. Round Pond, No. 1, and Long Pond are 
northwest from Highland Falls. The former is more 
elevated than the latter, into which its waters flow; 
the outlet of the latter unites with Poplopen's Creek. 
The waters of Round Pond, in making connection 
with Long "Pond, flow under a natural bridge, the 
breadth of which is fifty feet, and its length, up and 
down stream, seventy-five or eighty feet. It is used 
as a bridge, and one may ride over it without being 
aware of it. There is no daylight under it. The 
stream oti the upper side passes into a cave, and is 
lost to sight until it emerges from another cave on the 
other side. Willis describes it as " a massive porch, 
covering the last stair of a staircase by which a cas- 
cading stream descends into a mountain lake." I| 
differs in situation only, however, from the subterr^ 
nean passage of the outlet of Washington Lake it 



New Windsor. Cranberry Pond, No. 1, is in the 
south part of the town and southwest from Fort 

Poplopen's Pond, in the northeast part of the town, 
and Bull or Agnel's Pond, its neighbor on the south- 
west, are the first of the Monroe series, and lie north- 
west from Forest of Dean. Their waters flow to Pop- 
lopen's Creek. Summit Lake, Two Ponds, Slaughter's 
Pond, Cranberry Pond, No. 2, Greenwood or Echo 
Pond, Bound Pond, No. 2, Green Pond, and Car 
Pond, lie in a chain south-southwest from Poplo- 
pen's ; Cedar Pond and Little Long Pond, No. 1, are 
east, and Spruce and Truxedo Ponds west of the 
chain-line ; Nigger Pond is in the extreme southern 
part of the town. The waters of Two Ponds flow to 
Poplopen's Creek ; those of Summit Lake, Slaughter's, 
Cranberry, No. 2, Greenwood, and Bound, No. 2, are 
united for the use of Greenwood fiirnace, and irom 
thence flow to the Eamapo ; Little Long Pond, No. 1, 
and Cedar Pond, No. 1, send their waters into Bock- 
land County and there unite with the Bamapo, w^hile 
those of Green, Car, Spruce, Truxedo, and Nigger 
Ponds unite with the same stream in Orange. 
Slaughter's Pond is about one mile and a half long 
and half a mile wide, and Cedar and Little Long 
Ponds are of nearly the same size. Truxedo Pond is 
two miles long, north and south. Greenwood, Green, 
Car, Spruce, and Nigger Ponds are small. Bound 
Pond, No. 2, or Little Round Pond, more nearly re- • 
sembles a vast moat than a pond, as a circular wooded 
island nearly fills its circumference. In most cases 
the names of these ponds require no explanation ; but 
of Truxedo it may be remarked that it is apparently 
a corruption of Truxillo, while the surname, " Duck- 
cedar," is a misnomer. Hazzard's Pond, in the north 
part of the town and west from Poplopen's, is about 
half a mile in diameter. Its outlet, Woodbury Creek, 
famishes power to the Highlands Mills ; flows thence 
north through Woodbury Clove and unites with Mur- 
derer's Creek. Bound-island Pond — so named from 
a, round island in it called Chestnut — lies southwest 
from Hazzard's and near the line of Blooming-Grove. 
It is about a quarter of a mile wide and three-quarters 
of a mile long, and is the head of the Bamapo Biver. 
Little Long Pond, No. 2, is nearly south from Bound- 
island and near the Chester line. It is about one 
mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. Its outlet 
furnishes part of the head- waters of Cromeline Creek. 
Mombasha Pond is in the west part of the town, near 
Warwick. It is from one and a half to two miles in 
diameter, and contains two or three islands. Its out- 
let flows northeast and thence south, passing the 
Southfield works, furnishing power for mills and 
forges. Its name is presumed to be a corruption of 
Mombaccus, " the place of death," — the reference ap- 
parently being to a burial-ground or a battle-field. 

The Warwick series begin with Stirling Lake in 
the southeast, covering about sixty acres of land. At 
its outlet was established, in 1751, by Ward & Colton, 

the Stirling Iron- Works, which have been continued 
since that time. Gen. William Alexander, Lord 
Stirling, was interested in the works prior to the 
Bevolution, and from him the works and the lake 
take their name. The outlet of the lake flows into 
New Jersey. Cedar Pond, No. 2,* lying southeast, 
unites its waters with the waters of Stirling Lake, 
above Stirling works. Wickham's Pond, in the north, 
covers an area of about eighty-five acres. Its outlet 
is a tributary of Wawayanda Creek. Greenwood 
Lake is the largest body of water in the town or 
county. It is about nine miles long and one mile 
wide ; extends into New Jersey, and is used as a 
feeder for the Morris Canal. Its original name, Long 
Pond, although descriptive of its shape, was long 
enough in use; its present title is the offspring of 
more cultivated taste. 

Thompson's Pond is in the northwest part of War- 
wick, east of Florida, and extends into Chester. It 
covers an area of about one hundred acres. Its out- 
let furnishes power for grist- and saw-mills, and is a 
tributary of Quaker Creek. It has recently been re- 
christened, and is now entered on the map Glenmere 
Lake, though why "lake" should be added is not 
clear. " Glen" is a depression between hills ; " mere," 
a pool or lake. 

Binnen water, in Greenville, covers about fifty acres, 
and sends its waters to Butgers' Creek. It lies about 
two miles southerly from the village of Mount Hope, 
about one and one-half miles southeast from Finch- 
ville, and about one mile south from the boundary line 
between Mount Hope and Greenville.f At one time it 
was an important landmark, constituting the south- 
west corner of the Evans Patent and the southeast 
line of the Minisink. Haifa century or more later a 
new line was established for the Evans Patent farther 
east, the Minisink angle formed, and the pond ex- 
cluded from the boundary. In the deed to Governor 
Dongan it is described as " a water pond called Mare- 
tange ;" in the patent to Evans it is called Merchary, 
on Sauthier's map, Maretang, — from the German 
" merche," " mericha," an aquatic plant of the genus 
Sippuris vulgaris, having silicious jointed stems. The 
present name is German ; its correct orthography is 
Binnenwasser (one word), signifying " inland water." 
The original title should be restored to the maps of 
the county for its historic associations, or at least 
coupled with its more modern name. 

Bound Pond, in Wawayanda, is emphatically round. 
It lies in the south part of the town, near Gardner- 
ville, and is about one mile in circumference. It 
is clear and fresh, very deep, indeed rej)utedly bot- 
tomless, and has no visible outlet or inlet. 

* The figures inserted after the names of ponds are to distinguish them 
from others of the same name, of which there are several in the county. 
The poverty of the language is so great that the donore of these names 
were probably forced to repetition. 

t This line is the old east-and-west line of the original counties of 
Orange and Ulster. New Windsor and Cornwall are also divided by this 



Big Pond, in Deerpark, is about one mile long 
and half a mile wide. Its outlet, known as Shingle 
Kill, passes south and enters the Delaware at Hones- 
ville. Little Pond, in the same town, lies southeast 
from Big Pond, and is about one-quarter of a mile in 
diameter. Its outlet passes south and forms Old-dam 
Brook, a tributary of the Neversink. 

Washington Lake, in New Windsor, covers seventy- 
six acres, or, including overflowed swamp, one hundred 
and seven acres. Its outlet, for some distance, is sub- 
terraneous, disappearing at the Swallow-hole and 
emerging at the Trout-hole, — a fall of forty feet. The 
Newburgh water-works take its waters. For years it 
was known as Little Pond, and is still so called by 

Orange Lake, in Newburgh, covers some four hun- 
dred acres of land, and is quite deep in places. At 
different times it has been known as Binnenwasser 
(by the Germans), Moose's Pond, Machin's Pond 
(from Capt. Thomas Machin), and Big Pond, the 
latter giving place to its present title. The Algonquin 
name was Qussuk,-^novi rendered Quassaick and ap- 
plied to its outlet. It is fed by two small streams in 
addition to strong springs in its bed. The mill-owners 
on its outlet use it as a reservoir, and during the most 
severe droughts the supply has never been exhausted. 

The whole country is remarkably rich in the lacus- 
trine and marsh alluvions ; indeed, they are more 
abundant than in any other county in the State, there 
being probably forty thousand acres.* The principal 
districts are the Drowned Lands, the Gray-court 
Meadows, Big Swamp in Newburgh, Great Swamp in 
New Windsor, Long Swamp in Warwick, Tamarack 
and Purgatory Swamps in Hamptonburgh, Cedar 
Swamp in Goshen and Warwick, Pakadasiuk Swamp 
in Greenville, Grassy Swamp in Deerpark, Pine 
Swamp in Crawford, Barton's Swamp in Cornwall, 
and the Black Meadows in Chester and Warwick. 

The Drowned Lands extend from the Chechunk 
outlet in Goshen, through Warwick, Wawayanda, 
and Minisink, into New Jersey, and cover in the 
towns named about seventeen thousand acres. They 
are full of islands of great fertility, some of them of 
considerable area. Their names are Pine, Great, Pel- 
let's, Gardner's, Merritt's, Cranberry, Black-walnut, 
Fox, and Seward. An arm of the lands, known as 
Cedar Swamp, extends east to near Orange farm, in 
Goshen. Quaker Creek passes through this arm on 
the north, and Mounts Adam and Eve adjoin it on 
the south. The reclamation of the lands has been 
gradual, and is mainly effected by aq outlet, con- 
structed many years ago, by which a rocky ridge in 
the bed of the Wallkill was avoided. . This outlet has 
worn its way through the soil until from a simple 
ditch it has come to contain the principal, flow from 
the lands. Pochuck Creek, Rutgers' Creek, Quaker 
Creek, and the Wallkill pass through the lands, the 

* Beach's " Cornwall," 175. 

latter for their entire distance in this county. The 
aboriginal name of the district may well have been 
Pochuck, — " a large area of land and water." It ii 
presumed, however, that the Indians had no general 
name, but gave specific titles to different portions «f 
the tract, of which Pochuck and Woerawin only have 
been preserved. The latter appears in a deed to Dr. 
Samuel Staats, in 1703, for a tract not located, but 
described as having been found on examination to be 
" altogether a swamp." The inference from the term 
itself, is that " many good lands" were intended t4' 
be conveyed, — probably the islands already named, ^ 
which then appeared to be worthless. 

The Gray-court Meadows extend from near Cra^ 
ville, in Blooming-Grove, into the northern part of' 
Chester, and embrace about five hundred acres. They 
are now mainly under cultivation and very fertile. 
Their name is that originally given by Daniel Crome» 
line to his tract in the first division of the Waway- 
anda Patent,! of which they are a part. Cromelint 
Creek passes through and drains these meadows. 

The Black Meadows extend through Chester on the 
northwest and into Warwick east of Thompson's 
Pond. They embrace an area of one thousand acres, 
through which runs the Black-meadow Creek. 

The Long Swamp, in Warwick, southwest from 
Edenville, covers about one thousand acres, and is 
drained from the south into New Jersey. 

The Tamarack and Purgatory Swamps, in Hamp- 
tonburgh, are of considerable extent, and are drained 
by a small sluggish stream. The latter is represented 
as having been originally a dismal swamp, from which 
fact Mr. Peter Bull, its owner, gave the name, bestow- 
ing at the same time upon his own residence that of 
Paradise, t 

The Grassy Swamp, in Deerpark, extends from Sul- 
livan County to the Mongaup. It is a low, wet swamp, 
overgrown with long, coarse grass. Grassy-swamp 
Brook passes through it. 

The Big Swamp, in Newburgh, takes its name froiiii 
Big Pond (Orange Lake), which it adjoins. It 
stretches from the Ulster County line to the lake, andl 
was probably originally an extension of the lake to^ 
the well as south of its present borders, which,, 
if all under water, would add three times to its present 
length. Bushfield Creek passes through the swampi 
to the lake. 

The Great Swamp, in New Windsor, lies in the 
northwest part of the town, near Coldenhani. The' 
Arackhook or Tinn Brock passes through it. 

The Great Pine Swamp commences neari Howell'*,, 
on the Erie Railroad, and extends northward and 
eastward seven miles in the town of Wallkill, having 
in its area many oases and cultivated . fg.rpis. Part of' 

t Three of the original divisions of the patQnt,tretain the names 1)^ 
stowed by their proprietors, Tiz. : Goshen, Warwick, and Gray-court. B' 
is perhaps needless to say that the story of an.iqn,,a sign,, and a court te> 
pure fiction. 

1 Eaeer's " Orange County," 811. 



its overflow passes into the Shawangunk Kill, south 
of Bloomingburgh. 

The Little Pine Swamp lies east of .Thompson 
Ridge and Pine Bush, in Crawford, extending north- 
ward into Ulster. Its surplus waters assist in swell- 
ing the volume of the Dwaars Kill. 

The Pakadasink Swamp, in Greenville (on lands of 
Isaac M. Seybolt and others], is the head of the Big 
Pakadasink or Shawangunk Kill, as that stream was 
formerly known and described. The Little Binnen- 
water Swamp, also in Greenville, lies directly south 
from the village of Mount Hope. A small stream 
flows from it southwesterly and connects with the out- 
let of Binnenwater Pond, the latter uniting with Rut- 
gers' Creek. 

The Barton Swamp, in Cornwall, is inconsiderable 
in size, compared with the others named. Peat of a 
fair quality is taken from it. 

Marl and peat beds are found in several localities, 
from which portions and in some cases entire skele- 
tons of the mastodon have been exhumed. The first 
exhumation of record was in 1794, the second in 1800, 
the third in 1803, the fourth in 1805, the fifth in 1838, 
the sixth in 1844, "the seventh in 1845, the eighth in 
the same year, the ninth in 1872. The skeleton of 
1845, exhumed from a marl bed near Coldenham, 
was complete and weighed nineteen hundred and 
ninety-five pounds. It is now in the Boston Mu- 
seum. The one exhumed in 1872, in the town of 
Mount Hope, was also complete. Its weight was 
about seventeen hundred pounds. It is now in the 
New Haven Museum. 

The boundary streams of the county are the Hud- 
son on the northeast, the Delaware and Mongaup on 
the west, and the Shawangunk on the northwest. Of 
the first, the Hudson, it is not necessary to speak. Its 
aboriginal name, Mahicanituk, was that of a particu- 
lar division rather than of the entire stream. The 
principal harbor on it, within what may be called the 
waters of Orange County, is at Newburgh, where it 
expands into a bay one mile and a quarter in width, 
sheltered by the Highlands from " all winds save an 
east-northeast wind," as Hudson wrote in 1609. For 
the convenience of commerce, principal landing- 
places or wharves have been established at New- 
burgh, Cornwall, and West Point, and for more local 
trade at Hampton, New Windsor, Cozzens', Fort 
Montgomery, etc. The water-front of the city of 
Newburgh is without a rival on the river, the channel 
being abrupt and the depth ample to float the largest 

The Delaware, on the west, touches the county for 
only a short distance. Like the Hudson, it had no 
general aboriginal name, — Lenapewihituk being ap- 
plied to it at Philadelphia, while above and below 
Port Jervis it was known and called by the Indians 
Minising, — ^literally " a river of islands."* Beyond 

* Minuit and Mituis are entirely two diffetent words. — the flrat eigni- 
fying Uland, the second wolf. Some writera confuse the terms and give 

rafting it has no commerce at this point, and is 
crossed by railroad and foot bridges. 

The Mongaup River, the dividing line between 
Orange and Sullivan, is properly in Sullivan County, 
the line of Orange running "to" and "along" its 
course. Mr. Quinlan, in his " History of Sullivan 
County," says it was originally known as the Min- 
gap-ach-ka. Mongawping or Mingwing is better au- 
thenticated, — implying a plurality of streams, com- 
prehending the three branches of which it is com- 
posed. Its present name, as already stated, is presumed 
to be Dutch. It appears in the early records, Mon- 

The Shawangunk Kill, on the northwest, has its 
head in Pakadasink Swamp, in the town of Green- 
ville, passes through the town of Mount Hope, and 
upon the line between Ulster and Orange, running a 
northeast course to the Wallkill, in Ulster County. 
Its present name has already been explained. Like 
other streams, — and, it maybe said, all streams, moun- 
tains, etc., — it had no general name, but was specifi- 
cally divided, Achsinink being recorded in one local- 
ity and Pakadasink in another. In the deed to Gov- 
ernor Dongan it is described as "the river called 
Peakadasink," and in the act of 1762, dividing Wall- 
kill Precinct, the line is described as extending 
"to the Pakadasink River or Shawangunk Kill." In 
another paper of nearly the same date, it is said, as 
well understood evidence, "Nothing could more 
plainly point out where that pond lies (Maretange) 
than the river Pakadasink, which takes its rise oppo- 
site to the said pond and extends along the foot of 
the said hills from a place called Pokanasink, and 
from that place to the head of the said river, 
and nowhere else, the said river is called by that 

How the river lost a name so well established is 
explained by the papers relating to the bounds of 
the Minisink Patent. Having succeeded in spreading 
their line, the proprietors of that patent found it 
necessary to obliterate its old landmarks. A general 
change of names ensued : Maretange Pond was lo- 
cated on Sam's Point ; the Big and Little Pakadasink 
Kills (the latter now called the Little Shawangunk 
Kill) were shifted to the same vicinity, and to make 
the whole apparently and entirely consistent, two 
small streams in Crawford received the names respec- 
tively of Big and Little Pakadasink, that it might not 
be missed in its ancient neighborhood. The original 
name contained equivalents signifying "swamps," and 
being generic, may be applied wherever the corre- 
sponding topography exists.f 

The principal streams passing through or entirely 

the latter as the derivative of Minisink. The explanatory tradition that 
either name originated from the breaking through of the waters at the 
Delaware Water Gap is not well founded. 

tit -will be observed by those familiar with the district that the to- 
pography in this case corresponds almost precisely. It Is not assumed 
that the name is in itself improperly applied to its present locations ; it 
is strictly correct. 



included in the county are the Neversink, the Wall- 
kill, the Otterkill or Murderer's Creek, and the Ram- 

The Neversink receives its head-waters from north- 
western Ulster and northern Sullivan. It runs south 
and southeast into the town of Deerpark to near 
Cuddebackville, and thence turns south and south- 
west until it joins the Delaware near Carpenter's 
Point, where it is about two hundred feet wide. It is 
a never-failing stream. Its name has been explained 
in another connection. Its principal tributaries are 
Basha's Kill and Old-dam Brook (Ouwe-dam Kill). 
The former rises in Sullivan County, and is about 
seventy feet wide. Its name is from an Indian squaw- 
sachem called Basha Bashiba, who lived on its banks, 
near Westbrookville.* Old-dam Brook is the outlet 
of Little Pond. Its name is from an old dam erected 
upon it by Indians or beavers, which caused its waters 
to overflow a large tract of land. About half a mile 
above its junction with the Neversink, it falls over 
six hundred feet in the course of a mile, and is called 
Fall Brook. 

The Wallkill rises in Wantage, Sussex Co., N. J., 
flows through the Drowned Lands into Orange, where 
it forms the dividing line between Warwick and Min- 
isink, Goshen and Wawayanda, Hamptonburgh and 
Wallkill, passes through the town of Montgomery 
into Ulster County, and thence to the Hudson River 
at Eondout. Its course is northeast, the plane of ele- 
vation upon which it runs being from Sussex County 
in New Jersey, descending gradually to near Esopus 
in Ulster. It is a durable stream, and furnishes ex- 
tensive hydraulic power throughout its course. Its 
current is not rapid, except at Walden, where it 
passes over a fall of about forty feet.+ Its aboriginal 
name is not known, but the presumption is in favor of 
Warranawonkong. Its present name is unquestion- 
ably from the Huguenots or Walloons who settled 
New Paltz, it being repeatedly entered in the records 
as " the Walls or Paltz River."| Its principal branched 
are the Long-house-Wawayanda-Warwick-Pochuck 
Creek, Quaker Creek, Rutgers' Creek, Tinn Brock, 
McCorlin's Kill, Muddy KUl, and Dwaars Kill. 
Long-house Creek rises in New Jersey, and runs 
north until it receives the outlet of Wickham's Pond ; 

* Quinlan's " History of SnlliTan County," 423. In the Swartwout 
Patent the stream is called the Assawaghkemcck, from " waaea," light 
or foaming, and " eck," rocks,— literally, the " light waters," reference 
being made to the fall. " Basha's Kil" is Dutch. " Basha's land" vfas 
one of the boundaries of the Minisink Patent, 1704. She was not a 
mythical character. 

f The fall at Walden was called Hasdiscb by the Indians, — a term in 
which " dangerous" is expressed. 

X This explanation of the origin of the name by the Bev, James B. 
Wilson, D.D., is fully sustained by the records discovered since be 

It may be added that, although now written Wallkill, the name is 
strictly two words, maile and kU. In this work the local orthography has 
been followed in Wallkill, Otterkill, etc., as being too ttrmly established 
to su£fer correction. The word "creek," applied to a stream of water, 
is quite as incorrect aa " kill ;" yet Webster admits its use to be estab- 
lished " in some American States." 

from thence it forms the Wawayanda or Warwfl 
Creek, and flows southwest through the village! 
Warwick into New Jersey, where it becomes Pochucl 
Creek, returns to the county, and unites its waten 
with the Wallkill in the Drowned Lands. The names 
which it bears are explained in other connectiom, 
with the exception of " Long-house," the European 
title for the peculiar dwellings which the Indians (». 
cupied, one of which stood upon its banks.g Quaker 
Greek has its principal head in Thompson's Pond. 
It flows west, forms the boundary line between Goshen 
and Warwick, receives several small tributary streams, 
and unites with the Wallkill in the Drowned Lands. 
Rutgers' Creek has its extreme western head in the 
town of Greenville, flows thence southeasterly to 
Waterloo Mills, in Minisink; thence northeast to 
Rutgers' Place, where it unites with its northern 
head. The latter rises in Wallkill, flows thence sonth 
to Millsburgh, receiving in its course the outlet of 
Binnenwater Pond and Binnenwater Swamp, and 
Boudinot's and Tunkamoes ("small stream") Creeks, 
in Wawayanda and Minisink. From Millsburgh it is 
the boundary line between Wawayanda and Minisink, 
It enters the Wallkill at Merritt's Island. Its name 
is from Anthony Rutgers, || one of the proprietors of 
the Wawayanda Patent, from whom also Rutgers' 
Place (the residence of the late Dr. M. H. Cash) 
takes its name. Boudinot's Creek,1[ its largest afflu- 
ent, flows through Greenville to the southeast comet 
of Mount Hope, thence southeast to its junction in 
Wawayanda. Monhagen Creek flows southeast 
through Middletown and enters the Wallkill north- 
east from New Hampton. It is now the source from 
which Middletown is supplied with water. McCo^ 
lin's Kill, or McNeal's Kill,** rises in Crawford, flows 
south, passes through Mechanictown, and enters the 
Wallkill one mile and a half above Stony-ford bridge, 
Dwaars Kill has its rise in the town of Wallkill, 
flows northeast through Crawford, and enters the 
Wallkill in Ulster County. Its name is Dutch (origi- 
nally Dwaars Stroom), and means " a stream that 

g These dwellings were formed by long, slender hickory saplioga lit 
in the ground in a straight line of two rows, as far asunder as they in- 
tended the width to be, and continued as far aa they intended the lanfft 
to be. The poles were then bent forward in the form of an arch tDd 
secured together, giving the appearance of a garden arbor. Split pol* 
were then lashed to the sides and roof, and over these bark was placed. 
Rarely exceeding twenty feet in width, these dwellings were someUiM 
six hundred and fifty feet long, and were occupied by an indefinite iniB» 
ber of families. 

I There is not the slightest foundatien for the statement (Eager, 118) 
that Bulgers " is an English corruption of Rutkys, the Indian namt" 
The lallxr is a corruption of the former, and a very bald one. Kutg«» 
was a member of the Assembly, 1726-27. 

<[ Mr. Eager enters the name " Bandegot." It now appears on tin 
maps " Indigot." The correct orthography is Boudinot, from IBllS 
Boudinot, a proprietor of the Wawayanda Patent. Boudinot would DOt 
have deemed it possible his name could be so transposed. 

•* Mr. Eager (346) gives the name " McCormick's Kill," and ^5Q I 
"McCorlin's Kill." The latter has been entered on the maps oflbl 
county. We are informed that the stream was known years ago H 
" McNeal's Kill," from John McNeal, who had a grist-mill on it as salV 
probably as 1760, McCorlin is a mythical pemn. 



runs across" or unites " with another."* The Tinn 
Brock wa3 called by the Indians Arackhook or Akh- 
gook, the Algonquin term for snake, the reference no 
doubt being to its extremely sinuous course, which 
resembles the contortions of a snake when thrown 
upon a fire. Its present name is from the Saxon 
words Tkijnne, " thin or small," and Broc, " running 
water less than a river," — ^a small brook. It rises in 
New Windsor, south of Coldenham, but does not take 
its nalne until after it crosses the Cochecton turnpike, 
runs north and west, and enters the Wallkill half a 
mile below Walden. Muddy Kill (Dutch, Modder 
Kil, — literally. Muddy Kill) flows from the eastern 
slope of the Comfort hills and runs south to the Wall- 
kill above Montgomery. The mischievous chorogra- 
pher now writes its name " Mother Kill." 

The Otterkill rises in the north part of Chester, 
and passes through the East Division of Goshen into 
Hamptonburgh, where it was called Denn Creek,t 
from Christopher Denn, one of the proprietors of the 
Wawayanda Patent. At La Grange it flows upon 
nearly the same level with the Wallkill, the two 
streams being within a mile of each other at this 
point. Through Hamptonburgh it runs around the 
base of the hills in the form of a half circle ; thence 
into Blooming-Grove, and in a serpentine course 
through Washingtonville to Salisbury Mills, where, 
meeting the mountain ledges, it passes over a fall into 
a deep chasm, which it follows through rocks and 
crags and continues to the Hudson. Its name is pre- 
sumed to have been bestowed from the otters which 
were found in it at the early settlement of the county. 
Its largest tributaries are Cromeline Creek, Gold- 
smith Creek, Colemantown Creek, Beaver-dam Creek, 
Schunemunk Creek, Woodbury Creek, and Canter- 
bury Brook. Cromeline Creek receives its principal 
head-waters from Little Long Pond, No. 2, in Mon- 
roe; flows thence through Chester and the western 
part of Blooming-Grove to its junction with the Ot- 
terkill in the northwest part of the latter town. 
Schunemunk Creek rises in the southeast part of 
Blooming-Grove; flows northwest and northeast 
around the hills, and joins the Otterkill above Wash- 
ingtonville. On some maps it is called Satterly's 
Creek. .Woodbury Creek has its principal head in 
Hazzard's Pond, in Monroe. It receives the outlet of 
Sutherland's Pond; flows northeast through Wood- 
bury Clove, and enters the Otterkill at Orr's Mills, 
in Cornwall. Canterbury Brook rises in the Cornwall 
Highlands; flows northeast through the village of 
Canterbury, and enters the Otterkill {under the name 

» " The Dwaare Stroom unitea with or flows across the WallkiUi heDoe 
the name indicatee that fact or circumstance, and becomes the charactei^ 
tatic of the river."— Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan. The tradition given by Eager 
(334), that the name is from an Indian chief, has no other foundation 
than the possibility that there was an Indian niclinamed Dwass. 

t The following from the Mapes' deed (1727) established the early use of 
, both titles : " Lying on the west side of the Otterkill, known as the Den- 
nekiU." The latter may well be preserved aa a memorial of the fii^t 
settler on that part of the Wawayanda Patent, 

of Idlewild Brook) near the Hudson. Goldsmith 
Creek rises in Little Britain and runs south to the 
Otterkill above Washingtonville ; Colemantown Creek 
also flows south and enters above the same place. 
Beaver-dam Creek rises in Montgomery, and passes 
south through low meadows from near Goodwill 
Church to its junction at Campbell Hall. Its head- 
water is a spring of several yards in diameter and of 
unknown depth ; its name is from an old beaver 
damj near Campbell Hall. From its junction with 
Cromeline Creek east to the Hudson, the Otterkill 
loses its name and is called Murderer's Creek and the 
Moodna, the latter a Willisian designation. To the 
early Dutch traders it was known as the " Waora- 
neck;" subsequently, as the "Martelaer's Back 
Creek ;" after 1656, as " the Murderer's Creek." It is 
assumed by some writers that the latter was derived 
from its immediately preceding title, signifying a 
baffling, struggling reach or course in the navigation 
of the Hudson, bounded on the north by this creek 
and on the south by Martelaer's Rock, opposite West 
Point ; by others, that it was bestowed as a memorial 
of some act of hostility by the Waoranecks during 
the early Indian wars ; but superior, in local estima- 
tion, to philology or probability, is the explana- 
tion given by Paulding in his beautiful tradition of 
Naoman, his faithfulness and his fate, pointing un- 
waveringly to Maringoman as the author of a horrid, 

Quassaick Creek is composed of the outlet of Orange 
Lake and of the Fostertown and Tent Stone Meadow 
Creeks. It flows southeasterly through the western 
part of the town of Newburgh, and forms the bound- 
ary line between the city of Newburgh and the town 
of New Windsor. Its name (Quassaick) signifies 
stony brook. Its water-power is very durable and is 
largely emplojred. Fostertown Creek rises in Ulster 
County, and flows southerly through the central part 
of the town of Newburgh. It is called Fostertown ' 
Creek until it reaches Gidneytown, when it takes the 
latter name. Tent Stone Meadow Creek rises in a 
large swamp in Ulster County, known many years 
ago as the Tent Stone Meadow. It flows southerly 
and empties into the Quassaick at the Powder Mills. 
Bushfield Creek, one of the feeders of Orange Lake, 
and necessarily of Quassaick Creek, rises in a swamp 
in Ulster County, known as the Stone Dam Meadow. 
Its original name was Beaver-dam Creek. 

X From the remains of the dams which they constructed, the streams of 
the county apparently abounded in beavers at the time of the discovery, 
though now extinct. 

g " In ancient Dutch days it was known aa the Martelaer's Back, or 
Martyr's Beach. The Dutch navigators divided the river into reaches, to 
which they gave descriptive names. They found here (West Point) a 
rooky point nearly at right angles with the current, and, when sailing 
with a fair west wind, encountered, on passing it, the wind ' dead ahead,* 
compelling them to heat or struggle with it. Hence the name Martelaer, 
signifying contending or struggling. The tradition which converts the 
name into a memorial of deeds of violence, on the part of the Indians, is 
entirely worthless." — J, J, MojielVa Hand-book, 



The Ramapo River has its head in Round-island 
Pond in Monroe, and flows thence southerly through 
Ramapo Valley into Rockland County. It receives 
the outlets of thirteen of the mountain ponds already 
named: Round-island, Summit, Slaughter's, Cran- 
berry, No. 2, Greenwood, Round, Little Long, Cedar, 
Green, Car, Spruce, Truxedo, and Nigger. It enters 
the Passaic River near Pompton Plains, N. J. There 
is no stream in the world like it. 

Poplopen's Creek is composed of the outlets of 
Poplopen's, Round, No. 1, Long, Bull, Cranberry, No. 
1, and Two Ponds. Its course is southeast to the 
Hudson. Queensborough Brook and Sickbosten's Kill 
(now called Stony Brook) are its tributaries. 

The tributaries of the Hudson, aside from those 
already named, are small streams, principally in New- 
burgh. The Neversink and the Shingle Kill flow into 
the Delaware in Deerpark, — the former at Carpenter's 
Point,* and the latter at Honesville. Grassy-swamp 
Brook, in the same town, unites with the Mongaup ; 
the latter unites with the Delaware about six miles 
northerly from Carpenter's Point. The Little Shawan- 
gunk Kill and the Big and Little Pakadasink are 
tributaries of the Shawangunk. One branch of the 
former rises half a mile easterly from the village of 
Mount Hope, and is met, about a mile east from that 
village, by a branch from the town of Wallkill ; flows 
thence through the town northeasterly until it strikes 
the line of the town of Wallkill ; thence northwest 
to its junction with the Shawangunk in the latter 
town. It was originally known as the " Little Paka- 
dasink," as has been already stated. The present Big 
Pakadasink and Little Pakadasink are in the town 
•of Crawford, and flow north to the Shawangunk. In 
the Crawford dialect they are called the Big and the 
Little " Paugh-caugh-naugh-sing," the most prolix 
orthography of the original name on record. 

The islands of the Hudson lying opposite the lines 
of the county are Poleber's, now called Pallopel's ; 
Martelaer's Rock, now Constitution, and Manaha- 
waghkin, now called lona. Though not under the 
jurisdiction of the county, their position in its water- 
scape entitles them to recognition in its topography. 

Newburgh is in 41° 30' north latitude, and is ele- 
vated one hundred and fifty feet above tide-water. 
From observations made for thirteen successive years, 
the mean temperature has been found to be 50° 10' 
In Goshen, situated in latitude 41° 20', and elevated 
four hundred and twenty-five feet above tide-water, 
observations made for eight years show a mean tem- 
perature of 49° 16'. Difierence between Newburgh 
and Goshen ninety-four minutes. At Newburgh the 
period between frosts, though variable, has been known 

* Apoint of land made by the junction of the Neversink and the Del- 
aware Bivers, just south of Port Jerris. The Tri-States Bock, marking 
the boundary between New York, New Jersey, and PennsylTania, is' on 
this point. 

to be from the 5th of May to the 29th of September^ 
one hundred and forty-six days. At Goshen frosii 
have been noticed as late as the 1st of June, and ag 
early as the 20th of September,— one hundred and 
eleven days. Difierence between periods of fi:o4 
thirty-five days. At Newburgh the shadbush bloomed 
April 24th, the peach April 23d, the plum May Ist, 
the cherry April 27th, the apple May 6th ; strawber- 
ries ripened June 10th ; haying commenced July 4th; 
wheat harvest commenced July 17th ; the first killing 
frost September 29th. At Goshen the shadbuaji 
bloomed April 27th, the peach April 28th, the plum 
May 4th, the cherry April 29th, and the apple May 
9th ; haying commenced July 8th ; the wheat harvest 
July 21st ; the fiist kil ling frost September 20th. The 
observations made at Newburgh show the temperature 
of the eastern part of the county, while those made 
at Goshen may be applied to the central. On the 
eastern slope of the Shawangunk range, representing 
the western part of the county, the temperature ig 
from two to four degrees less than at Newburgh ; at 
the top of the range full five degrees less. 

The temperature of the eastern and southern por- 
tions of the county is afiected in some degree by the 
shelter afforded in tbe mountain ranges ; the former 
also by the tides of the Hudson. The Highlands, for 
many years exempt from taxation by reason of their 
unfitness for cultivation, are an incalculable advan- 
tage to Newburgh, New Windsor, and Cornwall ; they 
efiectually break the force of all winds save from the 
east-northeast. Thousands of invalids may be found 
in those towns, as permanent residents or as boardei^ 
brought thither by this peculiarity in situation. The 
poet N. P. Willis, from his experience of twenty yean 
as a consumptive, found no language too strong in 
which to commend the hygienic virtues of the High- 
lands. The entire mountain system of the county 
has more or less effect on its climate. In the economy 
of nature, currents of air gather around the ranges; 
are forced upward to a lower temperature, and pre- 
cipitation ensues, while the atmospheric condensation 
produces a local heat beyond the natural temperature. 
For this reason most of the cloves are more temperate 
than their elevation and latitude would otherwise 
warrant ; those opening towards the south especially 


Probably no county in the State presents more in- 
teresting geological features than Orange. The rocks 
of the Highlands are granite, gneiss, and sienite, 
with veins of trap. The central portions of the 
county are occupied with strata of Hamilton shalep, 
Helderberg limestones and grit, Medina sandstone, 
and the gray sandstones, all extending from the 
northeast to the southwest, from the east foot of the 
Shawangunk Mountains. The rocks which compose 
the Shawangunk Mountains are the shales and the 

f Horton's and Mather^s Surveys consulted. 



sandstones of the Chemung group. The red shales 
and grits of the Catskill group are seen at the falls of 
the Shingle Kill in Deerpark. The Erie division are 
found from the Delaware River, along the west side 
of Mamakating Hollow. Some of the rocks of this 
division, near Port Jervis, are upturned at a high an- 
gle ; others, towards Cuddebackville and Ellenville, 
are more indurated and seem almost trappean. The 
geological series descend southwest to the primary 
rocks of the Pochuck Mountains. The Helderberg 
division extends through the county, on the Mama- 
kating Valley, by Cuddebackville, to Carpenter's 
Point on the Delaware. The limestones of this di- 
vision are all upturned, often at a very high angle, 
in the town of Deerpark, where they form a range of 
low mountains, rising from the level of the Never- 
aink to half the elevation of the Shawangunk. A 
limestone, containing fossils of this division, is also 
found in the town of Cornwall, between the village 
of Canterbury and Salisbury Mills. Its position is 
between the slate and grit rock ; its dip is to the south- 

The Shawangunk grit of the Ontario division ex- 
tends on the top of the Shawangunk Mountains from 
New Jersey to near Kingston. The thickness of 
these grits varies from sixty to one hundred and fifty 
feet. They have been used as millstones, known as 
" Esopus millstones."* A pyritous grit, in the form 
of bowlders, is scattered over the county. Eocks 
similar in character to the Shawangunk grit, and the 
interstratified and overlaying red rocks, extend from 
the Jersey line on the west side of Greenwood Lake 
northeast to Canterbury in Cornwall. They are also 
found at Pine Hill. This hill is primitive, and here 
the grit rock inclines against it and rests upon it. 
The grit rock is regularly stratified, and dips to the 
southeast ; is of all colors from white to red. It ex-" 
tends from Round Hill four miles, to Woodcock 
Mountain. It is also found in the southeast base of 
Schunemunk, interstratified with graywacke and 
slate; also at Pine Hill. Here the rock is red, 
and can be quarried in blocks suitable for building. 
The Bell vale Mountains, in Warwick, on the south- 
east side, are composed of graywacke ; also the Schune- 
munk in Blooming-Grove, the Goose-pond Moun- 
tain, and the Sugar-loaf. Quarries of blue and red 
stone abound in Schunemunk and Pine Hill. 

In the Champlain division is the " Hudson River 
series — slate group," — which consists of slates, shales, 
grits, limestones, breccias, and conglomerates, — some- 
times designated as graywacke slate, graywacke 
shale, graywakce, and slaty graywacke. They con- 
tain facets and testacea, of which a few are seen 
at the falls of the Wallkill, near Walden, at Orange 
Lake, and at Sugar-loaf The Hudson River group 
of rocks occupies a large extent of the surface of 

* These millatonee were the first that were quarried in the province, 
and were regarded aa superior to those imported from Europe. 

the county. Its general direction is northeast and 
southwest. Its dip is uniform to the southeast, in 
some places thirty degrees, in others nearly vertical. 
It extends from the Hudson River through Warwick 
to the Jersey line, and on the west side of the Wall- 
kill, from New Jersey to Ulster County ; and in all 
this range there is no rock resting upon it. It forms 
the bank of the Hudson River from Cornwall Land- 
ing to four miles above Newburgh, and it is always 
seen stratified with graywacke and graywacke slate. 
In this form it is found at Walden, below Montgom' 
efy, in Mount Hope, at Newburgh, and towards Hamp- 
ton. In the town of Warwick, near the Jersey line, 
it forms a cuneiform termination, the limestone sur- 
rounding it on both sides. From this the argillite 
' widens into an elevated ridge of rich land, called 
Long Ridge, which extends into Goshen. It forms 
the surface rock of most of Goshen, Blooming-Grove, 
parts of Cornwall, New Windsor, Newburgh, Mont- 
gomery, Hamptonburgh, Crawford, Wallkill, and in 
Mount Hope and Minisink, quite to the top of the 
Shawangunk Mountains. The Utica slate is found 
on the banks of the Hudson, above Newburgh. It is 
of dark color, and in some places black, and highly 

The Trenton limestone is found near Mount Look- 
out ; also in the town of Hamptonburgh, where it is 
full of the fossil shells of the very early periods of 
animal life. In that neighborhood it is called the 
"Neelytown limestone." Black River limestone is 
found a few miles from Goshen, Mount Lookout 
being entirely composed of it. It is also found on 
Big Island, in the Drowned Lands, on Pochuck Neck, 
and in Minisink west of the Drowned Lands. A 
blue limestone, sometimes sparry and checkered, 
commences on the bank of the Hudson at Hamp- 
ton ; it is about one mile in width northwest and 
southeast, and passes southwesterly through New 
burgh into New Windsor, disappearing in the vicinity 
of Washington Lake. The elevated point of this rock 
at Hampton is in the vicinity of the Dans Kammer. 
It is also found east of Salisbury Mills in Cornwall, 
and is visible through Blooming-Grove and Warwick 
to the State line ; also in the north part of Monroe, 
north of Greenwood Furnace, and extends southwest 
to near Greenwoqd Lake; also in Cornwall, near 
Ketcham's Mill, and in Goshen, two and a half miles 
from the village, extending from the Wallkill south- 
west to Glenmere. The western edge of this bed 
underlays the Drowned Lands, and passes along the 
northwestern margin of the white limestone of War- 
wick ; here it divides into two branches on each side 
of the primitive rock, and passes into New Jersey. 
This limestone also interlocks with the argillite 
ridges, as at near Goshen. Limestone of the oolitic 
character is found on Big Island, near New Milford, 
and on Pochuck Neck. The edges, of that found in 
some perpendicular clifis at the latter place are ex- 
posed in layers one above the other ; some are of 



the usual character ; others are oolitic, but the round 
granules are bluish-white quartz; others slaty, ap- 
proaching the calciferous state, and others are of a 
ribbon-like appearance. 

Below the New York transition system lies the 
"Taconic system," consisting of slates, limestones, 
and granular quartz rocks. Slate rocks of this sys- 
tem are found four miles north of Newburgh, near a 
small hill of granite rock. The limestone between the 
Highlands and Goose-pond Mountain, and also about 
Bellvale, belong to this system. Metamorphic rocks 
consist of limestones that are granular, dolomitized, 
and stratified, — color, white, blue, and red ; of slates 
that are talcose, argillaceous, micaceous, and horn- 
blende ; and of sandstones that are changed to gran- 
ular quartz rocks, eurite, and gneiss; In their several 
deposits all the changes from the gray and blue lime- 
stone are traced into the perfect crystallized limestone, 
containing the various crystallized minerals, which 
give them their metamorphic character. There is a 
white limestone of this variety ranging from Mounts 
Adam and Eve, in Warwick, to Andover, in New 
Jersey. It is developed in a succession of narrow 
ridges of only a few rods in width, and is separated 
by masses of other rocks of granite, sienite, and 
granular quartz. Hornblende rock and augite are 
scattered all around. This white limestone is rarely 
stratified, and in some places runs into the blue and 
gray limestone, which is fossiliferous in some in- 
stances and oolitic in others. The white limestone 
forms the shore of the Drowned Lands at Amity. 
In some localities it is snow-white, translucent, and 
compact, like Parian marble. Plumbago and mica 
are found in it, and also a great variety of minerals. 
Northeast of the Amity church, on a small knoll, are 
found calcareous spar, rhomb spar, yellow brucite, 
xauthite, talc, black and ruby spinelle, cocolite. 
About one mile southwest of Amity is specular iron 
ore and serpentine ; veins of scapolite are found south- 
west of this place, and about a mile north the lime- 
stone is filled with brucite of various colors, magnetic 
oxide of iron, hornblende, and serpentine. At the 
south base of Mount Eve, in an old mine-hole, fine 
crystals of green and brown hornblende are found. 
At another place is a vein of arsenical iron. The 
same kind of limestone is found near Fort Mont- 
gomery, in the Highlands (in the gorge through 
which the creek passes into the Hudson), at or near 
Forest of Dean ; thence it is traced by way of Little 
Round Pond towards Greenwood Furnace and across 
the Ramapo. It is also seen southwest of Queens- 
borough Furnace in limited extent. These beds also 
contain the minerals above named. 

The primary rocks of the county consist of gneiss 
and hornblende granite, sienite, limestone, serpen- 
tine, augite, and trappean. Among these rocks there 
are no continuous ridges of mountains of more than 
a few miles in length, in consequence of the interrup- 
tions caused by the dislocations and the lateral up- 

heavals of masses of the strata. Ridge succeeds ridge, 
each of which runs out and diminishes until it disap- 
pears below the rocks of a more recent origin. 

The primitive rocks extend from Butter Hill to 
Fort Montgomery, thence along the line of the 
county to New Jersey, thence to Pochuck Mountain, 
embracing a large part of the towns of Warwick, 
Monroe, Highlands, and Cornwall; part of New 
Windsor, Newburgh, Blooming-Grove, and the south 
part of Goshen. Woodcock Mountain, Round Hill, 
Peddler Hill, Goose-Pond Mountain, Sugar-loaf and 
Sugar-loaf Mate, Brimstone Hill, Muchattoes Hill^ 
Mount Adam, Mount Eve, and Pochuck Mountain, 
are composed of this series. 

Granite is found at the foot of Butter Hill suitable 
for quarrying ; sienite at West Point, on the east side 
of Bear Mountain, and at the base of Butter Hill. 
Gneiss abounds in all the Highlands, and has been 
quarried at Butter Hill, Cro'-nest, West Point, But- 
termilk Falls, and between that and Fort Montgom- 
ery. Mica slate, or micaceous gneiss, is found one 
mile north of Fort Montgomery, and at the foot of 
Cro'-nest. Augite rock is found between West Point 
and Round Pond; also in Monroe, south of Cedar 
Pond ; near Slaughter's Pond, Green Pond, and Mom- 
basha Pond, and near the O'Neil, Forshee, Clove, 
Rich, and Forest of Dean mines. Greenstone trap is 
found near Truxedo Pond. Granular greenstone is 
found at Cro'-nest and at Butter Hill. Hornblende 
rock is found in large strata, and quartz rock is in 
every hill and mountain of the Highlands. In the 
town of Monroe is a bed of the latter four rods wide 
rising fifteen feet above the gneiss on each side. Ser- 
pentine is found at the O'Neil and at the Forshee 
mine, and there is a large bed of it in the town of 
Warwick. Crystallized serpentine is also found in 
Warwick in the white limestone. Scapolite is found 
at Amity ; also, blende of minute, red, brilliant prisms, 
with adamantine lustre. Yellow garnet is found at 
Edenville. A species of soapstone is found at the 
Clove mine in Monroe ; magnetic pyrites, mica, and 
hornblende; at the Rich iron-mine. Large sheets of 
mica are found southwest of the Forshee mine.. In 
the latter mine are found beautiful red garnet, brown 
tremoline, cocolite, and umber. The O'Neil mine 
abounds with a great variety of beautiful minerals, 
among which are crystallized magnetic ore of great 
brilliancy and beauty, magnetic pyrites, copper, py- 
rites, carbonate of copper, serpentine, amianthus, as- 
bestos, brown spar, rhombic spar, augite, cocolite, 
feldspar, and mica. 

West of the village of Canterbury is a bed of hem- 
atite ore, on the late Townsend farm. Two beds of 
arsenical iron are found in Warwick : one in a vein 
near Mount Adam, and the other near Edenville. 
The latter contains arsenical pyrites of a white silver 
color, in connection with arsenic, sulphur, and iron; 
also red oxide of iron. This vein is connected with 
the white limestone. An ore of titanium is also found 



in Warwick, associated with augite and scapolite. An 
ore of cerium occurs near Fort Montgomery. 

The primitive rocks of the Highlands abound in 
ore of the magnetic oxide of iron. The granite 
gneiss more generally contains it in layers having the 
lines and bearing of the rock. At West Point the ore 
is associated with hornblende. Meek's mine, Kronk- 
ite's mine, Eound Pond mine, Forest of Dean mine. 
Long mine, Ps>tterson mine. Mountain mine, and a 
group of mines around it, and Crossway mine, all 
abound in this ore, of rich quality. A bed of titan- 
iferous iron ore is located on the east side of Bear 
Hill ; magnetic ore at the lower landing at Fort 
Montgomery, mixed with the sulphuret of iron ; also 
at the place called Queensborough ore-bed, within a 
mile or two of Queensborough Furnace. In several 
localities of the Shawangunk grits are found veins of 
lead. Beds of lead ore have been opened at Eden- 
ville, and also in the towns of Deerpark and Mount 
Hope.* Zinc ore has also been found, exceeding in 
quality the lead. A copper-mine was opened near 
Otisville in 1866, and worked for about a year, show- 
ing good ore but in small quantities. 

The mines which have been opened in the beds de- 
scribed, and some of which have been named in other 
connections, are the Stirling mine, in Monroe, opened 
in 1781.t Its ore is very sound and strong, and has 
been much used for cannon. Part of its ore is bare, 
and part of it slightly covered with soil and rocks. 
It embraces a surface of about thirty acres. One and 
a half miles southwest of the Stirling is the Belcher 
mine, supposed to be a prolongation of the Stirling 
mine. Long mine and Red mine are farther south ; 
the ores of the latter are magnetic and full of pyrites. 
East pf Stirling Pond are the Mountain mine, the 
Crossway mine, and the Patterson mine. About a 
mile south of the village of Monroe is the Clove mine, 
the ore of which is magnetic, granular, and compact ; 
a portion of it soft, in a black powder, and can be 
taken out with a shovel. Southeast of the Clove is 
the O'Neil mine, in the midst of granitic gneiss and 
sienite. Half a mile southwest of this is the Forshee 
mine, permeating the whole hill upon which it is 
located. About five miles southeast of Monroe is the 
Rich mine, the ore of which is strongly magnetic, 
rich, and abundant. The Smith mine is between 
Cro'-nest and Butter Hill ; its ore is a native magnet ; 
it has not been worked of late years. The Townsend 
mine of hematite ore is in Cornwall, about two miles 

* The principal lead.minea that have been opened are in Iklount Hope 
and Deerpark. They are known as the Brie, at Gujrmard ; the Wallkill, 
two and a half milee northeast of Guymard ; the Champion, Washington, 
Hammoth, Mount Hope, and Central. Of these, hut two, the Erie and 
the Walklll, haTe erer been extensively worked. The lead of the Erie 
mine is argeuUferous, and at times the yield of silTer pays running ex- 
penses, leaving the lead a clear profit. The works are within a few rods 
of the Erie Bailroad. 

t The Stirling iron-works were established in 1761. This mine was 
discovered in 1780 and opened in 1781. The works are now connected 
with the Erie road by a branch from Stirling Junction. 

and a half west from Canterbury. Its ore is lean, 
but makes excellent iron. It is mostly in powder or 
small fragments, mixed with balls of the hematite of 
a few pounds' weight. Forest of Dean mine was 
opened as early probably as 1761. It lies west from 
Fort Montgomery. The QueensboroughJ mine lies 
south from Forest of Dean ; it has not been worked 
to any extent. Greenwood mine, in Monroe, lies 
north of the Erie road. Its yield is consumed by 
Greenwood Furnace. 

Traditions of lead, tin, silver, and even gold mines, 
in the Highlands, are quite prevalent, while on the 
Schunemunk range and in other places the carbon- 
aceous slates have been pretty thoroughly examined 
from presumed indications of veins of coal. The 
early European adventurers evidently made a very 
complete examination of the entire district in the 
hope of striking the precious ores. Some magnificent 
magnetic pyrites, however, was their only reward, as 
it has been of equally sanguine but more recent 

The soils of the county vary with the geological 
features of the different sections. The district known 
as the primary, in most of its higher elevations, is not 
susceptible of cultivation, owing to the rough and 
broken state of the surface and the naked character 
of the rocks. At the base of the Highlands are out- 
cropping hills, and the surface, though broken, is 
productive, and in many instances presents beautiful 
farms. In the district of the Hudson system of slates 
and limestones, though irregular and broken, its 
slaty or shaly beds and sandstone and limestone 
rocks furnish a soil favorable to the growth of grain 
and grass. Above the Highlands this district di- 
verges from the river to the southwest quite into the 
State of New Jersey. No part rises into mountains, 
yet there are steep bluffs, but not higher than three 
hundred feet. West of this lies the belt of land to the 
Shawangunk Mountains, stretching across the county 
from Crawford to the Jersey line, in which the soil 
partakes of the grits and shales of this series, giving 
peculiar features and qualities to the surface. 

In this connection it may be remarked that the 
most striking feature of the Shawangunk range, as 
presented to the eye, is the fact that the surface of its 
eastern or southeastern slope bears abundant evidence 
that the great glacial or ice age witnessed the passage 
from it of an enormous glacier, which ground up the 
rocks until the soil was produced which is now so 
highly cultivated, while its western or northwestern 
slopes remain rocky and untillable, bearing nothing 
but forest-trees and minerals. This peculiarity exists 
in the range even beyond the limits of the county; 
and the glacier marks, so plainly visible, afford a 

X Queensborough mine takes its name from a tract of one thousand four 
hundred and thirty-seven acres granted to Gabriel and William Ludlow, 
Oct. 18, 1731, and to which they gave the name. The name is now fre- 
quently but wrongly written Queens&ur^; the sufiBx should be borough, 
signifying, in its appHcalioD, Queen's Hill. 



means of judging of the kind of plow that dug out 
the beds aud valleys of the Wallkill and the Shawan- 
gunk Kill. 

Throughout the county the existence of large masses 
of bowlders, the origin of which can only be referred 
to distant places, furnishes evidence that in many 
sections the soil has been the result of drift deposi,ts. 
Below the city of Newburgh, the drift bed, containing 
bowlders and pebbles that are scratched, overlies the 
abraded rocks, and is in turn overlaid by clay beds, 
sand, and gravel, in regular courses. Bowlders, erratic 
blocks, and scratched rocks abound on the High- 
lands. The bowlders are formed mostly of granites 
and gneiss ; occasionally one of graywacke, showing 
unmistakably its transportation from a great distance ; 
their accompanying friable deposits now enrich the 
mountain cloves. Aside from their contributions to 
the soil, many of the drift deposits are valuable, — the 
sand for casting or moulding, smoothing and rubbing 
stones used in lithography, blotting sand, and for 
mortar and glass ; the clays, for pottery and brick. 

The soil of the plateau adjoining the Hudson, 
forming a semicircle from the Highlands to the 
Dans Kammer, is gravelly, sandy, clayey, — a mixture 
forming a warm and fertile loam. The surface rises 
gradually to Orange Lake, then descends to the 
Wallkill. The soil of the Wallkill Valley is pecu- 
liarly rich and fertile. Much of it is alluvium, inter- 
mingled with clay, sand, and gravel. In the town of 
Wallkill the soil is more diversified ; in some places 
it is clayey and of no great depth above the rock ; 
in others gravelly, and again sandy and elevated. 
Through Goshen and Warwick it partakes more of 
clay and sand loam, with slight intervals of gravel. 
Approximating the State line, the primitive forma- 
tions of Mount Adam, Mount Eve, and Pochuck 
Mountain change the constituents, but not to detract 
from its fertility. Some of the most rich and pro- 
ductive soils in the county are found in the islands of 
the Drowned Lands. West of the Wallkill Valley 
the soil is affected In its constituents by the Shawan- 
gunk range of mountains, and is generally a clayey 
loam, well adapted to grass. In some parts it becomes 
slaty and warm ; in others it is shaly and covered 
with fragments of rocks. In Deerpark is a range of 
soil, brought down from the adjacent hills and upper 
country, that is very fertile and easy of cultivation; 
and, though it has been under the plow nearly two 
centuries, it still ranks with the most productive 
lands of the State. The valley of the Otterkill is a 
sandy and gravelly loam, partly alluvial. 



The military history of the county obliges us to 
return again to a recognition of the territory from 
which it was taken, being component parts of Ulster 

and Orange. At best the earliest militia rolls are 
imperfect. They serve, however, as far as they go 
to show organizations, and, inferentially, the names 
of pioneer settlers. Beginning with that portion of 
the county which was taken from Ulster, we find that 
the first military organization within its limits was 
made prior to 1738, and was composed of two com- 
panies of the regiment of which A. Gaasbeck Cham- 
bers was colonel, Wessel Ten Broeck lieutenant- 
colonel, Coenradt Elmendorf major, and Cornelius 
Elmendorf quartermaster.* The first of these com- 
panies was known as "The Foot Company of Military 
of the Precinct of the Highlands ;" the second as 
" The Company of Militia of the Wall a Kill." The 
following were their muster-rolls in 1738 : 

"A Lialof the first company of Militia of the prewnk of the Higlhtmls wtdtt 
the command of Capt. Thoma* Elliton : 

Capt. Thomas EllisuD. David Oliver. 

EDBign John Toung. Arthur Beaty. 

Sergt. David Davids. Matthew Davis. 

Sergt. Mosee Gaiitson. John NicoU, Jr. 

Sergt. P. McCloghery. Alexander McKej-. 

Corp. Jacobus Bruyn. Robert Sparks. 

Corp. Jaa. Stringham. Jeuriali Quiclc. 

' Corp. Jonah Hazard. Thomas Quicl£. 

Clerk, Chas. Clinton. Jacob Gillis. 

John Umphrey. Joseph Simsjn. 

Alexander Falls. James Clark. 

David Bedford. John Clark. 

William Coleman, Lodewick Miller. 

Joseph Sweezer. Peter Miller. 

Thomas Coleman. George Weygant. 

John McVey. William Ward. 

John Jones. William Ward, Jr. 

Patrick Brodeiick. ,Tohn Mattys Kimhecg. ■ 

Joseph Shaw. William Smith, Jr. 

Caleb Curtis. James Edmeston. 

William Sutton. Tobias Weygant. 

Jeremiah Foster. Jerry Manse. 

Chai les Beaty. Thomas Johnston . 

Amos Foster. Casparis Stymas. 

Alexander Foster. John Monger. 

James Young. James Luckey. 

James Nealy. Thomas Williams. 

Robert Feef. Johannis George. 

Joseph Butterton. Jeremiah Tompkins. 

Samuel Luckey. Isaac Tompkins. 

John Markham. William Watts. 

John Read. Josiah Ellsworth. 

Joseph McMikhlll. James Ellsworth. 

David Umphrey. Anthony Preslaer. 

James Gamble. Jonathan Tomkius. 

John Gamble. Robert Banker. 

Cornelins McClean. Thomas Fear. 

John Umphrey, Jr. Frederick Painter. 

James Umphrey. Moses Elswoith. 

Peter Mulinder. John Marie. 

Robert Burnet. Jonathan Owens. 

Archibald Beaty. Andrew McDowell. 

Daniel Coleman. Total 86." 

"A List of the Company of Militia of tlie WaU a KiU under Uie command of 
Capt. Joh» Bayard. 
Capt. John Bayard.f Ensign William Kelso. 

Lieut. William Borland. Sergt. John Newkirk. 

• The regiment was composed (1738) of nine companies, which w«i» 
located as follows : Kingston, 3 ; Marbletown, 1 ; Wallkill, 1 ; Hurley, 1 ! 
Rochester, 1 ; New Paltz, 1, and the precinct of the Highlands, \.—Doc. 
Uitl. N. Y., iv. 226, etc. 

+ Correction has been made In orthography of names in cnsps whew 
known, and the modern adopted. 



Corp. John Miller. 
Lendert Coll (Cole). 
Corneline Cole. 
Baroat Cole. 
Jofan BobeBon. 
James Gilleepie. 
Thomas Qillespie. 
John Wilkina. 
William Wilkine. 
Andrew Graham. 
George OUomi. 
John North. 
John North, Jr. 
Samuel North. 
James Toung. 
Bobert Toung. 
Matthew Young. 
Jamefl McNeill. 
John McNeill. 
Andrew Borland. 
John Borland. 
John McNeill, Jr. 
James Crawford. 
John Crawford. 
Alexander Milligan. 
Nathaniel Hill. 
Alexander Kidd. 
Archibald Hunter. 
Jamee Hunter. 
John Wharry. 
John Mingus. 
Stephauus Crist. 
Jacob Bush. 
Benjamin Haines. 
John McNeill, Sr. 
Matthew Rhea. 
■William Crawford. 
Bobert Hunter. 
James Monell. 
George Monell. 
John Monell. 
William Monelt. 
Thomas Neils. 
Bobert Neils. 
John Neils. 
Matthew Neils. 
Nathaniel Colter. 
John Neily, Jr. 
Joseph Buttletown. 
Thomas Coleman. 
Joseph Shaw. 
Patrick Broderick. 
William Soutter. 
John Butterfleld. 
John McVey. 

John Jones. 

Joseph Knapp. 

Isaiah Gale. 

Caleb Enapp. 

Bobert McCord. 

William Faulkner. 

Israel Bodgers. 

Jeremiah Bodgers. 

James Bodgers. 

James White. 

John Manley. 

Francis Falls. 

Cronamus Felter. 

Bichard Gatehouse. 

John Boyle. 

Bichard Boyle. 

Bobert Hughey. 

Bubert Buchanan. 

James Eager. 

Thos. McColIum. 

Sojornaro Her. 

John Haven. 

McKim Clineman. 

Jury Burger. 

Hugh Flanigan. 

Benj. Bennet. 

Patrick McPeck. 

John Eldoris. 

Patrick Gillespie. 

John Lowry. 

Samuel Smith. 

Joseph Theal. 

James Crawford. 

Joseph Sutter. 

David Craig. 

Edward Andrews. 

Samuel Ci'awford. 

Andrew McDowell. 

Philip Millspaugh. 

Cronamae Mingus. 

Stuffel Mould. 

Johannes Crane. 

John Young. 

Hendrick Newkirk. 

Frederick Sinsabaugh. 

Cornelius Wallace. 

Hendrick Crist. 

Tunas Crist. 

Lawrence Grist. 

Mathias Millspaugh and his 

John Jamison. 
John McDonald. 
James Davis. 

Total, 114." 

From the original county of Orange the following 
return appears : 

" A List of the Officers and SoldierB belonging to the Begiment of Foot Mi- 
litia in the Ooun^ of (h-angSt in the Province of New York, consisting qf 
eight Oompaaies of Foot, whereof Vincent Malhewa is Ootl 

Vincent Mathews, col. Michael Jackson, adjt. 

Solomon Carpenter, lient-col. James Thompson, q.m, 

George Bemsen, m^j. 

First Company. 
Bam. Bemsen, capt. Three corporals. 

Corns. Smith, lieut. One drummer. 

Ebenezer Smith, ensign. Sixty-three private men. 

Three sergeants. In all, 73. 

Seookd Company. 
Saml. Odell, capt. Three corporals. 

Henry Cuyper, lieut. One drummer. 

Benj. AlhsoD, ensign. Fifty^eight private men. 

Three sergeants. In all, 68. 

Third Coufant. 

John Holly, capt. 
Michael Dunning, lient 
Sol. Carpenter, Jr., ensign. 
Three sergeants. 
Three corporals. 

Fourth Company. 

One drummer. 

One hundred and eleven pri- 
vate men. 
In all, 121. 

Jacobus Swartwout, capt. 
Johannes Westbrook, lieut. 
Johannes Westbrook, Jr., en- 
Three sergeants. 

Three corporals. 
One drummer. 

Fifty-five private men. 
In all, 65. 

Fifth Company. 

Nathaniel Du Bois, capt. 
David Southerland, lieut. 
Isaac Hennion, ensign. 
Three sergeants. 

Three corporals. 
One drummer. 
Sixty-three private men. 
In all, 73. 

Sixth Company. 

Abm. HariDg, Jr., capt. 
Garret Beanvelt, lieut. 
John Haring, ensign. 
Three sef-geants. 

Three corporals. 
One drummer. 
Sixty-two private men. 
rn all, 72. 

Srventh Company. 
Jacob Vanderbilt, capt. Three corporals. 

Andrew Onderdonk, Heut. One drummer. 

Aaron Smith, ensign. Fifty private men. 

Three sergeants. In all, 60. 

Troop op Horse. 

Two corporals. 
One trumpeter. 
Fifty-two private men. 
In all, 60. 

Henry Youngs, capt. 

William Mapes, lieut. 

Michael Jackson, cornet. 

Two sergeants. 
*' The total, 595 officers and soldiers. Sub>officers, 56 foot. 
"June 20,1738." 

The Ulster regiment was divided, in 1756, into two 
regiments, the first (or northern) embracing Kings- 
ton, etc., and the second (or southern) embracing the 
precincts of Highlands, Wallkill, and Shawangunk, 
and in this form took part in the French and Indian 
war of 1656. In September, 1773, the southern regi- 
ment' was under the following officers, viz. : Thomas 
Ellison, colonel ; Charles Clinton, lieutenant-colonel; 
Cadwallader Colden, Jr., major ; and Johannes Jan- 
sen, adjutant. The first company in the regiment 
was located in Newburgh, and was composed as fol- 
lows, viz. : Jonathan Hasbrouck, captain ; Samuel 
Sands, first lieutenant; Wolvert Acker, second lieu- 
tenant ; Cornelius Hasbrouck, ensign ; four sergeants, 
four corporals, one drummer, and one hundred and 
forty-one privates.* 

What changes, if any, occurred in the Orange 
County regiment cannot be stated, except inferen- 
tially. It appears to have been divided, the com- 
panies of which Abraham Haring and Jacob Vander- 
bilt were captains forming the nucleus of a regiment 
in the Orangetown district (now Rockland). 

On the 22d of August, 1775, the Provincial Con- 
gress of New York passed a law under which the 
militia of the Revolution was organized. This law 
provided that counties, cities, and precincts should be 
divided by their respective local committees, so that 
in each district a company should be formed " ordi- 

* The names of non-commissioned officers and privates are not em- 
braced in the report. 



narily to consist of about eighty-three able-bodied 
and eflfective men, officers included, between sixteen 
and fifty years of age ;" the officers to consist of one 
captain, two lieutenants, one ensign, four sergeants, 
four corporals, one clerk, one drummer, and one fifer. 
The several companies so formed were directed to be 
"joined into regiments, each regiment to consist of 
not less than five nor more than ten companies,'' 
which should be commanded by " one colonel, one 
lieutenant-colonel, two majors, an adjutant, and a 
quartermaster." The regiments were to be classed in 
six brigades, under " a brigadier-general and a major 
of brigade,*' and the entire force was to be under the 
command of one major-general.* 

When the organization was perfected, the counties 
of Ulster and Orange formed the fourth brigade, un- 
der Brig.-Gen. George Clinton. t This brigade was 
composed of five regiments in Orange County, com- 
manded respectively by William Allison, of Goshen, 
Jesse Woodhull, of Cornwall, John Hathorn, of War- 
wick, A. Hawkes Hay, of Orangetown, and Abm. 
Lent, of Haverstraw ; and of four regiments in Ulster 
County, commanded respectively by Johannes Har- 
denbergh, of Kingston, James Clinton, of New Wind- 
sor, Levi Pauling, of Marbletown, and Jonathan 
Hasbrouck, of Newburgh. Territorially, our inquiry 
is confined to Col. Allison's, Col. Hathorn's, and Col. 
Woodhull's regiments in Orange, and Col. Has- 
brouck's and Col. Clinton's regiments in Ulster, al- 
though it will be understood that Col. Hay's and Col. 
Lent's regiments were in what was then Orange County. 
The territory in Col. Allison's regimental district in- 
cluded Goshen and the western part of the county ; 
Col. Hathorn's embraced Warwick and the southern 
settlements ; Col. Woodhull's embraced Cornwall 
(then including Monroe and part of Blooming-Grove) ; 
Col. Hasbrouck's embraced Newburgh, Marlborough, 
and Shawangunk ; and Col. Clinton's embraced New 
Windsor, Montgomery, Crawford, and Wallkill. The 
rosters and muster-rolls of the regiment cannot be 
obtained, and all information in reference to them is 


William Allison, colonel. 

Benjamin Tneten, lieutenant-colonel. 

Goshen Co.— 1775— George ThompsoD, captain; Joseph Wood and Coe 
Gale, lieutenantB; Daniel Everett, Jr., ensign. 1776 — William 
Thompson, Be9ond lieutenant, and Pbineaa Case, ensign, vice Coe 
Gale and Daniel Everett, .Tr., transferred to Minute Company under 
Capt, Moees Hatfield. 

Wawayanda Co.— 1775 — William BlaJr, captain ; Thomas Wisner and 
Thomas Sayne, Jr., lieutenants; Richard Johnson, ensign. 

Drovmed Lands Co. — 1775— Samuel Jones, Jr., captain; Peter Gale and 
Jacob Dunning, lieutenants ; Samuel Webb, ensign. 

* Proc. Prov. Conv., 104, 114, etc. 

f This brigade should not be confused with the special brigade which 
was organized under Gen. Clinton in August, 1776, which was composed 
of "all levies raised and to be raised in the counties of Westchester, 
Duchess, Orange, and Ulster" (Proc. Prov. Conv., 503), nor with the com- 
missionissued to him by the Continental Congress in March, 1777. 

Chester O).- 1775— John Jackson, captain; John Wood and Jamet 

Miller, lieutenants ; James Parshal, ensign. 
Pochuck Cb.— 1775— Ebenezer Owen, captain ; Increase Holly and John 

Bronson, lieutenants ; David Rogers, eneign. 1776— Increase Holly, 

captain; David Rogers and James Wright, lieutenants; Charles 

Knapp, ensign. 
West Side, WallkUl Go.— Hid— Gilbert Bradner, captain; Joshua Davla 

and James Dolsen, lieutenants ; Daniel Finch, ensign. 
MiniMink Co.— 177S — Moses Kortright, captain; John Van Tile and 

Johannes Decker, lieutenants; Epbraim Medaugh, ensign. 1777— 

Mertinus Decker, second lieutenant, vice Johannes Decker. 


John Hathorn, colonel. 

Warioick Co. — 1775 — Charles Beardsley, captain ; Richard Welling and 
Samuel Lobdell, lieutenants; John Price, ensign. 1776 — John Min'- 
thom, captain, vice Beardsley, deceased ; Nathl. Ketcham and Georgs 
Vance, lieutenants; John Benedict, ensign. 

Pond Co. — 1775 — Henry Wisner, Jr., captain ; Abm. Dolson, Jr., and 
Peter Bartholf, lieutenants; Matthew Dolson, ensign. 1776 — Abm. 
Dolson, Jr., captain ; Peter Bartholf and John Hopper, lieutenanfi; 
Mathias Dolson, ensign. 1777 — Peter Bartholf, captain ; John De 
Bow and Anthony Finn, lieutenants; Joseph Jewell, ensign. 

Sterling Co.— 1776 — John Norman, captain; Solomon Finch and William 
Fitzgerald, lieutenants; Elisha Bennett, ensign. 1777— Heniy 
Townsend, captain ; William Fitzgerald and Elisha Bennett, lieu- 
tenants; Joseph Guukliog, ensign. 

Florida Co. — 1775 — Nathaniel Elmer, captain; John Popino, Jr., and 
John Sayre, lieutenants; Richard Bailey, ensign. 1776 — John Ken- 
nedy, lieutenant, vice Poplno. 1777 — John Sayre, captain ; John 
Kennedy and Richard Bailey, lieutenants; John Wood, ensign. 

Wantage CD.—1775— Daniel Rosekrans, captain ; James Clark and Jacob 
Gale, lieutenants ; Samuel Cole, ensign. 


Jesse Woodhull, colonel. 
Elihu Marvin, lieutenant-colonel. 
Nathaniel Strong, Zachaiiah Du Bois, majors. 
William Moffat, adjutant. 
Nathaniel Satterly, quartermaster. 

Oc/ord Co. — 1775 — Archibald Little, captain; Birdseye Youngs, fint 
lieutenant; Thomas Horton, second lieutenant; Nathan Marvin, 
ensign. Formerly commanded by Capt. Elihu Marvin, promoted 
lieutenant-colonel. 1777 — Thomas Horton, captain ; Josiah Seeley, 
first lieutenant; Nathan Marvin, second lieutenant; Barnabas Ho^ 
ton, Jr., ensign. 
(Jlove Co, — 1776— Jonathan Tuthill, captain; John Brewster, Jr., first 
lieutenant; Samuel Strong, second lieutenant; Francis Brewster, 
ensign. Formerly commanded by Capt. Jesse Woodhull. 
Bethlehem Cb.— 1775— Christopher Van Duzer, captain; William Roe, fint 
lieutenant; Obadiah Smith, second lieutenant ; Isaac Tobias, ensigD* 
1776— Gilbert Weeks, ensign. 
Upper Clove Co. — 1775 — Garret Miller, captain ; Aaa Buck, first lieaten* 
ant; William Horton, second lieutenant; Aaron Miller, eDBtgn. 
A new company, being part of the company formerly commancled 
by Capt. Austin Smith. 
Woodbury Clove Ci>.— 1775 — Francis Smith, captain ; Thomas Smith, flnt 
lieutenant; Alexander Galloway, eecond lieutenant; John H> 
Manus, eneign. 1776 — John McManus, second lieutenant; Ttio«, 
Lammoreux, ensign. 
Southwest Co. — 1775 — Stephen Slote, captain; George Galloway, fln^ 
lieutenant; John ^Brown, second lieutenant ; David Rogers, ensigH' 
A new company. 
Blooming-Grove Co. — 177&^SiIa8 Plerson, captain ; Joshua Brown, flnt 
lieutenant ; David Reeve, second lieutenant ; Fhineae Heard, ensign. 
Formerly commanded by Capt. Phineas Rumsey.^ 
LightrEorse Co. — 1776 — Ebenezer Woodhull, captain ; James Sayre, liea* 
tenant; William Heard, cornet; Azariah Martin, second master. 

X At the meeting to reorganize the company there were two ticketi|— * 
the one given above and one on which Phineas Rumsey was named ftr 
captain, John Vail for first lieutenant, and John W. Tuthill for seo- 
ond lieutenant. It was claimed that the latter received the mOlt 
votes. — American Archives, vol, iU. 627. 



JonathAo Haabrouck, colonel. 
Johannes Hardenburgh, Jr., lieatenant-colonel. 
Jofaanoes Jansen, Jr., Lewie Du Bois, majors. 
Abrabam Schoonmaker, adjutant. 
Isaac Belknap, quartermaster. 

Ckupt. Samuel Clark's company^ Nev>burgk^ June 8, 1778. 

Samuel Clark, captain. 
James Denton, first lieutenant. 
Martin Wygant, second lieu- 
MuDBon Ward, ensign. 
'William Albertson, sergeant. 
Isaac Brown, sergeant. 
Ebenezer Gidney, sergeant. 
Hope Mills, sergeant. 
Hugh Stevenson, corporal. 
Isaac Demott, corporal. 
John Simson, corporal. 
William Palmer, corporal. 
Joseph Brown, fifer. 
Sol. Buckingham, drummer. 
John SUlIwell. 
Elijah Townsend. 
Stephen Albertson. 
Daniel Gillis. 
Daniel Holley. 
James Demott. 
Nathaniel Denton. 
John Beckett. 
Silas Leonard. 
Henry Smith. 
Benjamin Smith. 
Benjamin Birdsall. 
HarmanuB Bikeman. 


Thomas Patterson. 
Bichard Ward. 
William Ferguson. 
William Carskaden. 
Isaac Hasbrouck. 
James Harris. 
William Bloomer. 
John Schofield. 
Benjamin ICamp. 
Hugh Ferguson. 
William Lewis. 
Bichard Albertson. 
William Foster. 
Jeremiah Ward. 
George Jackson. 
Joseph Gidney, Jr. 
John Wiggins. 
George Lane. 
Samuel Fowler. 
Daniel Gidney. 
Joseph Coleman. 
Gilbert Edwards. 
Samuel Gardner. 
Jacob Wiggins. 
Bichard Drake. 
Jesse Smith. 
Albertson Smith. 
John Backet. 

A list of the Exempts of Copt. Samuel Clarh'e company, April 30, 1778, aTid 
Jonathan Hasbrouck, colonel. 

Moaes Higby, doctor. 

Samnel Fowler. 

John Staples. 

William Lupton. 

Nefacmiah Denton, 

Thomas Ireland. 

Samuel Denton. 

James Harris. 

William Bowdish. 

Isaac Brown, doctor. 

Thomas Palmer. 

Benjamin Coffin. 

William Collard. 

Joseph Gedney. 

Nathaniel Coleman. 

Burger Wigant. 

Samnel Bond. 

Thomas Denton, captain. 

Eobert Carscadden. 

Simon Crozier. 

Joseph Gidney. 

Hugh MacLean. 

Jeremiah Howell. 
** Samuel Clark. 
^Abel Belknap. 

Cornelius Wood. 

Jacob Miars. 

Peter Donley. 
•Daniel Aldredge. 
Samuel Sands. 
Thomas Rhodes. 
Leonard Smith. 
Mr. Trumpoor. 
William Lawrence. 
Thomas Brinkley. 
John T. Staples. 
John Stil William. 
Elias Burger. 
William Ward. 
Duncan Duffie. 
Daniel "Denton. 
James Denton, lieutenant. 
Martin wygant. 
Monson Ward, ensign. 
Samuel Weed. 
Adolph DeGroye. 
Aaron Linn. 
John Nathan Hutchins. 
Isaac Belknap, Jr. 
James Bums. 
David Cetch. 
William Sobe. 
John Holdrum. 
James McMasters. 
Jacob Beeder. 

« "Newburoh, March 20, 1776.— A true state of the regiment of mi- 
litia in the county of Ulster, whereof Jonathan Hasbrouck is colonel, 
consisting of eleven companies. My whole regiment consists of six 
hundred and eight men, officera included ; likewise four hundred and 
fifty firelocks, two hundred and ninety-three swords, one hundred and 
eighty-eight cartridge-boxes, thirty-two pounds of powder, one hundred 
and twenty pounds of lead.— A true state of my regiment after every 
fourth man was selected as a minute man." 

Thomas Smith. 
Cornelius H^brouck. 
Isaac Belknap. 

Thaddeus Smith. 
William Wilson. 
Joseph Albertson. 

Capt. Jacob ConMiti's company, 
• Jacob Conklin, captain. 

Jacob Lawrence, first lieuten- 

David Guion, second lieuten- 

John Crowell, ensign. 

Robt. Erwin, sergeant. 

Robt. Boss, sergeant. 

John Lawrence, sergeant 

Abm. Strickland, sergeant. 

Abm. Smith, drummer. 

Jacob Strickland, corporal. 

Ebenezer Strickland. 

Jonathan Brundige. 

John Killpatrick. 

Peter Aldrich. 

Samuel Tarepening. 

Cornelius Terwilliger. 

Hazael Smith. 

Daniel Burnells. 
ft Barent Cole. 

Joshua Camwell. 

Jonas Totten, corporal. 

William Thurston. 
Thomas Ireland, Jr. 
Jeremiah Wool. 
Thomas Harris. 
Robert Morrison, doctor. 
Benjamin Harris. 

Neicburgh, May 4, 1778. 
James Totten. 
James Mills. 
William Erwin, Jr., 
William Cope, Jr. 
Stephen Jones. 
Isaac Barton, Jr. 
Nathaniel Guion, corporal. 
Robert Aldrich. 
James Penny. 
William Pefnny. 
John Dolson. 
Joseph Simmons. 
Tunis Kiealer. 
Jacob Tremper. 
John Tremper, 
John Thomas. 
Johannes Snyder, 
Stephen Stevens, corporal. 
William McBride. 
Gerrit Van Benechoten. 
Peter Tarepening. 
Hermanus Terwilliger. 
Abm. Cole, Jr. 

A list of Exempts of Capt. Jacob 
« Jacob Conklin, captEiin. 

Jacob Lawrence, lieutenant. 
• David Guion, lieutenant. 

John Crowell, ensign. 

Cornelius Polhamus. 

David Horton. 

Isaac Barton, Sr. 

Peter Aldredge. 

Henry W. Kipp. 

James Denton. 

Ebenezer Baimond. 

Michael Redmon. 

Joshua Brush. 

iCaleb Lockwood. 

CkmkUri'B company, April 23, 1779, 
William Erwin. 
James Quigley. 
Isaac Benscouten. 
Ebepezer Strickland. 
Joel Campbell. 
Lewis Slut. 
.Johannes Snyder. 
William Wear, 
Jacob Halstead. 
Tunis Keysler. 


Israel Brush. 
Nicholas Stephens. 
William Roach. 

Capt. Arthur SmiOi's company, 
Arthur Smith, captain, 
Isaac Fowler, first lieutenant. 
John Foster, second lieutenant. 
*tWilliam Conklin, 
John Kniffin, 
James Clark, 

Reuben Holmes, sergeants. 
William Smith, 
William Michael, 
Samuel Griggs, corporals. 
Jonathan Cosnpan. 
Joseph Hallett. 
William Place. 
Daniel Fowler. 
Charles Kniffen. 
Tunis Dalson. 
George Merritt. 
Dunkin Campbell. 
John Owen. 
ThomE^ Campbell. 

A list of the Exempts of Capt. Arthur 
Arthur Smith, captain. 
Isaac Fowler, lieutenant. 
John Foster, lieutenant. 
Wolvcrt Acker, ensign, 
Nehemiah Fowler. 
Charles Tooker. 

Newburgli^ April 24, 1779. 

Burroughs Holms. 

Solomon Comes. 

James Warring. 

William Ward, 

John Fowler. 

Jonas Southerd. 

John Allen. 

Jacob Wiggins. 

Stephen Ireland. 
' Gilbert Aldridge. 

Francis Smith. 

Henry Cropsey. 

John Kniffen. 

Jacob Gillis. 

Samuel Fowler. 

John Davis. 

Reuben Tooker, 

John Randle. 

Nicholas Watts. 

James Clark. 

SmUh'e company, ApHl 23, 1779. 
Joseph Calfi'enter. 
Henry Cropsey. 
Thomas Orr. 
Hans Cusnian, 
John Stratton. 
John Griggs. 



Jonathan Owens. 
Richard Oabui-n. 
Daniel Kniffen. 
Daniel Purdy. 
Daniel BngardB. 
Daniel Thurston. 
Jehiel Clark. 
William Michael. 
Thomae Bosworth, 

Thomas Ward. 
Elijah Ward. 
Samuel Stratton. 
George Merritt. 
Jeremiah Howell. 
John Fowler, 
David Smitli. 
Gilbert Barton. 
Thomas Burling. 
Isaac Fowler, Sr.* 


James Clinton, colonel. 

James McClaughry, lieutenan1>colonel. 

Jacob Newkirls, Moses Phillips, majors. 

George Denniston, adjutant. 

Alexander Trimble, quartermaster. 

New Windtoi—Eatlern O).— 1775— John Belknap, captain ; Silas Wood, 
first lieutenant ; Edward Falls, second lieutenant ; James Stickney, 

Nem Windsor— Wettem Co.— me — James Humphrey, captain; James 
Keraaghau, second lieutenant; Richard Wood, ensign.f 

New Windsor — Village Co. — 1775 — John Kicoll, captain ; Francis Mande- 
Tile, first lieutenant; Hezekiah White, second lieutenant ; Leonard 
D. Nicoll, ensign. 

Hanover^First Co. — 1775 — Matthew Felter, captain ; Henry Smith, first 
lieutenant; Johannes Newkirk, Jr., second lieutenant; William 
Crist, ensign. Formerly known as Capt. Newkirk's company. 

Sanoter— Second Co. — 1775 — William Jackson, captain ; Arthur Parks, 
first lieutenant; James McBride, second lieutenant; Andrew Neely, 
ensign. Formerly Capt. Goldsmltli's company. 

Hanover — Third Co. — 1775 — Cadwallader C. Colden, captain ; James Mil- 
ligan, first lieutenant; John Hunter, second lieutenant; Matthew 
Hunter, Ensign. Formerly known as Capt. Cblden's company. Mil- 
ligan subsequently captain. 

Hanover — Fourth Co. — 1775 — John J. Graham, captain ; Samuel Berkley, 
first lieutenant; Joseph Crawford, second lieutenant; James Mc- 
Curdy, ensign. Formerly Capt. Crage's company. 

Hanover — Fifth Co. — 1775 — John Gillespie, captain ; Jason Wilkins, first 
lieutenant ; Robert Hunter, Jr., second lieutenant ; Samuel Gillespie, 
ensign. Formerly Capt. Galatian's company. 
WaUhm — Firat Co. — 1775 — Samuel Watkins, captain; David Crawford, 
first lieutenant; Stephen Harlow, second lieutenant; Henry Smith, 
ensign. Company located on the east side of the Wallkill. 
Wallkill — Second Co. — ^1775 — William Faulkner, Jr., captain; Edward 
McNeal, first lieutenant; John Wilkins, second lieutenant; John 
Faulkner, ensign. Company located on west side of Wallkill, " be- 
tween the said Wallkill and the Little Sliawangunk Kill." 
WallMl— Third 09.— 1776— Isaiah Velie, captain ; Israel Wickham, first 
lieutenant; John Dunning, second lieutenant ; Jonathan Owen, en- 
sign. Company located between the Wallkill and the Little Sbawan- 
gunk, to the southward of Capt. Faulkner's company district. 
Wallkill — Fourth Co. — 1775 — William Denniston, captain; Benjamin 
Velie, firet lieutenant; Joseph Gillet, second lieutenant; David Cor- 
win, Jr., ensign. Company located to the northwest of Little Shawan- 
gunk Kill. 

There were, of course, many changes in these com- 
mands during the Revolution, but of which we have 
found no record. The duties specially assigned to 
the active members of the militia were, " in case of 
any alarm, invasion, or insurrection," to immediately 

* These returns are not of official record. The original rolls from 
which they are taken were accidentally discovered in a quantity of 
old paper sent to market in 1864. Of their genuineness there is not the 
slightest doubt 

f Prior to the organization of this company two companies had ex- 
isted in New Windsor, attached to Col. Ellison's regiment, oije in New 
Windsor Village and one In Little Britain, — the former commanded by 
Capt. William Ellison, who was superseded by Nicoll. Of the old Little 
Britain company, James McClaughry was captain, George Denniston, 
lieutenant, and John Burnet, James Humphrey, James Faulkner, Jacob 
Newkirk, Richard Wood, William Telford, Samuel Logan, James Ker- 
naghan, and Alexander Beatty among its members. 

repair, "properly armed and accoutred," to the habi- 
tations of the captains of the companies to which they 
belonged, or to a duly appointed rendezvous. Cap- 
tains were required to march their companies, when 
thus assembled, " to oppose the enemy, and at the 
same time send off an express to the commanding 
officer of the regiment or brigade," who was in turn 
required " to march with the whole or part of his 
command," as he should judge necessary. By the 
law of 1778, those " who, in ordinary circumstances 
would be exempt," were organized in companies to 
repel invasions and suppress insurrections. 

During the early years of the war of the Revolu- 
tion the militia was kept in a state of demoralization 
by the formation of 


The first of the special militia organizations was 
that known as Minute Men, which was formally rec- 
ommended by the Continental Congress to the sev- 
eral provinces for adoption in May, 1775. Under the 
militia bill of August 22d, the Provincial Convention 
of New York accepted the plan, and provided " that 
after the whole militia" was formed, in the manner 
already detailed, " every fourth man of each com- 
pany" should be " selected for minute men" of such 
persons as were willing to enter into that " necessary 
service." The persons thus selected were to be or- 
ganized in companies and elect officers, except in 
cases where an entire company of any regiment 
should offer its services, when it was to be commanded 
by the officers already chosen. The companies were 
to be organized in regiments under officers corre- 
sponding with those of the regular militia, and the 
manner in which they were called out was similar;- 
but they were required to meet in subdivisions for 
military drill at least four hours in each week, and in 
companies for the same purpose at least four hours 
every fortnight, and when in service were subject to 
the orders of officers of the Continental army, and 
entitled to the " same allowance, as to pay and pro- 
visions, witji the Continental forces." The plan, how- 
ever, was not satisfactory in its operation, and it was 
abolished in June, 1776. In the mean time the pro- 
visions of the law were generally complied with. In 
the southern district of Ulster three companies were 
raised, viz. : 

Newburgh Minute Go. — Uriah Drake, captain ; Jacob Lawrence, first lieu- 
tenant; William Ervin, second lieutenant; Thomas Dunn, ensign. 

New Windsor Minute Co. — Samuel Logan, captain j John Robinson, en- 
sign ; David Mandeville and John Scofield, sergeants. 

Sanooer Minute On.— Peter Hill, captain ; James Latta, first lieutenant; 
Nathaniel Hill, second lieutenant; William Goodyier, ensign. 

With a company organized in Marlborough a regi- 
mental organization was effected, of which Thomas 
Palmer was colonel; Thos. Johnston, Jr.> lieutenant- 
colonel ; Arthur Parks, first major ; Samuel Logan, 
second major ; Isaac Belknap, quartermaster. Com- 
panies were also organized in Goshen, Cornwall, etc., 



and a regiment formed, of which Isaac Nicoll was 
colonel; Gilbert Cooper, lieutenant-colonel; Henry 
V. Verbeyck, first major; Hezekiah Howell, Jr., 
second major; Ebenezer Woodhull, adjutant; Ne- 
hemiah Carpenter, quartermaster* The companies 
organized for this regiment were : 

Cormcall Minute Co. — Tbomaa Moffat, captain ; Setli Marvin, first lieu- 
tenant; James Little, second lieutenant; Nathan Strong, ensign, 
succeeded 'by William Bradley. 

Goshen Minute Co. — Moses Hetfleld, captain ; Cole Gale, and Daniel Et. 
erett, lieutenants. At another date, James Biltler and William Bar. 
ker named as lieutenants, and William Carpenter, ensign. 

The second special organization of the militia in- 
cluded the several drafts made to reinforce the army 
at different times. The first draft occurred in June, 
1776, when four battalions were organized for service 
in the vicinity of New York City, to which Orange 
County sent three companies and Ulster four, as part 
of Gen. John Morin Scott's brigade. The second 
draft was made in July, 1776, and embraced one- 
fourth of the militia under command of Cols. Isaac 
Nicoll and Levi Pauling, the whole constituting a 
brigade under Gen. George Clinton. The third draft 
was in September, 1776, for six hundred men to rein- 
force the garrison at Forts Clinton and Montgomery, 
of which number sixty-two were drawn from Col. 
Hasbrouck's regiment, and the whole placed under 
command of Johannes Snyder. Details in regard to 
the officers and privates in these and subsequent drafts 
are not of record, but it is known that under them the 
militia were in varying numbers almost constantly 

On the 23d of July, 1776, companies of Rangers 
were authorized for the protection of the inhabitanta 
of the northern and western frontiers of the province. 
These companies were to hold themselves in constant 
readiness for service, with a view especially to pre- 
vent the incursions of Indians and Tories, but were 
to be confined entirely to the counties in which they 
were raised, unless by mutual consent of the commit- 
tees of adjoining counties, or unless otherwise directed 
by the convention. Three companies were organized 
in Ulster County, under Capts. Isaac Belknap, of 
Newburgh, Jacob K. DeWitt, of Deerpark, and Elias 
Hasbrouck, of Kingston. Capt. Belknap's company 
was composed (Oct. 7, 1776) ag follows: 

Isaac Belknap, captain. 

Henry Schoonmaker, first lieu- 

PetruB Roosa, second lieuten- 

David Clark, corporal. 

Samuel Falls. 

Thomas Jackson. 

Corns. Vanderburgh. 

Marcus Wackman. 

Christian Dupont. 

Isaac Utter. 

Aaron Roosa. 

John Hisson. 

John McNeal. 
Abraham Garrison, 
Robert Harris. 
John Caverly. 
Jonathan Ghatfield. 
Stephanus Ecker. 
Matthew Robinson. 
Jas. Dailey. 
Wilhemue Roosa, 
George Hack. 
Darius Worden, 
Saml, Chard. 
James Humphrey, 
James Carscaden, 

• Both regiments were on duty In the Highlands in ms-lB.—Proe. 
Proc. Omv., 381. 

Philip Aing, 
Petrus Roosa. 
Ed. McClannoQ. 
Elisha Willard. 
Robert Gillespy. 

John Mallot, 
Thomas Patterson. 
John Willard, 
John Christie. 
Joshua Griffeu. 

The first active service of the company was under 
the direction of the Committee of Saffety at Fishkill. 
In February, 1777, it was attached to Governor Clin- 
ton's brigade, and was thereafter kept busy in 'the 
Highlands.-)- The organization was abandoned, 
March, 1777. 

The first New York, or " Continental" regiments as 
they were called, were constituted in 1775 for the 
term of six months. These regiments were four in 
number, and were commanded respectively by Alex. 
McDougall, Goos6 Van Schaick, James Clinton, and 
James Holmes. CoL Clinton's regiment (the third) 
was largely composed of Orange and Ulster County 
men, the district embraced in the present county of 
Orange furnishing two companies, viz. : Capt. Daniel 
Denton's, of Goshen, and Capt. John Nicholson's, of 
New Windsor, The regiments were in the expedi- 
tion against Canada in the fall and winter of 1775. 
On the 8th of January, 1776, the Continental Con- 
gress issued its first formal call for troops for the pur- 
pose of reinforcing the army in Canada. Under this 
call New York furnished one battalion, of which Col. 
Van Schaick was continued in command. On' the 
19th of January of the same year the second call was 
issued, under which New York was required to fur- 
nish four battalions " to garrison the several forts of 
the colony from Crown Point to the southward, and 
to prevent depredations upon Long Island, and pro- 
mote the safety of the whole." These battalions 
were assigned to the command of Alex. McDougall, 
James Clinton, Rudolphus Ritzema, and Philip Van 
Cortlandt. The quota of Orange County was two 
companies, and that of Ulster three companies, 
which were filled in April following, the companies 
being Capt. Daniel Denton's, of Goshen, Capt, Amos 
Hutchins', of Orangetown, and Capt. William Roe's, 
of Cornwall, from Orange County, and Capt. John 
Belknap's, of New Windsor, Capt. William Jackson's, 
of Montgomery, and Capt, Cornelius Hardenburgh's, 
of Hurley, from Ulster County. Capt. Roe's com- 
pany was in excess of the quota. Denton's and 
Hutchins' companies were in Ritzema's regiment, 
and the other companies in Clinton's regiment. On 
the 16th of September the Contipental Congress 

t Jour. Prov. Conv,, 636, 813, etc. The names of the members of Capt. 
Belknap's company are from a memorandum-book found among his 
papers, and are no doubt correct. The same book contains a diary of 
the services of the company during the month of October, 1776, f^om 
which it appears that its first muster for duty was at the house of Mrs, 
Ann DuBois, in Marlborough, on the 7th of that month. It marched from 
thence to Fishkill, and reported to the Convention on the 17th, when it 
was placed ** under the direction of the committee for trying tories," It 
was still at Fishkill in January, 1777, There is little room for doubt* 
ing that Capt. Belknap was the original of Cooper's Capt, Towusend in 
" The Spy,'* There was certainly no other company of rangers at Fish- 



issued its third call for troops, under which New 
York was required to furnish four battalions "to 
serve during the war." These battalions were the 
first of their class, and were placed under the com- 
mand of Cols. Goos6 Van Schaick, Philip Van Cort- 
landt, Peter (^ansevort, and Henry B. Livingston. 
Ulster furnished three companies to Col. James 
Gansevort's regiment, of which Capt. James Greggs', 
of New Windsor, was one, and one company — Capt. 
William Jackson's, of Montgomery — to Col. Living- 
ston's regiment. In July previous, the Continental 
Congress authorized a commission to Maj. Lewis Du- 
Bois, of Col. Hasbrouck's regiment of militia, to raise 
a battalion "for three years or the war," but the Con- 
vention of New York objected, and the matter was 
held in abeyance. Now, however, the Convention 
asked authority to recruit a fifth battalion, of which 
Maj. DuBois should have the command, and, the re- 
quest being granted, the battalion was commissioned. 
While more or less mixed by general recruiting, this 
battalion was regarded as the battalion of the district 
the history of which we are considering. It was 
ordered to garrison Fort Montgomery in March, and 
was on duty there in the action of October, 1777, 
when it sustained a heavy loss in killed, wounded, 
and prisoners. Its field-ofBcers were : 

Lewis DuBoia, colonel ; commissioned June 25, 1776 ; resigned Deo. 29, 

Jacobus Brayn, lieutenant-colonel; commissioned June 25, 1776; taken 

prisoner at Fort Montgomery, Oct. 6, 1777. 
MarinuB Willett, lieutenant-colonel ; commissioned July 1, 1780. 
Samuel Logan, majot; commissioned June 26, 1776; taken prisoner at 

Fort Montgomery; exchanged Dec. 21, 1780; served to the end of 

the war. 
Henry DuBoie, adjutant ; commissioned Nov. 21, 1776; promoted captain 

July 1, 1780. 
Kehemiah Carpenter, quartermaster; commissioned Nov. 21, 1776 ; taken 

prisoner at Fort Montgomery ; exchanged and promoted lieutenant. 
Samuel Townsend, paymaster; commissioned Nov. 21, 1776. 
John Gano, chaplain ; commissioned Nov. 21, 1776 ; promoted brigade 

chaplain; served to the end of the war, 
Samuel Cook, surgeon ; commissioned Nov. 21,1776; served to the end 

of the war. 
Ebenezer Hutchinson, surgeon^B mate; commissioned June 12, 1778. 

The battalions authorized under this call, and Col. 
Lamb's artillery, — which drew many officers and pri- 
vates from Orange and Ulster,— were the only three 
years' regiments raised in the State during the Revo- 
lution, and were kept in the field by levies and by 
recruiting for shorter periods to supply vacancies in 
their ranks. 

The uniform which was worn by the Continental 
regiments varied with the ability of the authorities to 
purchase the materials. The regiments raised in 
1775 were clothed in the same general style but in 
different colors. The first had blue broadcloth dress 
coats with crimson cuffs and facings ; the second had 
light brown coats with blue cuffs and facings ; the third 
had gray coats with green cuffs and facings; the 
fourth had dark brown coats with scarlet cuffs and 
facings. Their breeches (as they were called) and 

waistcoats were of Russia drilling ; the former were 
short (to the knee) and the latter long (to the hips). 
Their stockings were long (from the knee), of " coarae 
woolen homespun;" low shoes, linen cravats, and 
round low-crowned broad-brimmed felt hats. The 
regiments raised in January, 1776, were supplied with 
hunting-frocks in lieu of coats, and in June the Rus- 
sia drillings gave place to "brain-dressed deer's 
leather sufficient to make each soldier one waistcoat 
and one pair of breeches." The established uniform 
of the troops, however, so far as there was one, was 
the hunting-frock, which came in under the order of 
the Continental Congress in 1776. These frocks have 
the same description wherever spoken of. " The uni- 
form of the South Carolina rebels," says an English 
writer, " is a hunting-shirt such as the farmers' ser- 
vants in England wear ;" and another, referring to 
the Continental soldiers who were killed at Port, 
Montgomery, says, " they had on frocks such as our 
farmers' servants wear," from which fact it was pre- 
sumed they were militia-men, instead of members of 
Col. DuBois' regiment as they were. The descriptiog 
by the Hessian officer, Briefwechsel, of the army 
under Gen. Gates at Saratoga, which was composed of 
over nine thousand regular troops, may be accepted 
as applicable to the entire army of the Revolution at 
that time. The rank and file, he writes, "were not 
equipped in any uniform." A few of the officers wore 
regimentals ; and those fashioned to their own notions 
according to cut and color. Brown coats with sea- 
green facings, white linings and silver trimmings, and 
gray coats in abundance, with buff facings and cuffi, 
and gilt buttons ; in short, every variety of pattern. 
The brigadiers and generals wore uniforms and belts 
which designated their rank, but most of the colonels 
and other officers were in their ordinary clothes ; " a 
musket and bayonet in hand, and a cartridge-box or 
powder-horn over the shoulder." The Continental 
uniform, now generally accepted as such, was not 
adopted until 1780, when, by general orders (June 
28th), all officers were directed " to wear their coats 
with buff facings and linings, yellow buttons, white 
or buff under-clothes, with a black and white feather 
in their hats." 

The equipage of the militia, as well as of the early 
Continental regiments, consisted of " a good mu-'ket 
or firelock and bayonet, sword or tomahawk, a steel 
ramrod, worm, priming-wire and brush fitted thereto, 
a cartouch-box to contain twenty-three rounds of car- 
tridges, twelve flints, and a knapsack, one pound of 
powder, and three pounds of bullets." The muskets 
were of a variety of patterns ; the long gun of the 
old French war, the shorter standard musket of the 
English army, and a scant assortment of rifles. The 
Convention of New York endeavored, in its con- 
tracts,* to secure uniformity by providing that % 

* Eobert Boyd established, in June, 1776, a forge in New Windior, 
just south of Quassaick Creek, for the manufacture of muskets and UJ- 



musket-barrel should be "three feet and a half in 
length, and of three-fourths of an inch bore, well 
fortified at the breech," and that bayonets should be 
" one foot and nine inches from the shoulder ;" but as 
there were few gunsmiths in the province at that time 
(1776), it was not until after arms were received 
from France that there was a perceptible regularity or 
a sufficient quantity to supply the troops. Mean- 
while spears, spontoons, and tomahawks were called 
into use and became effective weapons.* Not only 
did the district now comprising the county of Orange 
furnish men and arms, but within its limits were es- 
tablished the first works for the manufacture of pow- 
der, of which (January, 1778) "near 2000 weight" 
was delivered to the order of the Convention of the 
State, and the remainder of their production " to the 
several orders of Gen. Washington and Gen. Schuyler 
at different times." 

Having enumerated aa far as fragmentary records 
will permit the military organization of the district 
down to and including the heroic era of the Revolu- 
tion, a brief review of their services in the field 
obliges a return to the French and Indian war of 
1755. This was peculiarly a frontier war, although a 
war in wiich the question of English supremacy in 
all that section of North America over which the 
English flag was floating at the outbreak of the Revo- 
lution. The Indians of the Delaware Eiver country 
(the ancient Lenapes and Minsis) had grievances to 
adjust which led them to become the allies of the 
French. They had sold their lands to William Penn, 
who, perhaps under the expectation of arranging the 
boundaries himself to the satisfaction of the grantors, 
had drawn a deed of which advantage could be taken, 
and his successors, the proprietaries of Pennsylvania, 
were not slow to improve it, — literally " running" the 
boundaries of the famous " walking purchase." The 
Minsis had special complaint against the traders in 
the Minisink country who had made them drunk and 
defrauded them of the purchase-money of their lands ; 
who invariably, by the same process, defrauded them 
of the price of the peltries which they brought in. 
The Delawares complained; the proprietaries sum- 
moned them to a council, with chiefs of the Six 
Nations as arbitrators ; feasted the latter and loaded 
them with presents. The result may be anticipated : 
the Delawares, then tributary to the Six Nations, and 
the special wards of the Senecas, were obliged to re- 

onets. The Convention voted to pay him " three poundfj fifteen shillings, 
New York money, for each good muaket with steel ramrod, and bayonet 
with scabbard," In February, 1776, he was able to write that he had 
" the best gunsmiths^ shop in the colonies ;" but nevertheless its capacity 
was limited from the diCBculty in obtaining workmen. 

* The Provincial Convention of New Tork ordered (Sept. 4, 1776) the 
manufactnre of four thousaud lances or spontoons to arm the militia for 
whom no guns could be obtained. Bight hundred were sent to Orange, 
and the same number to Ulster County. (Proc, 607.) Tomahawks were 
a favorite implement, and many thousand were furnished the troops. As 
a whole, the equipage of the army was not Ineifective. 

linquish their lands and remove to Wyoming. Not 
satisfied with what they had wrongfully obtained, the 
proprietaries followed up their advantage with the 
Six Nations, and, with the Susquehanna Company of 
Connecticut, bought the lands at Wyoming. The 
transaction so incensed the Senecas, who had been 
but partially represented in the matter, that they 
drove from their ranks their best chief for his par- 
ticipation in it, and removed the "petticoat" from 
the Delawares and bade them defend their homes. 
The latter were ready for the work. Liberated from 
the thraldom to which they had been subjected for 
nearly a century, and with all its grievances to redress, 
the chiefs of the East met those of the West in coun- 
cil at Alleghany ; rehearsed their wrongs, and declared 
that wherever the white man had settled within the 
territory which they claimed, or of which they had 
been defrauded, there they would strike him as best 
they could with such weapons as they could com- 
mand ; and that the blow might be effectually dealt, 
each warrior-chief was charged to kill and scalp and 
burn within the precincts of his birthright, and all 
simultaneously, from the frontiers down to the heart 
of the settlements, until the English should sue for 
peace and promise redress. 

In October following, with their allies, painted 
black for war, in bands with murderous intent, they 
moved eastward, and the line of the Blue Mountains, 
from the Delaware to the Susquehanna, became the 
scene of the carnival which they held with torch and 
tomahawk during many coming months. The Minsis 
performed their part, and on the frontiers of Orange 
and Ulster Counties, and New Jersey, but principally 
within the limits of the Minisink Patent, were re- 
peated the fearful ravages of the more remote dis- 
tricts of Pennsylvania. The settlements were small, 
at considerable distance from each other, and much 
exposed to the surprises of the Indians, whose incur- 
sions were frequent. The people, especially in the 
contested district, were kept in almost perpetual 
alarm, and under such " continued military duty as 
to be rendered incapable of taking care of their pri- 
vate affairs for the support of their families." An 
extent of country, on the west side of the Wallkill, of 
fifteen miles in length and seven or eight in breadth, 
which was " well and thickly settled, was abandoned 
by the inhabitants, who, for their safety, removed 
their families to the east side of the river, and became 
a charge on the charity of their neighbors," while 
others " removed to distant parts, and some out of the 

"Fatigues of body, in continually guarding and. 
ranging the woods, and anxiety of mind which the 
inhabitants could not avoid, by their being exposed 
to a cruel and savage enemy, increased by the per- 
petual lamentations of the women and children," 
were not the only evils which the inhabitants suf- 

+ N. Y. MSS., Ixxxii. 107, etc. 



fered. Three men were killed at Cochecton ; five men 
at Philip Swartwout's ; Benjamin Sutton and one 
Eude, two of the Goshen militia, were killed at Mini- 
sink; Morgan Owen was killed and scalped about 
four miles from Goshen ; a woman, taken prisoner at 
Minisink, was killed and her body cut in halves and 
left by the highway ; Silas Hulet's house was robbed 
and he himself narrowly escaped. " From about the 
.Drowned Lands for fifteen miles down the Wallkill, 
where fifty families dwelt, all save four abandoned 
their fields and crops."* 

Pending negotiations for peace, hostilities were 
suspended during the year 1756, but in August of the 
succeeding year, says Niles, "one James Tidd was 
scalped in the Minisinks. About this time also, one 
James Watson, with James Mullen, went out on 
some business, and were fired upon by a party of In- 
dians. Watson was found killed and scalped ; Mul- 
len was carried off, as was concluded, not being found 
or heard of. About the 19th of September, Patrick 
Karr was scalped and killed at a place called Mini- 
sink Bridge. Some time in October, in Ulster County, 
the Indians fired into the farthermost house in Roch- 
ester, and killed two women, but were repulsed by 
two men.f 

" On the 16th of May, 1758, about two o'clock in 
the afternoon, about thirteen Indians rushed into the 
house of one Nicholas Cole, on the frontiers of the 
Jerseys, if I mistake not. Cole not being at home, 
they immediately pinioned his wife, and tomahawked 
their son-in-law, about eighteen years old, and drag- 
ged her (Mrs. Cole) out of doors, where her eldest 
daughter, about thirteen years old, lay murdered, and 
a boy aged eight, and her youngest daughter aged 
about four. This last — the poor, helpless old woman 
saw the cruel savages thrust their spears into the 
body of their gasping infant. They rifled the house, 
and then carried her and her son off, after they had 
scalped the slain above mentioned. 

" Soon after they were joined by two Indians with 
two German captives they had taken that day, and 
killed and scalped another, in one Anthony W^st- 
brook's field, near Minisink, so called. Not long 
after. Cole returned home, where to his great surprise 
he found his four children murdered, and his wife 
and other son missing. Upon which he went to 
Minisink (Napanoch) rort,J and got a few soldiers 

* " All the families between the deponent's house and Minisink, to the 
amount of one hundred and fifty persons, have deserted those settle- 
ments and come into four frontier houses, one of which is the deponent's 
house, -which is now a frontier house on that side, and which was, last 
year, fifteen or sixteen miles within the settlements at Minisink, and 
abont sixteen miles from Hudson's Riyer."— Affidavit of James Howell, 
N. T. MSS., Ixxxii. 

f The attack here spoken of was on the house of Peter Jan, in tlie 
southwestern part of Eochester. Jan's house was burned and one of his 
daughters, and two men who acted as scouts, were killed. His wife and 
two daughters, and himself and two sons, who were in the field, escaped. 
— Doc. iri8.,ii. 763, 764. 

J Napanoch, Neepenack, and Poenpack refer to one and the same 

to assist him in burying his children and the Gerinfln. 
The soldiers joined with some of the neighbors that, 
evening to cross the Delaware River at daylight, and" 
waylay the road to Wyoming ; and as four of them 
were going to one Chambers', about two o'clock M 
night, they heard the Indians coming down a hill to 
cross the Delaware, as was supposed, when one of tht 
four fired on them. They immediately fled, giving t 
yell after their manner. The woman they led with tt 
string about her neck, and the boy by the hand ; who, 
finding themselves loose, made their escape along the 
road, and happily met at James McCarty's, the boy 
first and afterward the woman. 

" The daughter of one Widow Walling, living near 
Fort Gardiner, between Goshen and Minisink, going 
out to pick up some chips for the fire, was shot at by 
three Indians. Her shrieks alarmed the people. Her 
brother, looking out at a garret window, and seeing a 
fellow dispatching and scalping his sister, fired at 
them and was pretty certain he wounded one of them. 
The old woman, during this, with her other daughter 
and son, made off and escaped. 

" About this time (beginning of June), a sergeant 
went from Waasing? to Minisink with a party of men, 
but returned not at the time they were expected. 
Upon" which a larger party went out in search of 
them, and at their arrival at Minisink, found seven 
of them killed and scalped, three wounded, and a 
woman and four children carried off. Near about the 
same time, a house was beset by a party of Indians, 
where were seventeen persons, who were killed, as I 
remember the account. A man and a boy traveling 
on the road with their muskets, were fired on by some 
Indians in ambush. The man was killed, but the boy 
escaped, having first killed one of the Indians. Not 
far from this time— whether before or after I am not 
certain — the Indians killed seven New York soldiers. 
This slaughter was committed at a place called West- 

Such is the imperfect record of these hostilities, at- 
tested by the most respectable residents of the dis- 
trict, — among others by Col. Thomas Ellison and Col, 
Charles Clinton, of the settlements on the Hudson, 
which, though exempt from the brand of the enemy, 
were not the less sufferers by the war, their male in- 
habitants being in almost continual service on the 
frontiers, and their dwellings converted into places of 
defense. That the incursions of the Indians on the 
frontiers were not continued in their first severity 
was due in part to the erection by Governor Hardy, 
in the summer of 1757, of a series of block-houses 
along the western frontier,]] and in part to the nego- 

§ Wawarsing block-house, probably. 

1 " From a place called Machakamak to the town of Boohester."— 
Gov, Uardy's Meuage. Mr. Guamer states that at this time there were 
three small forts in the Upper Neighborhood and three in the Lower 
Neighborhood. "One in the Upper Neighborhood was on the Nevereink, 
at the northeast end of the settlement ; one at the house of Peter Ouft* 
mer, in the central part of the neighborhood, and the third at the aouth- 



tiations which had been instituted with Teedyuscung, 
the king of the Delawares, who, seeking only the re- 
dress of his people, was ready to restrain them from 
war could that end be secured by other means. In 
October, 1.758, the proprietaries surrendered their 
titles and recognized the right of the government to 
arrange the boundaries of the lands claimed under 
them; the Minsis were paid for their lands in the 
Minisink country ; an exchange of prisoners was 
agreed to, and terms of peace concluded. Subse- 
quently the Indian allies of the French held the 
frontier under terror until after the close of the war, 
when the avocations of the pioneers were resumed 
and their rude forts permitted to decay. 

The services of the militia during this struggle come 
down to us in imperfect records. Writes Col. Thomas 
Ellison in 1757 : " It is but too well known by the late 
numerous murders barbarously committed on our bor- 
ders, that the county of Ulster and the north end of 
Orange is become the only frontier part of the pro- 
vince left unguarded and exposed to the cruel incur- 
sions of the Indian enemy, and the inhabitants of 
these parts have been obliged to perform very hard 
military duty for these two years past, in ranging the 
woods and guarding the frontiers, these two counties 
keeping out almost constantly from fifty to one hun- 
dred men ; sometimes by forced detachments of the 
militia and at other times by voluntary subscriptions; 
nay, often two hundred men, which has been an in- 
supportable burthen on the poor people. And yet all 
the militia of these parts were ordered to march to 
Fort Edward, while the oflScers had no orders to leave 
a detachment to guard the frontiers. . . . The gener- 
ality of them marched as soon as it was possible to 
get so scattered a people together ; and I would say 
for the three hundred who went out of the little dis- 
tressed Second Regiment of Ulster, that men never 
marched with more cheerfulness." 

From Col. Vincent Mathews' regiment nothing 
appears but eloquent bills : 

£ s. d. 

To Lieut. Samuel Denton and Ck)mp)tn7 14 16 

Ensign Thomu Bull and Compeny.... 15 II 

Sergeant Benj. South and Compitny..'. 7 6 

Capt George De Eay, going express from Goshen to Mini- 
sink for Got. Hardy in 1TS6 2 

Col. Vincent Uatbews for guides for regulars posted at 

Goshen, from October, 1767, to February, 1768 97 10 

Capt. John Wisuer and Company as scouts in 1757 7 13 9 

Lieut. Calvin Bradner for taking horses home from Sara- 
toga, by order of Col. De Kay, 1767 5 10 

Samuel Gale, for proTisions to troops on frontiers, near 

Goeheu 56 

Calvin Carpenter, in Capt. Case's Company, 1768 ; 2 12 

Capt. John Bpll and detachment, 1758 17 8 

Lieot. Bolwrt Denton and detachment, 1768 1 7 d 

Daniel Gale, in Capt. Wiener's Co., 1757 10 

Doct John Gale, attending sick, 1766 30 

Maj.Wm. Thompson for guarding frontiers, 176S 40 

Col. Beujamln Tustio, Capt. Daniel Case, and Capt. J. 
Bull for money advanced in building block-houses 

Nos. 1 and 2 on the Western frontiers in Jan. 1757 100 

weet end of the settlement. These forts were occupied by about twelve 
families and a few soldiers who were there from time to time. The loca- 
tions of the forts in the Lower Neighborhood are not known. They 
gave protection to about eighteen familiee." In a subsequent paragraph 
he says that " Westfall's Fort" was in the lower part of the latter neigh- 

Lieut. 'John Denton and Company for guarding Col. 
(Charles) Clinton and De Kay in laying out the 
ground, etc., for block-houses 6 12 

Hugh Dobbin, in Capt. Wiener's Company, for pasturage 
of 115 horses of Col. De Kay'6 regiment in Albany 
when Fort William Henry was taken 4 7 

Peter Carter, David Benjamin, Philip Beid, and Francis 
Armstrong for guarding Georc;e De Kay as Express 
from Goshen to Minisink in 1756 4 

James Sayre and Ebenezer Gilbert and Companies* for 
guarding block-houses iu February, 1757 46 4 

Further research is unnecessary. From the dark 
and almost forgotten field of this important struggle 
we turn to 


It is perhaps unnecessary to say that the people of 
Orange and Ulster, and especially of the district now 
composing the county of Orange, acted with great 
unanimity in the war for independence, not only in 
their political associations but in their military organ- 
izations. During the earlier years of the struggle the 
militia were almost constantly under arms or engaged 
in the construction of the forts in the Highlands, aijd 
in preparing obstructions to the navigation of Hud- 
son's River. It was during this period, too, that the 
companies already named as belonging to the first 
Continental regiments (1775) took part in the Canada 
expedition. In July, 1776, apprehending a move- 
ment of the enemy up the Hudson, the Provincial 
Convention ordered that " one-fourth part of the 
militia of the counties of Orange and Ulster be drawn 
out for the defense of this State'' and " stationed in 
the Highlands on the west side of Hudson's River to 
guard the defiles." Two regiments were organized 
under this order: one from Ulster, Levi Pauling, 
colonel, and one from Orange, Isaac Nicoll, colonel ; 
Gilbert Cooper, lieutenant-colonel; Samuel Logan, 
major. A more sweeping requisition was made in 
December, when, after the capture of New York, the 
British followed Washington into New Jersey, they 
were ordered to co-operate with the forces under Gens. 
Lee and Gates in that State. Assembling at Chester,* 
they marched thence to a place called "the City, at 
the parting of the roads leading from Tappan to Pyra- 
mus," under command of Gen. George Clinton.f 
That their service in the field at this time was ardu- 
ous and sacrificing is abundantly shown by a letter 
written by Henry Wisner, Jr., under date of December 
24th : " I have been visiting," he writes, " the differ- 
ent battalions of militia, and finding them so uneasy 
that I am afraid that, notwithstanding everything that 
can be said and done, many of them ■s^ill go home. 
The situation of their families is so very distressing 
that no argument can prevail with them. Many of 

* " Beaohedt That all the militia of Orange and Ulster Counties be 
forthwith ordered to march, properly armed and accoutered, to Chester, in 
Orange County, there to receive further orders from Gen. George Clinton 
for effectually co-operating with M^.-Gen. Lee and MaJ.-Gen. Gates,in 
harassing and distressing the enemy, who have entered the State of New 
Jersey." — Bea. Prov. Cbnv., Dec. 9, 1776. A subsequent order confined 
them to the limits of New York. 

t At that time brigadier-general of militia of Ulster County ; subse- 
quently Governor of the State. 



them left their families without wood, without meal, 
and without fodder at home for their cattle, many of 
their families without shoes, and some of them little 
better here," and he might have added, perhaps, with- 
out proper food, for he takes occasion to say that he 
had stopped, on his own responsibility, for their use a 
drove of cattle that were being sent to Philadelphia. 
The victory of Washiilgton at Trenton changed the 
aspect of the campaign, and they were soon after re- 
turned to their homes. Their retirement, however, 
was only temporary. As a part of Clinton's brigade 
they were, for over two years, practically resolved into 
minute men and placed under orders to march upon 
signal to the defense of the Highlands ;* special ser- 
vices almost innumerable were thrown upon them.f 
Rallying after the loss of Fort Montgomery, we see 
them on the march to Kingston, struggling against 
hope to save that place from the flames, and from 
thence returning to build anew their shattered citadels, 
and to reappear in the conflict at Minisink. 

Although familiar, an abridged narrative of their 
services in these fields may not be omitted in this con- 
nection. In July, 1775, the British ministry, in ar- 
ranging their plan for the suppression of the rebellion, 
determined " to command the Hudson with a number 
of small men-of-war and cutters, and maintain a safe 
intercourse and correspondence between Quebec, Al- 
bany, and New York, and thus afford the finest oppor- 
tunity to their soldiery, and the Canadians in conjunc- 
tion with the Indians, to make continual incursions 
into Massachusetts, and divide the provincial forces, 
so as to render it easy for the British army at Boston 
to defeat them and break the spirits of the Massachu- 
setts people, desolate their country, and compel an 
absolute subjection to Great Britain." To counteract 
this plan, the Continental Congress, in May of the 
same year, at the suggestion of the Convention of 
New York, resolved, " that a post be taken in the 
Highlands, on each side of Hudson's River, and bat- 
teries erected, and, that experienced persons be imme- 
diately sent to examine said riVer in order to discover 
where it would be most advisable and proper to ob- 
struct the navigation." During the succeeding fall. 
Forts Clinton and Montgomery were erected under 

* " On the firing of two cannon at Fort Montgomery, and two at Fort 
Constitution, to be answered by two from the braas twenty-four-pounder 
at New Windsor, the militia on the west side of Hudson's Eiver, in the 
counties of Orange and Ulster, as far as Col. Hasbrouclc's regiment, in- 
cluding the same, are to march by detachments, without further notice, 
as reinforcement of this garrison." — Order of Brig-Gen. Jamea Clinton, 
commanding at Fort Montgomery, July 10, 1777. From December, 1776, to 
April, 1778, the militia were called out twelve times and spent two hun- 
dred and ninety-two days in the field. 

t A single instance of the many recorded services of this nature is the 
following, which occurred on the morning preceding the battle of Mini- 
sink, and which accounts for the limited number of men in that action: 
" On the evening of the 2lBt of this instant I received an order fh)m his 
excellency Gen. Washington, together with a requisition of the Com- 
missary of Prisoners, to furnish one hundred men of my regiment to 
guard the British prisoners on their way to Easton. I ordered three 
companies of my regiment, including the exempt company, to parade 
for that purpose."— Mathom't Report, July 25, 1779. 

the supervision of the Convention of New York, and 
the navigation obstructed by means of chains, booms, 
fire-ships, and vessels of war, during the summer of 
1776.t The forts were largely garrisoned by the mi- 
litia of the district, who were called together by ^. 
system of beacons and signals, consisting of flags and 
alarm-cannon by day, and beacon-fires upon the 
mountain tops at night. The works were strengthenel'' 
during the summer of 1777, by the construction of 
Fort Constitution on Constitution Island, and of FoA' 
Independence at Peekskill, and the command, on thS 
east side of the river, intrusted to Gen. Putnam; 
Governor Clinton and Gen. James Clinton and the 
militia retaining the west side. 

Scarcely had the work been completed when Biu^ 
goyne swept down from Canada with his splendii? 
army, and the campaign for the possession of thi* 
Hudson opened. To aid in the movement, Howe 
threatened an attack on Philadelphia, by way of Dela- 
ware River, and thus forced Washington to draw men 
from the Highlands until only fifteen hundred re- 
mained. About the 20th of September, while Howe 
was marching into Philadelphia and Burgoyne had 
reached Saratoga, over three thousand British soldien 
arrived in New York, and there joined the armament 
of Sir Henry Clinton, then in waiting, and in a few 
days started to force their way up the Hudson. Mis- 
leading Gen. Putnam by attack on Peeks- 
kill, the forces of the enemy crossed the river to Stony 
Point, marched around the western base of the Dun- 
derberg (October 7th), and appeared before the forta. 
The militia of the district, about six hundred in 
number, that had been hastily called in the day 
previous, united with the garrisons and made a most 
heroic defense, fighting against superior numbers until 
twilight, when they gave way and made a scattered 
retreat, leaving behind them about three hundred d^ 
their number in killed, wounded, and prisoners.^ 

X The first obstructions consisted of a chain eighteen hundred feet fD 
length from the foot of the rock at Fort Montgomery to the base of An* 
thony's liose. A considerable portion of it was brought from Fort Ti. 
conderoga, where it had been used to obstruct the river Sorel; the 
remainder was n^nufactured at Foughkeepsie. It was protected b; s 
boom of logs, and guarded by batteries on the shore. From Plum Point 
to Pallopel's Island a chevaux-de-frise was constructed. The fire-sbip 
were rafts loaded with combustibles. The shipsof-war were two armfd 
frigates, two galleys, and au armed sloop. 

g The following report of the action was made by Governor Clinton C 
Gen. Washington : W 

" Nbw Windsoe, Oct. 9, ITIT.* 

" Dear General, — 1 have to inform you that, in oonsequenue of Uflf 
telligence received by Gen. Putnam from Gen. Parsons (who lay ill^ 
his brigade at the White Plains), of the enemy's having received k 
reinforcement from Europe at New York, and that by their niovemenfi" 
there was reason to believe they intended an attack on Peekskill, and to 
possess themselves of the passes in the Highlands, the general imtM" 
diately wrote to me these circumstances ; and to prevent if possible tU 
disagreeable consequences that might arise if the army at the different 
posts was not timely reinforced, I ordered that part of the militia of tliii 
State that had not already marched to the northward to move, and part 
of them to join Gen. Putnam, and the remainder of them to reiniMH 
the posts of Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton; but, it being a critlolP 
time with the yeomanry, as they had not yet sown their grain, and then 
being at that time no appearance of the enemy, they were extremal^ 



The regiments engaged were Col. Allison's, from 
Goshen, commanded by himself; Col. Jesse Wood- 

resUen anduDeasy. They solicited Gen. FutDam for leave to return, 
»nd many of them went home without his permiBsion. Urged by these 
considerations he thought proper to dismiss a part of them. 

*' As I thought it essentially necessary that they should remain in the 
field for some time,- in order to check the progress of the enemy should 
they attempt to put their design in execution, I issued another order for 
one-half of them immediately to march, part of ttaem to join Gen. Putnam 
and a sufficient number to reinforce the foi-ts and the pass at Sydman^s 
Bridge, at the mouth of the Clove ; and, in order to induce them to turn out 
with the greater alacrity, I thought it'necessary to fix their time of ser- 
vice to one month, at the expiration of which time they were to be relieved 
by the other half. While this arrangement was in agitation, and before a 
proper arrangement could possibly be made by the respective officers as 
to \That part of them could serve for the first month, they were not so 
expeditious as was absolutely necessary, which the event has fully 
evinced. A number of the enemy^s ships made thoir appearance on 
the 3d instant in Tarrytown Bay, where they weighed anchor the next 
day,being joined by several shipe-of-war and transports from New York. 
They proceeded up the river as high as King's terry, and at day-break on 
Sunday, the 5th, landed a considerable body of men on Verplanck^s 

"As I was apprehensive from many circumstances that an attack on 
the forts was intended, I dispatched Maj. Logan, an alert officer, who 
was well acquainted with the ground, on Sunday evening, through the 
mountains to reconnoitre, and if possible gain Intelligence of the enemy's 
motion. The megor returned about nine o^cIock on Monday, informing 
me that, from the beat intelligence he could procure, and the rowing of 
the boats, he had reason to believe they had landed a considerable force 
on the west side of the river at King^s Ferry, and between that and Dun- 
derberg; but, as the morning was foggy, it was impossible to discern 
them 80 as to form any judgment of their uumbei-s. , As soon as I had 
obtained this intelligence, I immediately dispatched Lieut Jackson with 
a small party td discover the enemy's movements ; but they had not pro- 
ceeded morf* than two miles on the Haverstraw Koad when they were 
attacked by a party of the enemy, who had formed an ambuscade at a 
place called Doodletown. They immediately retreated after returning 
the fire. As soon as the firing was heard, I detached Lieut.>CoI. Bruyu 
with fifty Continental troops, and as many of the militia under Lieut- 
Col. McClaughry to sustain Lieut. Jackson; the garrison at that time 
being so weak that we could not afford them greater aid on that road, and 
T imagined It would be necessary to send out a party likewise on the road 
which leads to the Forest of Dean. The detachment under Cols. Bruyu 
and McClaughry were soon engf^fed, but, being too weak to withstand 
the enemy's great force, retreated to Fort Clinton, disputing the ground 
inch by inch. Their gallant opposition, and the roughness of the ground, 
checked the progress of the enemy for some time. 

"While matters were in this situation in the neighborhood of Fort 
Clinton, a large body of the enemy were advancing on the road which 
leadfj from the Forest of Dean to Fort Montgomerj'. As I had only one 
field-piece at the above fort, I ordered Col. Lamb of the artillery to send 
it off to an advautngeons post on that road, with a covering party of sixty 
men, and another of the same number to sustain them, in order to give 
the enemy a check, and retard their movements till I could receive rein- 
forcements from Gen. Putnam, to whom I had sent an express for that 
purpose. This order being immediately complied with, the piece had 
hardly reached the place of its destination, and the covering party been 
posted on strong ground, when the enemy were seen advancing with 
hasty strides ; but being unexpectedly annoyed by discharges of gniije- 
ehot itom the field-piece and a well-directed fire from the muskets, which 
made great havoc among them, as ire have since been informed, they 
were repeatedly driven back, till, filing off through the woods upon the 
right arid left with a view of surrounding our men, and the handful of 
bravo fellows being alarmed at their critical situation, they were con- 
strained to abandon the field-piece, after rendering it useless to the 
enemy by spiking It. In order to cover the men who were retreating, 
and to check the farther progreie of the enemy, I ordered out a twelve- 
pounder, which being well-8er\-ed wi^th grape-shot, an noyed them greatly, 
and gave the men an opportunity of retreating into the garrison with 
very little loss on our side, except that of Capt Fenno, who commanded 
the field-piece, and was made a prisoner. 

"This was about two o'clock in the afternoon, and the enemy ap- 
proached the works and l)egan the attack, which continued with few in- 
tervals till about five o'clock, when an officer appeared with a flag. I 

hull's, from Cornwall, under command of Maj. 
Zachariah DuBois ; Col. James Clinton's, from New 
Windsor, commanded by Lieut.-Col. James Mc- 
Claughry ; Col. Hasbrouck's, from Newburgh, under 
Lieut.-Col. Masten ; three regiments from other dis- 

ordered Lieut.-Col. Livingston to meet him jvithout the works and know 
his business. Col. Livingston having demanded his rank and business, 
he was told by the bearer of the flag that he was Lieut.-Col. Campbell, 
and that he came to demand the surrender of the fort to prevent the effu- 
sion of blood. Col. Livingston replied that he had no authority to treat 
with him, but if they would surrender themselves prisoners of war they 
might depend upon being well treated, and if they did not choose to 
accept those terms they might renew the attack, as soon as be should 
retire within the fort, he being determined to defend it to the last ex- 
tremity. As soon as Lieut.-Col. Livingston returned the attack was 
renewed with great violence, and, after as obstinate a resistance as our 
situation and the weakness of the garrison wcfuld admit, having de- 
fended the works f^om two o'clock till the dusk of the evening, the 
enemy, by the superiority of numbers, forced the works on all sides. 
The want of men prevented us from sustaining and supporting every 
part, having received no reinforcement from Gen. Putnam. 

'• Our loss, killed, wounded, and prisoners, is not so great as might have 
been- expected, when the strength of the enemy and our weakness are 
properly considered. My brother was wounded with a bayonet. Many 
officers and men, and myself, having the advantage of the enemy by 
being well acquainted with the ground, were so fortunate as to effect our 
escape under cover of the night, after the enemy were possessed of all 
the works. I was so happy as to get into a boat, crossed the river, and 
immediately waited on Gen. Putnam, with a view of concerting meas- 
ures for our future operations, to prevent the designs of Gen. Clinton, 
and Impede his progress in facilitating the movements of Burgoyne from 
the northward. I can assure your Excellency that I am well convinced 
if night had not approached rather too fast to correspond with our wishes 
the enemy would have been disappointed In their expectations, as a re- 
inforcement of five hundred men from Gen. Putnam's army were on the 
west side of the river ready to cross for our relief when the works were 
forced; and many of the mHitia were in the mountains ou their march 
to join us, bad not the communication between us and them been cut 

*' I have to add that by some fatality the two Continental frigates were 
lost, they having been ordered down by Gen. Putnam for the defense of 
the chain ; but being badly manned, they could not be got off in time, 
though I ordered tlie ship * Congress' to proceed to Fort Constitution the 
day before the attack, lest she should meet with a disaster; and the ship 

* Montgomery,' which lay near the chain, having neither anchor nor 
cables to secure her, it being the ebb of the tide and the wind falling, 
fell down so near the chain that Capt. Hodge was constrained to set her 
on fire to prevent her from falling into the hands of the enemy. The 

* Congress' unfortunately getting aground on the flat near Fort Constitu- 
tion, shared the same fate. Fort Constitution being destitute of troops 
to defend it was evacuated, after bringing off part of the stores. I am 
now about three miles from New Windsor, with Col. Samuel B. Webb's 
regiment of Continental troops, the remains of Col. Dubois', about one 
hundred of Col. Lamb's regiment, who escaped from the fort, and some 
militia. I intend to collect what force I possibly can to oppose the enemy, 
should they land on this side of the river. 

*' Sir Henry Clinton commanded in person. Geu. Tryon, Gen. Vauglian, 
and two other general officers were with him. The army who attacked 
us, by the lowest account, consisted of three thousand, chiefly British 
and Hessian troops, The garrison of both our posts did not exceed six 
hundred men, and many of these unarmed militia. The ordinary gar- 
rison was thus reduced by detaching Maj. Moffat with two hundred men 
to the post at Sydman's Bridge, and Col. Malcom's regiment being 
ordered from thence, and sixty men on Anthony's Nose by Gen. Put- 
nam's orders, received the day before the action. I have only to add 
that where great losses are sustained, however unavoidable, public cen- 
sure is generally the consequence to those who are immediately con- 
cerned. If, in the present instance, this should be the case, I wish, m 
far as relates to Fort Montgomery and its dependencies, it may fall ou 
me alono; for I should be guilty of the greatest Injustice were I not to 
■ declare that the officers and men under me, of the different corps, be- 
haved with the greatest spirit and bravery. 

" I am, etc., 

"George Clinton." 



tricts, and Col. DuBois' Continental regimentj and 
Col. Lamb's artillery. No list of the killed appears 
on record, the return being of prisoners, as follows : 


David M. HoUister. 

Thadeus Kneely. 

John McDonalds. 

John Conkling. 

James Montange. 

Henry Oatrander. 

Jacobus Lugner. 

David Breviers. 

Vincent Yiney. 

Jeremiah Dunn. 

Robert Patrick. 

William Baxter. 

Benjamin Wiltsie. 

David Winchester. 

Lewis Dickerson. 

John Ivory- 
Nathaniel Utter, 

Eliakim Bush. 

Robert Gillespie. 
Abraham Wright. 
Jonathan Hallock. 
James Weldon. 
Thomas Sinn. 
Martin Shay. 
tTbomas Hartwell. 
Patrick Dirking. 
Samuel Crosby. 
Moses Shall. 
> John West. 
John Mcintosh. 
Lieut. Henry Schoonmaker. 
Joseph Morgan. 
Jonathan Stockholm. 
Abel Randall. 
Thomas Kane. 
William Banker. 
Peter Wells. 
Joseph Ten Eyek. 
John Weston. 
Michael Burgle. 
Thomas Smith. 
Thomas Conkling. 
Ephraim Adams. 
Francis Sears. 
Samuel Garrison. 
John Ellison. 
William Ivory. 
John Stanly. 
Benjamin Griffin. 
Edward Allen. 
William Bardie. 
Enos Sniffin. 
Joseph Belton. 
James Hanna. 

William Wilbig. 
Jacobus Sanbush. 
John Brown. 
George Bolton. 
Aurie Mass. 
James Michael. 
John Johnston. 
Nelich Snifdn. 
Solomon Shaw. 
James Montieth. 
Daniel Lowers. 
jQha Hunt. 
Michael Johnston. 
Joseph Boeder. 
John Price. 
Kobeit Marshall. 
John Satterly. 
Lieut. Traverse. 
James Amerman. 
Herman Crums. 
Samuel Griffing. 
Cornelius Acker. 
Jacob Lawrence. 
Francis Gowans. 
Samuel Turner. 
Daniel Dimmock. 
John Whitlock. 
Jacobus Terwilligcr. 
James Steel. 
Thomas Crispell. 
Enos Luguier. 
Jacob Lent. 
John Albigh. 
Afex. De Kay. 
Samuel Boyd. 
William Werner. 
Abraham Jordan. 
John Storm. 
Thomas McCarty. 
Thomas Hendricks. 
*John Chamberlain, sergeant. 
Zebulon Woodruff. 
Paul Kryler. 
George Heck. 
John Miller. 
William Slutt. 
Lieut. Henry Swartwout. 
M^. Samuel Logan. 
Benjamin ChicheBter. 
Francis Drake. 
Jasper Smith. 
William Casselbon. 
Lieut Samuel Pendleton. 


Col. William Allison. 
Samuel Taylor. 
James Bell. 
Robert Cater. 
Richard Shorter. 
Richard Koyle. 
James Thompson. 
Timothy Comon. 
Michael Dannon. 
James Sardyer. 
Joseph Moore. 

Jesse Danon. 

Peter Jones. 

Uriah Black. 

Caleb Ashley. 

Frederick Noohton. 

David Weller, 

Peter Stage. 

Isaac Ketchufii. 

Henry Brewster, lieutenant. 

Frederick Pelllger. 

James McClaughry, Ueuten- Henry M. Neely 

an^coloDel. William Scott. 

Matthew DuBois. 
Francis McBride. 
Robert Huston. 
Andrew Wilson. 
Christopher Sypher. 
John Dankins. 
William Stenson. 
William Humphrey. 
George Humphrey. 
Moses Cantine. 
James Miller. 
James Humphrey, captain. 
John Skinner. 
Gradus Vinegar. 
Bolton Van Dyk. 
Cornelius Slutt. 
William Howell. 
John Hanna. 

Robert Barkley, 
James Wood. 
David Thompson . 
Ellas Wood. 
John Carmichael. 
William McMuUen. 
Isaac Denton. 
George Brown. 
Ethan Sears. 
^ Philip Millspaugh. 
John Van Arsdell. 
George Coleman. 
Albert Weeks. 
Hezekiah Kane. 
John Manney. . 
Isaac Kimbark. 
Samuel Falls. 


Cornelius Rose. Beigamin Lawrence. 

George Wilkin. Robert Cooper. 

Simeon Ostrander. Cornelius Stevens. 

John Stevenson. John Bingham. 

Zachariah Terwilliger. John Snyder. 
William Warren. 


Zachariah DuBois, major. 
John Brooks. 
John Lamoreux. 
Henrj' Cunningham. 
Joline Crooks. 
William Prince. 
Lyman Cavin?. 
Israel Cushman. 
Asa Barnsly. 
Thomas Hector. 
Jesse Carpenter. 

Benjamin Simmons. 
Isaac Cooley. 
Joshua Currey. 
James Thompson. 
Stephen Clark. 
James Michael. 
John Armstrong. 
Peter Gillen. 
Edward Thompson. 
Randal Hawes. 
Isaac Hoffman. 

Many of these prisoners were wounded in the action 
and died of their wounds, and many of them died in 
the sugar-house prison in New York; others were ex- 
changed after years of confinement. But of the killed 
in action no list was possible, — on the rolls of their 
regiments when called could only be entered " miss- 
ing" opposite the names of many noble men whose 
places were thereafter forever vacant. Rev. Timothy 
Dwight, chaplain in Parson's brigade, who visited the 
scene of conflict in March following, telld the story of 
their fate. He writes : "As we went onward, we were 
distressed by the fcetor of decayed human bodies. To 
me this was a novelty, and more overwhelming and 
dispiriting than I am able to describe. As we were 
attempting to discover the source from which it pro- 
ceeded, we found at a small distance from the fort a 
pond of moderate size, in which we saw the bodies of 
several men who had been killed in the assault upon 
the fort. They were thrown into this pond the pre- 
ceding autumn by the British, when probably the 
water was sufficiently deep to cover them. Some of 
them were covered at this time, but at a depth BO 
small as to leave them distinctly visible. Others hftd 
an arm, a leg, and part of the body above the surfece. 
The clothes they wore when they were killed were 
still on them, and proved that they were militia, being 
the ordinary dress of farmers. Their faces were 
bloated and monstrous, and their postures uncouth 



and distorted, and in the highest degree aflflictive. To 
me, a novice in scenes of this nature, it was over- 

Fortunately for the district, the regiments were hy 
no means full ; probably not over one-fourth of the 
militia was present in the actions. Fortunately, too, 
the Clintons escaped, — Governor George by a boat, in 
which he gained the eastern shore and made his way 
to Putnam's headquarters ; and Gen. James by slip- 
ping down the rocks to the bed of Poplopen's Kill 
and thence up the same into the hills. Wounded in 
the thigh by a bayonet thrust, he reached his home at 
Little Britain covered with blood, after a detour of 
sixteen miles. Defeated as they were — overwhelmed 
by numbers rather — they were by no means crushed. 
From Gen. Putnam Governor Clinton obtained Col. 
Webb's brigade, and with them crossed the river to 
New Windsor on the 8th (the day after the battle). 
Meanwhile by alarms and signal-guns the militia that 
had not been in the actions were brought together at 
Little Britain, where they were joined by fugitives 
from the forts, and by the time the British had de- 
stroyed the obstructions to the navigation a respecta- 
ble force was again under the Clintons on the west 
shore to prevent the enemy from landing, while on 
the eastern side Putnam was able to successfully pro- 
tect the army stores at Fishkill and at points above. 
As the enemy's fleet moved north, Putnam's and 
Clinton's commands moved with them. Unfortu- 
nately, the roads leading north were more circuitous 
than the course of the river, and while Clinton " forced 
the march" of his troops, they had only reached Eo- 
sendale Creek when the ascending smoke gave evidence 
that they were too late to save Kingston. Here the 
enemy stopped. Advices from the north conveyed to 
them the fact that they too were " too late," — that Bur- 
goyue had surrendered and that their further advance 
was useless. Their return voyage to the Highlands 
was watched by Putnam and Clinton, and on the 23d 
of October, when the enemy had passed below Pallo- 
pel's Island, the forces of the latter (then under Gen. 
James) were at New Windsor, occupying stations as 
follows : Gen. Webb's command at New Windsor vil- 
lage; Capt. Nicoll's company at Murderer's Creek; 
Col. Tusten with the remains of Col. Allison's regi- 
ment, and Col. Woodhull's regiment, from Murderer's 
Creek to Smith's Clove ; Col. McClaughry's regiment 
at Haabrouck's mill ; and Col. Hasbrouck's regiment 
from Newburgh along the river north. Tarrying only 
a few days in the Highlands to complete the destruc- 
tion of the fort, the enemy sailed for New York, and 
the militia returned to their homes. 

While these events were transpiring on the Hudson, 
the western frontier was harassed by the incursions of 
Indians and Tories. At the outbreak of the war the 
colonists made no little effort to induce the more 
important tribes, as well as the resident Indians, to 
remain neutral. To some extent this effort was suc- 
cessful, but ultimately the rude savages, always easily 

debauched by rum and trinkets, yielded to the solici- 
tations and rewards of the English agents, and ac- 
cepted service in their ranks. The bulk of the Six 
Nations were more immediately employed in the 
northern and western parts of the province, in com- 
pany with the Tories, in an independent organization 
known as " Tories and Indians." This organization 
was extended to the southwestern frontiers in 1777, 
when a rendezvous was established by Brant and But- 
ler at Oghkawaga (now Binghamton), where was soon 
gathered a motley crew of whites and savages, from 
the Delaware and its branches, whose field of opera- 
tions was to embrace the frontier settlements with 
which its members were best acquainted. In antici- 
pation of the events which subsequently followed, the 
settlers in the western part of Orange erected, soon 
after hostilities commenced, a number of block- 
houses,* while others stockaded their dwellings with 
a view to defense. The first invasion of the district is 
said to have occurred on the 13th of October, 1778, 
when two dwellings were attacked, three persons 
killed, and the inhabitants despoiled of their grain 
and stock.f Count Pulaski, with his .legion of cav- 
alry, was then sent to Minisink for the protection of 
the settlers, and remained during the winter of 1778- 
79, and Col. Van Cortlandt's regiment was sent to 
Wawarsing. Hostilities were renewed in the spring ; 
the valley of the Susquehanna was devastated ; Wy- 
oming became the scene of frightful massacres; north- 
western Ulster was invaded, and the Fantinekill and 
Woodstock settlements visited. The withdrawal of 
Count Pulaski from Minisink left the lower frontier 
exposed, and, on the night of July 19th, Brant, with 
sixty-five of his warriors, and twenty-seven Tories 
disguised as savages,! stole upon what was then known 
as the Lower Neighborhood,^ and before the people 
were aroused from their slumbers several dwellings 
were set on fire, and the work of death begun. With- 
out means of defense, the inhabitants fled to the moun- 
tains, leaving all their worldly goods a spoil to the in- 
vaders. Their church, mills, houses, and barns were 
burned ; several persons were killed and some taken 
prisoners ; cattle were driven away, and booty of every 
kind carried to Grassy Brook on the Delaware, where 
Brant had his headquarters. 
Alarmed by fugitives, Lieut.-Col. Tusten, of Col. 

* Hr. Gumaer states tbat three small forts were erected in the Peen- 
pack neighborhood, — "one at the house of Jacob Ruteen DeWitt, one 
at the house of Benjamin B. DePuy, and one at the house of Ezekiel 
Gumaer." He intimates thj^t there was none at the Lower Neighborhood 
or Little Minisink. Sauthier's map of 1779 locates " Col. Jersey Fort" 
at the " Lower Neighborhood," and " Fort Ootenco" north of the " Upper 
Neighborhood." Besides the "Col. Jersey Fort," there were several 
forts (so called) at the " Lower Neighborhood," erected by individuals for 
their own protection. Among others one at Daniel Van Auken*8, and 
one at Martinas Decker's. 

f This statement is on the authority of Mr. Gumaer. We find no 
other record. 

X The number of the attacking party was. never definitely known. 

g Now in Deerpark, south of the Neversink Biver, and so called to dis- 
tinguish it from the Upper Neighborhood, or original settlement on the 
Cuddeback Patent. 



Allison's Goshen regiment, Col. Hathorn of the War- 
wick regiment, and Capt. Meeker of the New Jersey 
militia, with such number of their commands as could 
be brought together in so brief a time, met in council 
at Minisink the following morning. Col. Tusten re- 
garded the force as being too small to attempt the 
pursuit of the invaders, but he was overruled, and the 
line of march taken up under command of Col. Hath- 
orn, and continued until the high hills overlooking 
the Delaware, near the mouth of the Lackawaxen, 
were reached, where the enemy was discovered. Or- 
dering his force into three divisions, Hathorn made 
preparations for the attack; but was anticipated by 
Brant, who having, it is said, received reinforcements, 
threw his warriors into action before Hathorn's dis- 
positions were fully made, and compelled his rear di- 
vision to break and fly. Hathorn rallied his men as 
best he could ; but Brant had the advantage of posi- 
tion and superior numbers, and drew his fire closer 
and closer until Hathorn was hemmed in within the 
circumference of an acre of ground, upon a rocky 
hill that sloped on all sides, where, with only forty- 
five men, he maintained the conflict for over five 
hours, when, £he ammunition of his men being ex- 
hausted, he formed them in a hollow square, and pre- 
pared for a final defense with clubbed muskets. 
Broken at one corner, the square became a rout, and 
the flying fugitives sought safety in all directions. 
Behind a rock on the field, Tusten dressed the wounds 
of his neighbors, but his occupation was no protec- 
tion ; the Indians rushed to the spot, killed him and 
the wounded men in his charge, seventeen in number, 
and completed the bloody work which they had com- 
menced. Of those who heroically took part in the 
action, only about thirty returned to relate the expe- 
riences through which they had passed in the scourg- 
ing conflict, — the whistle of bullets, the moans of the 
wounded, the yells of savage foes, grafting them for- 
ever upon the memory of their descendants and 
weaving them imperishably into the traditions and 
the history of the county. Engraved on the monu- 
ment to their memory* at Goshen are the names, so 
far as known, of those who perished in the action : 

Benjamin Tusten, lieuteDant- 

Samuel Jones, captain. 
Sphraim Maaten, eneign. 
John Duncan, captain. 
Gabriel Wiener. 
Natbaniel Terwilliger. 
Ephmini Ferguson. 
Samuel Knapp. 
Bei^amin Bennett. 
Jacub DuDDing. 

James Little. 
Gilbert S. Vail. 
Abram Shepherd. 


Daniel Talmage. 
David Harney. 
Abram Williams. 
Isaac Ward. 
Gamaliel Bfdley. 
Eleazer Owens. 
Samuel Little. 

* In 1822 tbe bones of the fallen were gathered from the battle-field 
and interred at Goshen under a monument inscribed, "Erected by the 
inhabitants of Orange County, July 22, 1822. Sacred to the memory of 
forty-four of their fellow-citizens who fell at the battle of Minisink, 
July 22, 1779." No positive identification of the remains could be made. 
The pretieut monument was the gift of the late Dr. M. H. Cash, and was 
erected by the board of superrisura in 1862. The battle-ground is in the 
present county of Sullivan. 

Daniel Reed. 
Bozaliel Tyler, captain. 
John Wood, lieutenant. 
Natbaniel Finch, oc^utant. 
Ephraim Hiddaugh, ensign. 
Stephen Mead. 
Joshua Lockwood. 
Roger Townsend. 
James Enapp. 
William Barker. 
Jonathan Fierce, 

Joseph Norris. 
Joel Decker. 
Nathan W^ade. 
Simon Wait. 
John Carpenter. 
Jouathan Haskell. 
James Morher. 
Baltus Nierpofl. 
Moses Thomas. 
Adun Embler. 
Benjamin Dunning. 

An account of the engagement which shall satis- 
factorily harmonize the traditions concerning it cau- 
not be attempted with the hope of success. The 
stories which have been repeated by sire to son for 
four generations cannot be, and perhaps should not 
be, uprooted. The only statement that has the sem- 
blance of authority upon the subject is the official 
report of Col. Hathorn, made ^ve days after the ac- 
tion, and while yet the account of the dead and misa* 
ing was incomplete. The following is this report : ? ^■ 

»* Warwick 27 July, 1779. 

" Gov. Clinton — Dear eiR : In conformity to the Militia Law I em* 
brace this first opportunity to communicate to your Excellency my 
proceediDgH on a late tour of duty with my Regiment. Oo the Ereoing 
of the 21st of this instant I received an order from his Excellency Q«n- 
eral Washington, together with a requisition of the Commissary of Frit- 
oners, to furnish one hundred men of my Regiment for to guard the 
British Prisouers on their way to Easton, at the same time received an 
Express from Minisink that the Indians were ravaging and burning that 
place. I ordered three companies of my Regiment including tbe Exempt 
Company to parade for the purpose of the Guard. The other three Con^ 
panics to March Immediately to Minisink. On the 22 I arrived with 
a part of my people at Minisink, where I found Col. Tustin of Goshen 
and Major Meeker of New Jersey with parts of their Regiments who 
had marched with about Eighty men up the river a few mile. I joined 
this paity with about Forty men the whole amountiug to one hundta4 
and twenty men Officers included. A spy come in and informed me tho 
Enemy lay about four hours before at Mungaup, six miles distant fitm 
us. Our people appeared in High Spirits. We marched in pursuit with 
an intention either to fall on them by surprise or to gain in frout and 
Ambush them. We were soon informed that they were on their march 
np the River. I found it impracticable to surprise them on the ground 
they now were and took my Rout along the old Keahethtou path. Tbe 
Indians encamped at the month of the half-way brook. We encamped 
at 12 o'clock at night at Skinners Saw Mill three miles and a half from 
the Enemy where we lay the remainder of the night. The Mountains 
were so exceedingly rugged and high we could not possibly get at them 
as they had paased the grounds the most favourable for us tb attack them 
on before we could overtake them. Skinners is about eighteen miles 
from Minisink. At daylight on the morning of the 23, after leaving our 
horses, and disengaging of every thing heavy, we marched on with in* 
tentioQ to make the attack the moment an opportunity offered. Th* 
Indians, probably from some discovery f hey had made of us, marched 
with more alacrity than usual, with an intention to get their Frisonera, 
Cattle and plunder taken at Minisink over tbe river. They had almost 
effected getting their Cattle and baggago across, when we discovered ttaen 
at Lacawack, 27 miles from Minisink, some Indians in the river and sous 
had got over. It was determined in council to make au attack at this 
place. I therefore disposed of the men into three divisions, ordered 
Col. Tustin to command tbe one on tbe right and to take post about 
three hundred yards distance on an eminence to secure our Right; ml 
Col. Wisner with another Division to file out to the Left and to dispoN 
of himself in the like manner. In order to prevent the Enemy tnm 
gaining any advantage on our flank, the other Division under my coin- 
maud to attack them with that vigor necessary to Strike Terror in soflh 
a foe. 

" Capt Tyler with the advance Guard unhappily discharged his piece 
before the division could be properly posted, which pnt me under th9 
necessity of bringing on the Action. I ordered my Division to fix their 
Bayonets and push forcibly on them, which order being resolutely exe* 
cuted put the Indians in the utmost confusion great numbers took to 



the river, who fell fVom the well directed fire of our Bifle men, and in- 
ceaeant bluie from our Musketry without returning any fire. The Di- 
Tluons in the rear, not subject to order brokCi some advanced down the 
hill toward me, others fled Into the woods. I soon perceived the enemy 
rally on our right and recroseing the river to gain the heights. I found 
myself under the necessity to rally all my force whicl^ by this time was 
much less than I expected. The enemy by this time had collected in 
force and from the beat accounts can be collected received a reinforce- 
ment from KeshethoD began to fire on our left. We returned the fire 
and kept np a constant bush flreing up the hill from the rivei^ in which 
the brave Capt. Tyler fell, several were wounded. The people being 
exceedingly fatigued obliged me to take post on a height, which proved 
to be a strong and advantageous ground. The enemy repeatedly ad- 
vanced in ftt>m 40 to 100 yards distance and were as repeatedly repulsed. 
I had now but 45 men (officers included) who had lost their command 
naturally drew toward me. The spirits of these few notwithstanding 
their fatigue, situation, and unallayed thirst, added to that cruel yelling 
of those bloody monetera, the seed of Anak in size, exceed thought or 
description. We defended this grouBd near three hours and a half 
during the whole time one blaze without intermission was kept up on 
both sides. Here we had three men killed and nine wounded. Among 
the wounded was Lt. Col. Tustin, in the hand, Mig. Meeker in the shoul- 
der, Ac^. Finch In the leg, Capt. Jones in the foot, and Ensign Wood in 
the wrist. The chief of our people was wounded by Angle shots from 
the Indians from behind Bocks and Trees. Our Bifles here were very 
nsefiil. I found myself under the necessity of ceasing tho fire, our Am- 
munition from the continual fire of more -than five hours* naturally 
suggested that it must be Exhausted, ordered no person to shoot without 
having his object sure that no shut might be lost. This gave spirits to 
the Enemy, who formed their whole strength and forced the North East 
part of opr Linra. Here we gave them a severe Gaul. Our people not 
being able to support the lines retreated down the hill precipitately 
towards the Biver. The Enemy kept up a constant fire on our Bight 
which was returned. The people by this time was so scattered I found 
myself unequal to rally them again, consequently every man made 
choice of his own way. Thas Ended the Action. 

" The following are missing in the whole from the last accounts : 
"Col. Ellison's Regiment— Lt. Col. Tustin, Capt. Jones, Capt. Wood, 
Capt Little, Capt. Buncanr and twelve privates. One private of New 
Jersey. Adjutant Finch, Ensign Wood, and one private of my Regiment. 
In the whole twenty-one men. 

** Several wounded men are in. I hope others will be yet found. I 
received a wonnd on my head, one in my leg and one in my thigh — 
slightly. The one in my thigh, frvm inattention, is a little troublesome, 
fieveral spies that lay near the enemy the night following the action in- 
form us that they moved off their wounded In canoes, on the day follow- 
ing: that on the ground where they lay there was great quantities of 
blood, and the whole encampment was marked with wounded men. 
Oreat numbers of plasters and bloody rags was found. Although we 
suffered by the loss of so many brave men, the best for the number, with- 
out sensible error, in the Precinct. It's beyond doubt the enemy suf- 
fered much more. From the various parts of the action can be collected 
a greater number of Indian dead than we lost, beeidea their wounded. 
The number of Indians and Tories is not ascertained ; some accounts say 
DO, others 120, others 160. Col. Seward of New Jersey, with 93 men, 
was within five or dx miles of the action, on the Pennsylvania side, did 
not hear the firing ; approached and lay near the Indians all night follow- 
ing, and from their conduct and groaning of the wounded gave rise to 
the belief that they had been in some action where they had suffered, 
and would have attacked them round their fire, but a mutiny arose 
among some of his people which prevented — a very nnfortanate and to 

* A question has been raised as to the time of the continuance of the 
action. It wl|I be observed that in another place Col. Hathorn gives the 
line of his march as extending twenty-seven miles, nine of which were 
traveled on the day of the action before the enemy was discovered. 
Some time was also spent in countermarching and forming line of battle, 
the whole probably occupying the day until near noon. A " continued 
fire of more than five bonis" would have taken the time to nbout half- 
past five. It Is evidout that the object was to hold the place to as late 
an hour as possible that escape might be attended with the best advan- 
tages, and It is to this fact, perhaps, that no pursnit was made by the In- 
dians, aod that so many fugitives made their way to their homes. Me^, 
Wood, in his journal, says the " confiict lasted almost the whole day," 
which apparently confirms the current account of the continuance until 
near twilight. 

be lamented circumstance. If in their situation he had attacked them, 
with the common smiles of Providence he mnst have succeeded and put 
them to total rout. 

" Dear Governor, it's not in my power to paint out to you the disagree- 
able situation I was in, surrounded by a foe, with such a handfull of 
valuable men not only as soldiers but as fellow citizens and members of 
society, and nothing to be expected but the hatchet, spear and scalping 
knife. The tremendous yells and whoops, all the fiends in the confines 
of the Infernal Regions, with one united cry, could not exceed it. Add 
to this the cries and petitions of the wounded around me not to leave 
them, was beyond parallel or idea. My heart bleeds for the unfortunate 
wounded who fell into their hands. However, circumstances give me 
a little consolation. Mr. Roger Townsend, of Goshen, received a wound 
in his thigh; being exceedingly thirsty, making an attempt to go to 
find some water, was met l^ an Indian who very friendly took him by 
the hand and said he was his prisoner and would not hurt him. A well- 
directed ball from one of our men put the Indian into a dose, and Mr. 
Townsend ran back into the lines. I hope some little humanly may 
yet be found- in the breastsfof the< savagts. 

" I should be at the greatest loss was I to attempt to point out any offi- 
cer or soldier that exceeded another in bravery during tt^e time of the 
general action. Too much praise cannot be given to them for their at- 
tention in receiving orders and alacrity in executing them. 

" I have acquiesced with Col. Woodhull in ordering one-eighth of our 
Regiments to Minisink as a temporary guard until your excellency's 
pleasure is known on the subject. 

"The Indians were under the command of Brant, who was either 
killed or wounded in the action. They burnt Major Decker's house and 
barn, Saml. Davis's house, barn and mill. Jacobus Van Vleck's bouse 
and barn, Daniel Yanoker's barn, (here was two Indians killed from a 
little Fort round the house, which was saved,} Esquire GuykindaH'B 
house and bam, Simon Westfall's house and barn, the Church, Peter 
Guykindall's house and bam, Mertinus Decker's fort, house, bam and 
saw mills, and Nehemiah Patterson's saw mill ; killed and scalped Jere- 
miah Vanoker, Daniel Cole, Ephraim Ferguson and one Tavem, and 
took with them several prisoners, mostly children, with a great number 
of horses, cattle and valuable plunder. Some of the cattle we rescued 
and returned to the owners. 

" I hope your Excellency will make allowances for the imperfect stile, 
razurea and blotts of this line, whilst I have the honor to subscribe 
myself, with the most perfect esteem, in haste, 

" Tour Excellency*s Most Obedt Servt, 

" John Hathorn, Cot.^* 

Detachments from Woodhull's, Allison's, and Ha- 
thorn's regiments were immediately sent to guard ttie 
frontier from further incursions. Their continuance 
in the field, however, was of short duration, for the 
moving of Sullivan's expedition up the Susquehanna, 
and of Clinton's co-operating command through the 
Mohawk Valley, drew the attention of Brant and his 
Tory allies to their own protection, and the scourging 
which they then received deterred them from again 
venturing upon the war-path. 

A reason of quite an opposite character tended to 
relieve the militia of eastern Orange and southern 
Ulster from the active service in which they had par- 
ticipated for three years. The forts in the High- 
lands having become of the utmost strategic impor- 
tance, Washington, with the main body of the Conti- 
nental army, encamped in their vicinity, and held in 
check the movements of the enemy. But without 
further service in the field, — a duty from which they 
were not fiiUy relieved, — the record of their part in 
the drama of the Revolution will rank them with the 
most heroic of that heroic era. 





Events connected with the war of the Revolution, 
aside from military organizations and their services, 
mainly cluster around the associations which were 
formed in 1775 to maintain civil government and sus- 
tain the action of the Continental Congress, and the 
operations of Claudius Smith's band of "cow-boys." 
True, there were other events which transpired in the 
district now constituting the county, as well as in that 
which was then embraced within its limits. The part 
taken by the people in erecting the forts in the High- 
lands and in obstructing the navigation of Hudson's 
River; the story of Stony Point; the treason of Ar- 
nold and the capture and execution of Andr6 ; the 
encampment of the Continental army in Smith's 
Clove and in New Windsor; the headquarters of 
Washington in New Windsor and Newburgh; the 
Temple, the Newburgh Letters, and the Society of the 
Cincinnati have their place in tbe county's annals. 
Nevertheless, they were events that have properly 
been remanded to the domain of general history, and 
have therein been exhaustively chronicled, and it 
would be a work of supererogation to repeat their de- 
tails. We turn, therefore, to the organization of the 



The war of the Revolution may be said to have 
been inaugurated by the Continental Congress of 
1774. No matter what may have been the steps 
which led the colonists up to that point, the passage 
of the non-importation resolutions of 1774 was the 
point of departure from which neither the govern- 
ment nor the colonies could recede, — the issue of 
compulsion and resistance was by that act estab- 
lished. One of the leading features of these res- 
olutions was the call for the organization in every 
city, county, town, and precinct of a " Committee of 
Safety and Observation." The city of New York 
took the lead by organizing a committee of one hun- 
dred, of which Isaac Low was chairman, and by 
sending circulars to all the towns and precincts in the 
province urging the formation of similar committees. 
About the same time a pamphlet entitled " Free 
Thoughts on the Resolves of Congress" made its ap- 
pearance and was scattered broadcast over the land. 
The people thus had the question fairly before them, 
and in their local meetings discussed the points in- 
volved. The district now included in the county was 
ripe for the movement. In original Orange the gen- 
eral sentiment was especially one of approval, for, 
notwithstanding the fact that the city of New York 
had selected the delegates to the Congress of 1774, 
the people of Orange determined to send a delegate 
of their own, and, at a convention held at Goshen, 
appointed Henry Wisner to represent them, whose 
voice and signature were given for non-importation, 

while southern Ulstet, the home of George Clintoi^ 
had approved his every act of opposition to the de^ 
mands of the ministry. It is not with surprise, there- 
fore, that we read that in the precincts of Newburgh; 
New Windsor, Hanover, Wallkill, Goshen, and Corn- 
wall the pamphlet referred to was publicly burned 
and committees of safety organized. i 

The first duty of these committees was to provide 
for sending delegates to a provincial convention to b^ 
held in New York for the purpose of appointing del-; 
egates to the Second Continental Congress at Phila- 
delphia. Scarcely had this work been completed) 
when, on the 29th of April, the committee of Nev? 
York drew up and signed a pledge to observe and 
maintain the orders and resolutions of both the Con- 
tinental and Provincial Congresses, and sent it for sig- 
natures to all the precincts and counties in the prov* 
ince. It was an important proceeding. While local 
committees of safety had their place in giving expres^ 
sion to the popular voice, the pledge of association^ 
bearing the individual signatures of the people, was 
an evidence that could not be impeached. Another 
important feature was that it was virtually the organ'; 
ization of a revolutionary government. It was in the 
following form : 

" Persuaded that the salvation of the rights and liberties of Americs 
depend, under God, on the firm union of ita inhabitants in a vigorooB 
prosecution of the measures necessary for its safety; and convinced of 
the necessity of preventing anarchy and confusion, which attend the 
dissolution of the powers of government, we, the freemen, freelioldera, 

and inhabitants of , do,in the most solemn manner, resolve never to 

become slaves ; and do associate, under all the tlee of religion, honor, 
and love of our country, to adopt and endeavor to carry into execntion 
whatever measures may be recommended by the Continental Congress, 
or resolved upon by our Provincial Convention, for the purpoee of pr^ 
serving our ConsUtutioD, and opposing the execution of the several ar* 
bitrary acts, of the British Parliament, until « reconciliation between 
Great Britain and America, on constitutional principles (which we most 
ardently desire), can be obtained; and that we will in all things follow 
the advice of our General Committee respecting the purposes aforesaid, 
the preservation of peace and good order, and the safety of individuals 
and property." 

With the return of the signatures to the general 
committee of New York the local organizations were 
complete, presenting as their representatives commit- 
tees of safety and observation charged with the exe-. 
cution of whatever measures might be regarded as 
necessary by the general committee of New York. 
Almost immediately following this organization they 
were recognized by the Provincial Convention, and 
the local committees invested with power to appoint 
assessors and collectors, while the county committees 
were to be " considered as supervisors according to 
the police of the city, county, town, or precinct" in 
which they had been chosen, and, with the assessors 
and collectors, were directed to assess, raise, and col- 
lect the' quotas to be raised for the support of the 
revolutionary government, and were empowered to 
enforce collection " by distress upon the goods and 
chattels of the defeulters," as had been previously 
practiced in the collection of taxes for the crown. 
The power to arrest persons " inimical" to the meas- 



ures which had been or might be taken was vested 
in the local committees; subsequently (1777) this 
power was greatly enlarged by the Continental Con- 
gress, and the local committees practically constituted 
marshals of the United States, with power to arrest 
under warrants charging the " levying of war against 
the United States of America, holding correspond- 
ence with and assisting the enemies of the said 
States," and of being "inimical to the cause of 
America.'' Whatever may have been their purpose 
and action in other provinces, in New York — where 
a government had to be created to supplant that which 
had been established by England — they became the 
government, the town committees, where it was ne- 
cessary, taking upon themselves the powers of town 
oflicers, county committees becoming boards of su- 
pervisors, the general committee of the province per- 
forming legislative duties in the recess of the Provin- 
cial Qonvention, the latter body becoming the supreme 
head of the Revolutionary movement until 1777, when 
a constitution was adopted, — the first republican con- 
stitution of the State of New York. 

It may be proper to add that the county commit- 
tees were not all constituted in the same manner. In 
counties where the precincts had chosen committees, 
the latter bodies composed the county committee ; in 
counties where there were no precinct organizations, 
county committees might be formed of any number 
of the "friends of liberty;'' in other counties, where 
a majority of the precincts had chosen committees, 
it was provided that " if there be any district or dis- 
tricts that have not chosen committees, the county 
committee are to proceed in like manner as if such 
district or districts were actually represented in said 
county committee" in the assessment of taxes, etc. 
Many of the duties conferred upon county commit- 
tees were not operative where the local authorities 
acted in accord with the opponents of the crown, and 
the assessment and collection of taxes was in their 
interest ; but in other respects they had powers grow- 
ing out of the necessities of the situation, among 
which was the following : 

" If any person or persons shall hereafter oppose or deny the authority 
of the Continental or of this (Provincial) Congress, or the Committee of 
Safety, or the committees of the respective counties, cities, towns, manors, 
precincts, or districts in this colony, or dissuade any person or persons 
from obeying the recommendations of the Continental or this Congress, 
or the Committee of Safety, or the committee aforesaid, and be convicted 
thereof before the committee of the cownty, or any thirteen or more of 
their number, who shall or may meet upon a general call of the chairman 
of suc^i committee where such person or persons may reside, that such 
committee shall cause such offenders to be disarmed; and for the second 
ofTunae they shall be committed to close confiaement, at their respective 
expenae," • 

This explanation is given for two purposes : first, that 
the true character of the associations and committees 
may appear ; and, second, that the impression which 
many entertain that a signature to the pledge is to be 
regarded as positive evidence of the loyalty of the per- 
son making it to the cause of independence, may be 
corrected. In the great majority of cases the impression 

referred to is no doubt in accordance with the facts, 
in others it is not. There were a few — whose names 
appear as refusing to sign — ^who could, perhaps, be 
classed as " Tories" prior to the adoption of the Dec- 
laration of Independence. Men were only asked to 
give their approval to proposed measures "until a 
reconciliation should be effected." When the Decla- 
ration was adopted, John Alsop, in resigning his seat 
in the Continental Congress, voiced the sentiments of 
a minority of respectable members in saying, " As 
long as a door was left open for a reconciliation with 
Great Britain, upon honorable terms, I was willing 
and ready to render my country all the service in my 
power ; but as you have, by that declaration, closed 
the door of reconciliation, I must beg leave to resign." 
Perhaps it is fortunate that an analysis of the lists 
cannot now be made with a view to show the position 
of each person in the broader field of rebellion to 
which the country was carried by the Declaration. 
That there were many and violent opponents raised 
up who had previously acquiesced in the measures 
for redress, will not be questioned by those familiar 
with the history of the Revolution. " Loyalists" and 
" Tories" then became familiar terms, — " Indians and 
Tories" a terror on the frontiers. Perhaps the Whigs 
committed excesses, or were too severe in committee 
administration ; but this at least is true, that they 
discriminated between their opponents, driving one 
class from the country, but suffering the other to en- 
joy their possessions, and their descendants to stand 
as the peers of their own children in the national 
temple which they had erected. It is not for the 
present or for future generations to appeal from the 
justice of that discrimination. 

One other explanation. The signatures in Goshen 
precinct embraced the present town of Goshen, Ches- 
ter, Warwick, Wawayauda, Greenville, and part of 
Blooming-Grove ; Mount Hope and Deerpark appear 
in the precinct of Mamakating ; Cornwall precinct 
embraced the present towns of Cornwall, Highlands, 
Monroe, part of Blooming-Grove, and a portion of 
the present county of Rockland; the precincts of 
Newburgh, New Windsor, and Wallkill will be rec- 
ognized as present towns, while the precinct of Han- 
over included the present towns of Montgomery and 
Crawford. It is this subdivision of the old precincts 
that prevents the assignment of names to towns as 
now constituted. The following were the signatures : 


Col. Jona. Hasbrouck. 
Thomas Palmer. 
Isaac Belknap. 
William Darling. 
Wolvert Acker. 
John Belknap. 
John Robinson. 
Saml. Clark. 
Beqj. Birdsall. 
Benjamin Smith. 
James Waugh. 
Abel Belknap. 

Martin Weigand. 
Wm. Foster. 
Wm. Wilson. 
Wm. Stillwell, Jr. 
Peter Bonally. 
Charles Tooker. 
Leonard Smith, Jr. 
Henry Smith. 
James Wooden. 
Thomas Smith, 
Caleb Case. 
David Green. 



Moses Higby, M.D. 
Henry Oropsey. 
Wm. Harding. 
Josepli Belknap. 
John StrattOD. 
Lewie Holt. 
Samnel Hallock. 
Samuel Spragne. 
Burroughs Holmes. 
Samuel Bond. 
Thomas Campbell. 
James Coaman. 
Lewis Clark. 
Jonathan Sweet. 
Seuben Tooker. 
David Belknap. 
Daniel Birdaall. 
"Robert Lockwood, 
Benj. Knap. 
Saml. Westlake. 
Joalah Ward. 
Silas Gardner. 
Jacob Gillie. 
Wm. Kencaden. 
James Denton. 
John Foster. 
Hope Mills. 
John Gosman. 
Wm. Wear. 
Thomas Fish. 
Wm. Lawrence, Jr. 
John Kernoghan. 
Bobert Hanmer. 
Robert Rose. 
John Crowell. 
Obadiah Weeks. 
Francis Hanmer. 
William Bloomer. 
Abraham Garrison, 
Jamee Marston. 
Samuel Gardiner. 
Anning Smith. 
Richard Albertson. 
Benj. Lawrence. 
Richard Buckingham. 
Jacob Morewiae. 
Nicholas Stephens. 
Johannis Snider. 
Benjamin Itobinson. 
Andrew Spragne. 
Thomas Beaty. 
Solo. Buckingham. 
Wm. Bowdieh. 
Jona. Belknap. 
Jacob Tremper. 
Abraham Smith. 
Cornelius Wood, 
John Lawrence. 
George Hack. 
John Shaw. 
Corns. Hasbrouck. 
Isaac Demott. 
David Smith. 
John Strattoii. 
[ Absalom Caee. 
Joseph Dunn. 
Daniel Morewise. 
k Jonathan Owen. 
Jehiel Clark. 
Reuben Holms, 
Nathaniel Coleman. 
George Leonard. 
Elnathan Foster. 
Neal McLean. 
Wm. Palmer. 

John Stillwell. 
Luff Smith. 
John Gates. 
Beqj. Darby. 
Israel Smith. 
Thads. Smith. 
Jacob Myers. 
Saml. Concklin. 
Isaac Brown, M.D, 
Peter Tilton. 
Jolin Douaghy, 
Ste. Stephenson. 
John Grigge. 
Saml. Smith. 
Jeremiah Ward. 
Wm. Ward. 
Wm. Rneael. 
John Tremper, 
Charles Willett. 
Jeremiah Dunn. 
Wm. Lawrence. 
Robert Wangh. 
Wiggins Conklin. 
Robert Realty, Jr. 
Abr'm Johnston. 
Silas Sperry. 
Jamee Clark. 
David Mills. 
Caleb Coffin. 
James Harris. 
Theo. Hagaman, 
Wm. Dunn. 
Nehemiah Carpenter. 
Leonard Smith. 
Wm. Day. 
John Wandel, 
Abel Thrall. 
Phineas Gorwln. 
Moses Hunt. 
Samuel Sands. 
Jacob CoDckliQ. 
Joseph Price. 
John Saunders. 
George Weetlake. 
Burger Weigand. 
Tunis Keiter. 
Hugh Quigly. 
Daniel Darby. 
Isaac Brown, Jr. 
Hezekiah Wyatt. 
Wm, Whitehead. 
Daniel Goldsmith. 
Gabriel Travis. 
Nathaniel Weed. 
John Weed, 
Daniel Duboise. 
Arthur Smith. 
Isaac Fowler, 
Stephen Outnian. 
Saml. Stratton. 
Joseph Carpenter. 
Daniel Thuretin. 
John Fowler. 
Daniel Clark. 
Isaac Donaldson. 
Wm. Concklin. 
Charles Tooker. 
John Smith. 
Isaac Fowler, Jr. 
William Wright. 
Wm. White. 
Daniel KnifTen. 
Rob. Morrison, M.D. 
John Dolson. 
Leonard Smith. 

Nehemiah Fowler. 
Stephen Wiggins. 
Isaiah Purdy. 
♦Gilbert Purdy. 
Nathan Purdy. 
*John Wiggins. 
*James Leonard. 
*MoriiB Flewwelling. 
*Anthony Beatlebron. 
*Daniel Hains. 
*Daniel Denton. 
Daniel Denton, Jr. 
*GeorgA Merritt. 
Adam Patrick. 
*Gabriel Travis. 
John Wiggins, Jr. 
Joseph Gedney, Jr. 
George Devoll. 
Thomas Fowler. 
Stephen Wood. 
*Abel Flewwelling. 
Jonathan Pine. 
*Samue1 Fowler. 
Joseph Cope. 
Hazael Smith. 
Jonathan Brnnbridge. 
Joseph Headley, 

Be/using to Sign. 

Benjamin Lewis. 
Peter Aldrige. 
*John Flewwelling. 
Jacob Fry, 
James Perry. 
James Patterson. 
David Gedney. 
George Elms. 
Nathan Purdy, Jr. 
Daniel Purdy. 
Daniel Purdy, Jr. 
John Hendrick. 
*lBaac Barton. 
William Roach. 
David Horton. 
Theophilus Mozer. 
*Jona8 Totten. 
Daniel Dorland. 
Daniel Bounds. 
John Morrel. 
Moses Knap. 
David Wyatt. 
Samnel Denton. 
Thomas Orr, Jr. 
*Daniel Gedney. 
John Elms. 
Joseph Penny. 

The " Committee of Safety and Observation*' was 
appointed Jan, 27, 1775, and was composed of Wolvert 
Acker, Jonathan Hasbrouck, Thomas Palmer, Jolm 
Belknap, Joseph Coleman, Moses Higby, Samuel 
Sands, Stephen Case, Isaac Belknap, Benjamin Bird- 
sail, and John Robinson, 


Jamra Ginton. 
John Nicholson. 
James McClaughry. 
Matthew DuBois. 
Robert Cook. 
John Umphrey. 
James Umphrey. 
George Umphrey. 
Oliver Humphrey. 
James McDowell. 
Alexander Telford. 
Robert Smith. 
Jonah Park. 
Scndder Newman. 
James Humphrey (2).f 
John Davis. 
John Coleman. 
Joseph Toung. 
Andrew Robinson. 
William Fulton. 
James Taylor. 
Hugh Polloy. 
Samuel Given. 
Robert Burnet, Jr. 
Timothy Mills. 
William Buchanan. 
Matthew Bell. 

Walter McMichael. 
George Coleman. 
James Gage. 
Jamee Dunlap. 
Robert Stuert. 
Samnel Wood. 
Nathaniel Garrison. 
Andrew Dickaon. 
George Coleman (2). 
Peter John. 
Samuel Lamb. 
William Crawford. 
John W. Miblan. 
Francis Mains. 
James Miller. 
John Morrison. 
Hugh Waterson. 
Caleb Dill. 
John Dill. 
Edward Miller. 
Robert Wbigham. 
John Cnidge. 
Robert Boyd, Sr. 
Silas Wood. 
Richard Wood. 
John Johnston. 
David Crawford. 

* Those marked with asterisk subsequently came before the committM 
and made affidavit of their intention to abide by the measures of the 
Continental Congress, and pay their qnota of all expenses.— a pledge 
which some of them subwquently reconsidered. 

t (2) indicates that name appears twice without suffix of Jr. or flr. 
The names are from the original list, which was not returned to tht 
General Committee. It does not appear to be a complete list, there belns 
known residents at the time whose names do not appear, nor Is tbers ft 
return of those refusing to sign. 



Bobert ThompBon. 
Charles Nicholson. 
William Bobinaoii. 
Arthur Carecftdden. 
Edward Lyal. 
Henry McNeelej. 
William Niclos. 
Robert Boyd, Jr. 
Nathan Smith. 
Samuel Logan. 
James Denntston. 
Jacob Mills. 
Thomas Cook. 
Daniel Clemence. 
Bobert Cuuhan. 
John Waugh. 
William Gage. 
Alexander Kemahan. 
William Stinson. 
Henry Roberson. 
Benjamin Homan. 
William Miller. 
William Telford. 
John Burnet. 
Joseph Beatty. 
John Smith. 
Jamee M. Oliver. 
William Miller (2). 
Charles Bym. 
Jonathan Parshall. 
James Greer. 
John Hills. 
Thomas Eliot. 
Robert Campbell. 
Nathaniel Boyd. 
Charles Kemaghan. 
Eltphalet Leonard. 
William Nichols. 
Thomas McSowel. 
James Crawford. 
Joseph Belknap. 
John Nicoll. 
Samuel Brewster. 
Samuel Sly. 
Matthew McDowell. 
Daniel Mills. 

John Morrison (2). 
Henry McNeeley, Jr. 
Alexander Taylor. 
James Perry. 
Samuel Boyd. 
John Cunningham. 
James Jackson, Jr. 
Isaac Stonehonse. 
John Hiffeman. 
James Smith. 
William Park. 
David Thompson. 
Nathaniel Liscomb. 
William Hnlliner. 
Isaac Belkni^. 
Nathaniel Boyd (2). 
Edward Petty. 
Bobert Johnston. 
Joseph Sweezey. 
Alexander Fulton. 
James Faulkner. 
David aark. 
Nathan Sargent. 
Gilbert Peet. 
James Docksey. 
Solomon Smith. 
Samuel Woodward. 
Jonathan White. 
Alexander Beatty, 
John Close (Rev.). 
William Moflfat. 
William Beatty. 
George Harris. 
Stephen King. 
John Murphy. 
Benjamin Burnam. 
Austin Beardsley. 
Thomas Swafford. 
Timothy White. 
Dennis Furahay. 
George Havings. 
Samuel Brewster, Jr. 
David Mandevill. 
William Welling. 
Peter Welling. 
Hugh Turner. 

(Deerpark and Mount Hope.) 

"Committee of Safety and Observation," May 6, 
1775, was composed of Col. James Clinton, Capt. 
James McClaughry, John Nicoll, John Nicholson, 
Nathan Smith, Robert Boyd, Jr., Samuel Brewster, 
Samuel Sly, Samuel Logan. May, 1776: Samuel 
Brewster, Robert Boyd, Jr., Nathan Smith, Hugh 
Humphrey, Greorge Denniston, John Nicoll, Col. 
James McClaughry, and Samuel Arthur. Samuel 
Brewster, chairman. 


No return of names made. " Committee of Safety 
and Observation," May 8, 1775: Dr. Charles Clinton, 
chairman, Alexander Trimble, Arthur Parks, William 
Jackson, Henry Smith, Jacob Newkirk, James Latta, 
Philip Mole, John Wilkin, James McBride, James 
Milliken, Samuel Barkley. 


No return of names. Committee : Abimael Young, 
chairman, James Wilkins, Hezekiah Gale, Moses 
Phillips, and Henry Wisner, Jr., Jan. 30, 1775. 

John Young. 
Capt. John Crage. 
Benj. Cuddeback, Jr. 
T. K. Westbrook. 
William Johnston. 
Johan. Stufflebane. 
Johan. Stufnebane, Jr. 
John Thompson. 
Wm. Cuddeback. 
Elisha Travis. 
Eli Strickland. 
Capt. J. B. DeWitt. 
Abner Skinner. 
Thomas Kytte. 
Joseph Drake. 
Isaac Van Twill. 
Joseph Westbrook. 
Daniel Van Fleet, Jr. 
Jacob Van Inwegen. 
Com. Van Inwegen. 
Reuben Babbett. 
Robert Milliken. 
John Williams. 
Wm. Smith. 
Jep. Fuller. 
Joseph Thomas. 
Joseph Skinner. 
John Travis. 
John Travis, Jr. 
Robert Comfort. 
Eph. FurgisoD. 
Moses Miller. 
Jno. Barber. 
John Fry. 
George Gillespy. 
Henry Newkirk. 
Philip Swactwout, Esq. 
Wm. Haxton. 
Robert Cook. 
William Rose. 
James Williams. 
James Blizard. 
Thomas Combs. 
Ebenezer Halcomb. 
Abr. Cuddeback. 
Aldert Bosa. 
David Gillaspy. 
Abrm. Cuddeback, Jr. 
Fred. Benaer. 
Jonathan Brooks. 
Ebenezer Parks. 
PetruB Gnmaer. 
J. DeWitt Gumaer. 
Ezekiel Gumaer. 
Elias Gumaer. 
Moses Depiiy, Jr. 
Jonathan Wheeler. 
Thomas Lake. 
Matthew Neely. 
John Harding. 
Eph. Thomas. 
Abm. McQuin. 
Joseph Arthur. 
Daniel Decker. 
John Brooks. 
David Daley. 

Jacob Comfort. 

Jonah Parks. 

Saml. Patteraon. 

Joel Adams. 

James Cnnen. 

Peter Simpson. 

Bei^amin Depny, 

John McEinstry. 

Harm. Van Inwegen. 

Samuel Depuy. 

Chas. Gillets. 

James McCivers. 

Joseph Hubbard. 

G. Van Inwegen. 

Eliphalet Stevens. 

Adam Rivenburgh. 

Stephen Larney. 

Samuel King. 

Valentine Wheeler. 

John Wallis. 

Jacobus Swartwout. 

Gerardus Swartwout. 

Phil. Swartwout, Jr. 

Jacobus Cuddeback. 

Petrus Cuddeback. 

Rufus Stanton. 

Asa Kimball. 

Zeh. Holconib. 

Samuel Daley. 

Nathan Cook. 

Henry Ellsworth. 
John Seybolt. 
David Wheeler. 
Elisha Barber. 
Jonathan Davis. 
Gershom Simpson. 
Jacob Stanton. 
John Gillaspy. 
Abraham Smedes. 
Joseph Shaw. 
Abraham Rosa. 
Jacob Rosa. 
Stephen Halcomb. 
Moses Boberts. 
Daniel Roberts. 
Jeremiah Shaver. 
Joseph Ogden. 
Elias Miller. 
George I. Denniston. 
Jonathan Strickland. 
Johannes Miller. 
John Douglass. 
Joseph Bandall. 
Thos. Gillaspy. 
Daniel Walling. 
Daniel Walling, Jr. 
Matthew Terwilliger. 
Johannes Wash. 
Daniel Woodworth. 
Nathaniel Travis. 
Ezekiel Travis. 
Joseph Travis, 
Isaac Rosa. 
Abr. Smith. 
Leonard Hefinessey. 

" Committee of Safety and Observation,"— John 
Young, president, who certified that the association 
was " unanimously signed by all the freeholders and 
inhabitants of the precinct, June 26, 1776." 




William Satterly. 

John Minthoru. 

Gideon Salmon. 

Abraham Chandler. 

Minidnk District. 

Phineas Salmon. 

Jacobus Laine. 

J. Westbrook, Jr. 

Isaac Davis. 

John Brown. 

Jacob Demareet. 

Beqjamin Cox. 

George Quick. 

Silas Horton. 

Joseph Todd. 

Johu Prys. 

Jacobus Davis. 

John Cravens. 

John Bigger. 

Levi Decker. 

JacobUB Vanfliet. 

Ezra Keeler. 

Elijah Doan. 

Samuel Davis. 

Levi Van Etten. 

James Aspell. 

James Smith. 

Keuben Jones. 

Daniel Cole. 

Zephaniah Huff. 

John Carvey. 

Petnis Cole. 

Benjamin Corson. 

Wm. Marshall. 

Benjamin Forgesson. 

A. Van Etten. 

Joel Westbrook. 

Joseph Case. 

Elijah Truman. 

John Dennett. 

A. C.'Van Aken. 

Benjamin MacVea. 

David Moore. 

Fetrus Cuykendal. 

Johannes Decker, Jr. 

Christo. Springsteen. 

Nathaniel TuthlU. 

Sylvester Oortright. 

Jacob Quick. 

Hezekiah Watkins. 

Joseph McCane. 

Jacobus SchoonhoTen. 

Timothy Wood. 

Daniel Seeve. 

Joel Cross. 

Jacobus Vanfliet, Jr. 

Benjamin Wood. 

Samuel Bartholf. 

Caleb Goldsmith. 

Thomas Hart. 

James Carpenter. 

Henry Buemer. 

Henry Smith. 

John Van Tuyle. 

Esee BronsoD. 

Robert McCane. 

John Finch. 

S. Cuykendal, Jr. 

Isaac Uptegrove. 

Peter Gale. 

Hoses Smith. 

Martinas Decker, Jr. 

Solomon Cuykendal. 

Stephen Meeker. 

Robert Thumpeon, Jr. 

WilhelmuB Westfall. 

Martinas Decker. 

Joseph Smith. 

George Little. 

Moses Kortright 

Benjamin Boorman. 

Thomas McCane. 

James Knap. 

Jacob Harraken. 
G. Bradcock. 
Ificholas Slyter. 
Daniel St. John. 
Albert Oaterhoust. 
JohaaneB Westbrook. 
Simon Westfall. 


Alexander Smith. 
Joseph Gonkling. 
Jonathan Huxton. 
Oohn Case. 
Phineas Bumsey. 
Benjamin Harlow. 
William Hubbard. 
Garrett Duryea. 
David ToungB. 
Jamea Miller. 
James Mapes. 
Joseph Drake. 
Samuel Hainee Smith. 
Increase Wyman. 
Jonathan Smith. 
John Barker. 
Moses Carpenter. 
Joshua Corey. 
John Corey. 
John Pain. 
Daniel Pain. 
William Warne. 
Hezekiah Warne. 
Zeba Owen. 
Jonathan Jayne. 
Caleb Coleman, 
David Bngera. 
Henry Wisner. 
Thomas Goldsmith. 
Jacobus Bartholf. 
Gullian Bartholf. 
Abraham Dalsen, Jr. 
Isaac Dalsen. 
Goroelius Decker. 
David Demarest. 
John Denton. 
Corns. Van Ordsdale. 
Joseph Elliot. 
John Slliot. 
Abraham Springsteen. 
Gapt. Nathaniel Roe. 
Lieut. John Jackson. 
Joseph Dixon. 
David Godfrey. 
Silas Fierson. 

Nehemiah Pattisou. 
Arthur Van Tuyle. 
Wilhelmus Cole. 
Petnis Decker. 
Asa Astly. 
Daniel Kortright 
Bphraim Middagh. 

Grove District. 

George Duryea. 
John Eetchum, Jr. 
William Heard. 
Phineas Heard. 
Joshua Beeve. 
Obadiah Helm^. 
William Forbes. 
Coleman Curtis. 
David Jones. 
Francis Baird. 
Stephen Lewis. 
Nathaniel Minthorn. 
Gamaliel Tansdell. 
Andrew Ohi-iaty. 
Hendrick Bartholf. 
Peter Bartholf. 
Beubeu Hall. 
Solomon Carpenter. 
Martin Myer. 
Joshua Smith. 
Ebenezer Beer. 
Samuel Moffat. 
Lieut. John Wood. 
Ensign Daniel Drake. 
Daniel Tooker. 
Isaiah Smith. 
William Lesly. 
David Bumsey. 
John Meeker. 
Joseph Browne. 
David Horton. 
Solomon Smith. 
John King, 
Guppe Brooka. 
Samuel Wickham. 
Silas Horton. 
Charles Tookor. 
John Budd. 
William Hortoi^ 
Joshua BrowD. 
Joshua Brown, Jr. 
James MarkeL 
John Bull. 
Richard Bull. 
Jeremiah Butler. 

Samuel Smith, 
Jacob Dunning. 
Joshua Davis. 
John Williama. 
Bichard Jones. 
Philip Borroughs. 
Thomas Engles. 
Oliver Heady. 
Bichard Sheridan. 
Jonathan Owen. 
Joshna Wells. 
Jonah Seely. 
Wright Smith. 
Silas Stewart. 
Benjamin Carpenter. 
Squire Whitaker. 
Silas Hulse. 
Elisha Hulse. 
Benjamin Smith. 
Samuel Cooley. 
John Ferger. 
David Kendle. 
Samuel Cole. 
Peter Miller. 
Bobert Thompson. 
Matthew Dilllng. 
James Little, Jr. 
Benjamin Whitaker. 
Henry David. 
Samuel Demarest. 
John Hopper. 
William Wisner. 
Israel Wells. 
Daniel Carpenter. 
Samuel Carpenter. 
Peter Arnout. 
Jamea Bell. 
Jeremiah S. Conkling. 
William Howard. 
James Dolsen. 
Isaac Dolsen. 
Beuben Hall, Jr. 
Jacob Fegate. 
Jeremiah Smith, Jr. 
Amos Smith. 
Matthias Carrey. 
John Carvey. 
Francis Myapjoy. 
Solomon Tracey. 
Amos Hubbs. 
Thomas Barker. 
William Morris. 
John Kennody. 
Joseph Wilson. 

Jeremiah Smith, Sr. 
Amos Woolcocks. 
Jeremiah Ferger. 
Zephaniah Drake. 
John Van Cleft. 
Israel Holley. 
William Seely. 
John Van Cleft, Jr. 
David Cooley, Jr. 
Nicholas Van Tassel. 
Joshua Weeks. 
Benjamin Gurrie. 
Samuel Jones. 
M ichael Carpenter. 
Samuel Webb. 
John Owen. 
Benjamin Dunning. 
Wm. Kimber. 
Gilbert Bradner. 
Jacob Finch. 
Hidley Spencer. 
William Walworth. 
Corns. Bartholf, Jr. 
Stephen Bartholf. 
Joseph Allison. 
Michael Allison. 
Jamea Allison. 
William Carpenter. 
Casper Writer. 
Jonas Wood. 
David Linch. 
John Boyle. 
Michael Coleman. 
Abraham Harding. 
Henry David, Jr. 
Jonathan David, 
James Thompson. 
Jonathan Cooley. 
John Whitaker. 
Nathaniel Mathers. 
Increase Matthews. 
James Gardiner. 
John Little. 
James Beeves. 
John Knap. 
Jonathan Oomey. 
Solomon Boe. 
Saven Tracey. 
Obadiah Smith. 
Henry Bartholf. 
David Demarest. 
Jacob Demareat. 
William King. 
Ohristopher Decker. 



James Steward. 

James McCane. 

David Howell, Jr. 

Joseph Oldfleld. 

Joseph Steward. 

John Thompson. 

John Howell. 

Joseph Chilson. 

John Clark. 

Thomas Gale. 

Samuel Harman. 

Silas Holley. 

John Felgler. 

Charles Webb. 

Jabez Knap. 

Benjamin Dunning. 

BeqjamiD Demareat. 

Samuel Chandler. 

Nathaniel Knap, Jr. 

Daniel Holley. 

Peter Demarest, 

KIchard Allison. 

Peter Barlow. 

Joshua Drake. 

Saltier David. 

Henry Hall. 

Elias Oldfleld. 

Wait Smith. 

Edward David. 

John Kinnett. 

Samuel Sawyer, 

Stephen Jackson. 

John David. 

Benjamin Halsted. 

'Jeremiah Oakley. 

Daniel Myers. 

Jacob Cole. 

David Miller. 

Timothy Smith. 

Cornelius Myers. 

George Eemble. 

Henry Dobbin. 

John Smith. 

' Phineas Case. 

Wm. Dill. 

Solomon Finch. 

Jonathan Bawson. 

William Knap. 

Christopher Myers. 

Solomon Ho£f. 

William Reed. 

Gilbert Aldrige. 

Thomas Wood. 

Joseph Currie. 

William Egger (Eager). 

James Kinner. 

Philip Redrick. 

James Ramsey. 

Daniel Egger. 

Joshua Hallock. 

William MoCane. 

James Masters. 

Anning Owen. 

John Mory. 

James McCane. 

James Clark. 

Jacob Hulse. 

Oliver Smith. 

Martin McConnely. 

Michael Dunning. 

Solomon Smith. 

Isaac Smith. 

William Horton. 

James Schoonover, 

Thomas Denton. 

Cain Mehany. 

Philip Horton. 

John Morrison. 

Asa Derba. 

Ebenezer Holly. 

Benjamin Carpenter. 

Joseph Coleman. 

Moses Clark. 

Joshua Herbert. 

Henry Samis. 

Jonathan Coleman. 

William Helms. 

John Armstrong. 

Samuel Knapp. 

William Kirby. 

Boolof Van Brunt. 

Orinus Bartholf. 


Abel Jackson. 

James Bartholf. 

Daniel Denton. 

Hope Rhodes.^^ 
Jesse Oweu^^ 

Nathaniel Knapp, Jr. 

Joseph Halsted. 

Jonas Denton. 

James Parshall. 

Michael Halsted. 

John Boo. 

Alexander Coxe. 

Anthony Swartwout. 

Gershon Owen. 

Alexander Jackson. 

Isaac Cooley. 

Beiuamin Jackson. 

Samuel Westbrook. 

Joseph Grummon. 

Charles Durland. 

George Howell. 

Anthony Westbrook. 

Nathan Baily. 

John Springsteed. 

James Mosier. 

Joshua Hill. 

Thomas Beach. 

William Jackson. 

Samnel Finch. 

Benjamin Gabrelis. 

Henry Jayne. 

Nehemiah Carpenter. 

Samuel Beed. 

David Shephard. 

Richard Green. 

Samuel Wells. 

Jabez Finch. 

Abraham Dolsen, Sr. 

James Hannes. 

Anthony Swartwout, Sr. 

Benjamin Wallworth. 

John Kinman. 

James Forgas. 

Jacob Swartwout 

Daniel Bosegrout. 

Benjamin Attwood. 

Samuel Baily. 

James Howell. 

John Davie. 

Gilbert Howell. 

Isaac Rhodes, Jr. 

Oliver Arnold. 

David Lowren. 

Isaac Hoadley. 

William Drake. 

Jonathan Archey. 

Moses Whitehead. 

Nathan Arnout. 

Daniel Holly. 

Nathaniel Sulton. 

John Myers. 

William Little. 

John Kinna. 

Gilbert V. Hone. 

David Stephens. 

Caleb Smith. 

Isaac Rhodes. 

Amariah Fuller. 

Jeremiah Trickey. 

Stephen Smith. 

Barnabas Hortoni^ 

William Chambers. 

Henry Clark. 

David Caeer. 

William Fullerton. 

AbUah Telverton. 

John Carpenter Smith. 

Matthew Tyrel. 

David Benjamin. 

James Smith. 

Nathan Roberts. 

Andrew Miller. 

Hugh Dobbin. 

James Drake. 

John Shepherd. 

Asa Vail. 

Uriah Satterly. 

John Gemer. 

Bazaliel Seely. 

Hezekiah Lawrence. 

Francis Gallow. 

Persona refuting to Sign. 

Nathan Pemberton. 

John McDowell. 

Isaac Bull. 

Matthew Dillon. 

Benjamin Cole. 
Caleb Smith. 
Peter ArnouL 
Matthew Howell. 

William HofT. 
John Kimball. 
James Miller. 
James Stewart. 

John Myers. 
Isaac Aylie. 
Jacobus Demerest. 

David Howell. 
Christopher Springsteed. 
David Jones. 

Matthew Howell, Jr. 
Thomas Angel. 
Isaao Trecey. 

Abraham Johnston. 
Stephen Conkling. 
Joshua Howell. 

Jacobus Demerest, Jr 
Nehemiah Baily. 
Daniel Wood. 
Abner Wood. 

William Wickham. 
ColviU Shepherd. 
Charles Brannon. 
Charles Brannon, Jr. 

Eiyah Egars. 
James Hulse. 

Samuel Titus. 
Jonathan Hallock. 

Eliphalet Wood. 

John Newberry. 

Mark Chambers. 

John Miller. 

George Wood. 

Ed. Newberry. 

David Cooley. 
Nathaniel Cooley. 

r^ohn Rhodes. 
David Mapes. 

"Committee of 


and Observation :" Isaac 

Nathan Bailey. 

ZacheuB Horton. 

NicoU, Benjamin Gale, Moses Hetfield, Daniel Ever- 

Nathan Bailey (2). 

Joshua Wells. 

ett, James Little, 


Davis. Daniel Everett, 

Zephanlah Kelly. 
Samuel Satterly. 

Benjamin Hill. 
Nathaniel Allison. 

chairman, Sept. 14 


It is presumed there were 

William Vail. 

William Kinna. 

others on the committee. 

as the names of John 

James Hamilton. 

John Bailey. 

Hathorn, John Jackson, Henry Wisner, John Min- 

Joseph Beckas. 

Landrine Eggeis. 

thorne, and Nathaniel Ketchum appear as chairmen 
at diflferent times, but a complete list is not given. 

Ellas Clark. 
Alexander ClmpbelL 

John Conner. 
Peter Mann. 

Elihu Horton. 

Daniel Cooley, Jr. 

Hugh Fulton. 

William Buff. 



Phlneas Parshall. 

Jacob Cole. 

John Brewster, Jr. 

Samuel Mapes. 

Peter Tawnsend. 

Edward David, Jr. 

Silas Benjamin, Jr. 

Justus Stevens. 

John Gardner. 

Daniel David. 

Smith Clark. 

David Stevens. 

Michael Brooks. \ 

Richard Halsted. 

Thomas Clark. 

Jonathan Stevens. 



Ephraim Clark. 
BQDJamin Mapes. 
Betbuel Mapes. 
Isaac Gorley. 
Patrick Casaaday. 
Joseph Wilcox. 
Timothy Smith, Jr. 
Richard Honiman. 
Nehemiah Clark. 
John Seely. 
James Peters. 
James Matthews. 
William Boe. 
Joseph Smith. 
John McWhorter, 
Joaiah Pell. 
John Pell, Jr. 
Abr'm Ketcbam. 
Thomas Clark, Jr. 
William Hunter. 
Archibald Little, Jr. 
Jon^ Seely. 
Israel Hodges. 
Samuel Knights. 
James Sayre. 
Isaac Corley, Jr. 
Jesse Marvin. 
Jeremiah Clark. 
Joseph Wood. 
Archibald Little. 
Stephen Gilbert. 
Abraham Loce. 
John Mapes. 
Joseph Ketcham. 
Samuel Ketcham, Jr. 
Benjamin Ketcham, Jr. 
Benjamin Ketcham. 
Joseph Morrell. 
James TathilL 
Brewster Helme. 
William Brown. 
Asahel Coleman. 
Samuel Sacket. 
Micah Coleman. 
John Smith. 
Gersbom Clark. 
Timothy Little. 
James Little. 
Thaddeus Seely. 
^ Betgamin Gregoiy. 
William Nicholson. 
Silvanus White. 
Daniel Coleman. 
John Brewster. 
Christopher Van Duzer. 
Isaac Van Buzer, Jr. 
Boger Barton. 
Obadiah Thorn. 
Solomon Sheldon. 
Absalom Townsend. 
James Hall. 
Silas Hall. 
John W. Clark. 
Paul Howell. 
Silaa Howell. 
Bazaliel Seely. 
Elijah Hudson. 
Samuel Moffat, Jr. 
Hugh Murray. 
Bennis Cooley. 
Silvanus Sayles. 
Matthew Sweny. 
Isaac Brewster. 
Ebenezer WoodhnU. 
Nathaniel Strong. 
Daniel Tntblll. 

Daniel Mapes. 
Smith Mapes. 
Isaiah Mapes. 
Nathan Marvin. 
Samuel Gibson. 
Solomon Little. 
Jesse Woodhull. 
Nathan Brewster. 
Jonathan Brooks. 
Elihu Marvin. 
Seth Marvin. 
Elihu Marvin, Jr. 
David Beggs. 
Timothy Brewster. 
Isaac Brown. 
Jesse Teed. 
Bepjamin Budd. 
Beqjamjn Lester. 
Joab Coleman. 
Phineaa Helmee. 
Silas Youngs. 
Silas Youn^, Jr. 
Beuben Youngs. 
Abimael Youngs, Jr. 
John Callay. 
Thomas Sullivan. 
Jeremiah Howell. 
Geoi^e Baitman. 
Josiab Seely. 
John McCarty. 
John Wood. 
Thomas Moffat. 
Samuel Smith. 
David Mandevil. 
Vincent Matthews. 
Samuel Ketcham. 
Eleazer Youmans. 
Stephen Youmans. 
John Marvin. 
Jonathan Hallock. 
John Pecham. 
John Burges. 
Patrick Odey. 
Isaiah Howell. 
Samuel Seely. 
Israel Seely. 
Nathaniel Seely. 
Nathaniel Seely, Jr. 
Jesse Seely. 
Obadiah Smith. 
Nathaniel Satterly. 
Hezekiah Howell, Jr. 
Patrick McLaughlin. 
Daniel Devon. 
James Davidson. 
Bn. Cnift. 

Nathaniel Sayre, Jr. 
David Clark. 
Bichard Drake. 
Joslah Beeder. 
Peter Boeder. 
Stephen Beeder. 
Jacob Beeder. 
Samuel Beeder. 
Francis Vantine. 
Alexander Sutton. 
Samuel Smith. 
Thomas Smith. 
Jacob White. 
Justus Philby. 
Beojamin Corey. 
Frederick Tobias. 
Gilbert Weeks. 
Nathan Birchard. 
Zebulon Birchard, 
Robert Haight 

Maurice Hearen. 

Daniel Thome. 

James Smith. 

Timothy Wood. 

Henry Dler, Sr. 

Samuel Moffat. 

Silaa Pleraon. 

Sylvanns Halsey. 

Silas Pienon, Jr. 

Barnabas Many. 

Bichard Coleman. 

Luther Stuart. 

Francis Dral^e. 

James Sayre, Jr. 

Benoni Brock. 

John Sayre. 

Justus Hulse. 

Birdseye Young. 

Stephen Howell. 

Aaron Howell, Jr. 

Stephen Sayles. 

WilUam King, 

Daniel Smith. 

Isaao Bower. 

Daniel Jones. 

Thaddeus Cooley. 

John Brooks. 

Wm. HcLsnghlin. 

John HolTat. 

Naasiad Curtis. 

Michael Kelly. 

Elijah Green. 

John Leonard. 

Jonathan Tuthill. 

Lewis Donnovan. 

Francis TuthiU. 

John Close (BeT.). 

Zachariah DuBois. 

John Pride. 

Francis Brewster. 

Joseph Callings. 

John McLean. 

Thomas Ceilings. 

Austin Smith. 

James Moore. 

Joseph Lamoreux. 

Benjamin Thome. 

Eleazer Taylor, 

John Parker. 

William Bradley. 

Hezekiah Howell. 

Nathaniel Pease. 

Bichard Collingwood. 

Cbarlee Howell. 

Silas Benjamin. 

B. Taylor. 

John Beiuamin. 

Wm. Cook. 

John Kelley. 

Thomas Chatfield. 

Aaron Howell. 

James Wilkins. 

John Carpenter. 

WUliam Moffat 

Benjamin Carpenter. 

Isaac Molbt. 

Timothy Carpenter. 

John Moffat. 

Joseph Carpenter, Jr. 

Thomas Lenington. 

^ Bobert Gregg. 

Jesse Brewster. 

Samuel Bartlett. 

Joseph Chandler. 

^William Owen. 

William Gregg. 

Silas Coleman. 

Silvanus Bishop. 

Hugh Gregg. 

Samuel Smith. 

s Francis Drake. 

John Faren. 

Charick Yanduzen. 

Isaac Yandusen (3d). 

Azariah Martin. 

John Lightbody. 

^Abraham Butler. 

Gabriel Lightbody. 

Zachariah Burwell> 

Isaac Lightbody. 

Joshua Barwell. v^ 
Joseph Beeder. 
John Beeder. 
William Beeder. 
Joseph Beeder, Jr. 
Samuel Tuthill. 
Bei^amin Tuthill. 
Joshua Sandstar. 
Isaac Lamoureux. 
John Lamoureux. 
John Lamoureux (2d). 
Peter Lamoureux. 
Luke Lamoureux. 
Peter Lamoureux, Jr. 
Philip Miller. 
John Carpenter. 
Eiyah Carpenter. 
William Carpenter. 
Joseph Halstead. 
Jonathan DuBois. 
Thomas Foley. 
Thomas Herley. 
Zacheus Horton. 
Jonas Qarrison. 
Samuel Bobbins. 
William Bedall. 
Thomas Smith. 
Jacob Comten. 
Jacob Comten, Jr. 
Thomas Cooper. 
William Clark. 

Andrew Lightbody. 
Jamee Lightbody. 
Thomas Hulse. , 

Selab Satterly. 
Joel Tuthill. 
John Miller. 
Arch. Cunningham. 
James Galloway. 
Abner Thorp. 
John Johiuon. 
Arche. GoDcham, Jr. 
George Whi taker. 
Henry Myers. 
Henry Brewster, Jr. 
Joseph Van Nort. 
William Conkling. 
John Brooks. 
Neal Anderson. 
James Mttcholl. 
Jamee Overton. 
Mosee Strain. 
, Caleb Ashley. 
Bei^amin Chichester. 
Jacob Devo. 
Thomas Willett. 
Thomas Hortun. 
Hanes Bartlett. 
Reuben Taber. 
Solomon Cornwell, 
John W. Tuthill. 
Joseph Davis. 



Abraham Sneden. 
Adam Belsher. 
Stephen Hulae. 
EleaMr Luce. 
Timothy Corwin. 
Jailiee Lndis. 
Daniel Btimsey. 
John Tuthill. 
'William Owens. 
'William Bartlett. 
James StoughC. 
John Carpenter. 
James McOtugin. 
'William Hooge. 
Jamee McGuffack. 
Silas Corwin. 
Henry Brewster. 
Stephen Haleey. 
James Haleey. 
Jacob Brown. 
John Earll.^ — "^ 
Peter Karll^— - 
Abraham Cooley. 
Silas Tucker. 
George Everson. 
Thomas Sversoa. 
Reuben Tucker. 
David Wilson. 
Peter Lowrie. 
Elisha Smith. 
Aaron BeOrauw. 
Amos Wood. 
John Williams. 
Togidah Dickens. 
Samuel Howard. 
William Howard. 
Francis Bourk. 
John Daynes. 
Aaron Miller. 
Owen Nohlen. 
Edward Robben. 
Isaac Horton. 
Hugh McDonel. 
Jamee Wilke. 
James Wilke, Jr. 
Bichard Wilka. 
William Tompson. 
John Johnson. 
John Wageut. 
John Wagent (2d). 
Joseph Stevens. 
ThoniQfl Smith. 
Silas Beynolds. 
John Woolly. 
Peter Stevens. 
WilUam Obadge. 
John Boucke. 
Silas Mills, Jr. 
Charles Field. 
Henry Maudeville. 
Jacob Maudeville. 
Francis Uandeville. 
Peter Eeynolds. 
Thomas Powell. 
Benjamin Pringle. 
Daniel Prindle. 
Fnoa Prindle. 
Oliver Davenport. 
Cheater Adams, 
Joseph Canfield. 
Beqjamin Canfield. 
John Canfield. 
Amos Miller. 
Com well Sands. 
Thomas Liuch. 
George Galloway. 

Nathaniel Jayne. 
Stephen Jayne. 
Daniel Jayne. 
Joseph Hildreth. 
Adam Miller. 
Isaac Tobias. 
David Bloomfield. 
Gilbert Boberts. 
Lawrence Ferguson. 
Daniel Harrison. 
Daniel Miller. 
• Joeeph Gold. 
Henry Davenport. 
Israel Osmun. 
Ezekiel Osmun. 
Henry HaU. 
William Cooper. 
Samuel Lows. 
Jacob Lows. 
Tobias Wygant. 
James Lewis. 
Nathaniel Bigga. 
James Hufi'. 
Daniel Curtis. 
Nathan Strong. 
Solomon Sarvis. 
Bichard Earll. 
Benjamin Earll. 
John Brase. 
Robert Brock. 
Neal Anderson (2d). 
Bei^amin Jayne. 
Joseph Patterson. 
Thomas Gregg. 
Jacob Vanduzer. 
Andrew Stuart. 
Henry Atwood. 
Isaac Vanduzer. 
William Ayres. 
William Miller. 
Jonas Smith. 
Francis Plumsted. 
Samuel Whitmore. 
Amos Whitmore. 
George Everitt 
David Miller. 
Zabud June. 
Francis Smith. 
Thomas Dearin. 
Jeremiah Fowler. 
Martin Clark. 
Bichard Langdon. 
Stephen Feet. 
John Cronckhite. 
Andrew Sherwood. 
William Sherwood. 
Samuel Strung. 
Thomas Oliver. 
John Car. 
Garret Miller. 
David Causter. 
Joshua Miller. 
William Bell. 
Zophar Head. 
John Hall. 
Beqjamin Kelley. 
Henry Dier. 
William Gompten. 
Philip Boblin. 
Samuel Hall. 
Matthias Tyson. 
Yincent Helme. 
L. Can field. 
Daniel Adams. 
Patrick Ford. 
Amoe Mills. 

John Smith. 
Dariah Stage. 
Garret Willem, Jr. 
William Horton. 
Bei\j. Miller. 
James Miller. 
Asa Buck. 
Robert Miller. 
John McEelvey. 
Benjamin Goldsmith. 
Joeeph Miller. 
Timothy Owens. 
John Gee. 
John Arkils. 
John Earll, Jr. 
David Standley. 
James Unels. 
James Arnold. 
Nathan June. 
Fan ton Horn. 
Thomas Davenport. 
Oliver Davenport. 
Robert Davenport 
Gideon Florence. 
Criah Wood. 
Amos Wood. 
Benjamin Wood. 
John Wood (3d). 
Daniel Wood. 
James Scoldfield. 
Uriah Crawford. 
Thomas Lamoureux. 
James Tuttle. 
John Florence. 
Francis Miller. 
Thomas Gilbert. 
Alexander Galloway. 

John Barton. 
Andrew Southerland. 
James Southerland.*' 
Alex. Southerland. 4 
David Southerlaud (&_ 
John Southerland. ^ 
David Southerland. ^ 
Henry Cunningham. 
Henry Beynolds. 
David June. 
Bichard Sheldon. 
John Celley. 
Stephen C. Clark. 
Reuben Clark. 
Joseph Plumfield. 
John Wood. 
Stephen Wood. 
Amos Pains. 
Joseph Cupper. 
Joseph Canfield, Jr. 
Francis Welton. 
John J. Hammond. 
Solomon Siles. 
Thomas Porter. 
Juhn Samson. 
Micah Seaman. 
Jonathan Earll. 
John Haman. 
Alexander Johnson. 
Samuel Earll. 
Samuel Raymond. 
WilUam Douglas, 
Patrick McDowell. 
Elijah Barton. 
Benj. Quackenbush. 
William White. 
Jacob Vanduzer. 

Persons refusing to Sign, 

Isaac Howell. 
John Veltman. 
Robert McAdell. 
Thomas Coin. 
William Wood. 
Thomas Biggs. 
Saml. Smith. 
Hop. Smith. 
Aaron Cunningham. 
Beiijamin Darling. 
Langford Thorn. 
Thomas Coleman. 
Silas Bagley. 
Josiah Gilbert. 
Isaiah Reeve. 
John McCay. 

Benjamin Leveridge. 
James Smith. 
Sol. Thompson. 
John Dave. 
Moses Clark. 
William Boley. 
Samuel Rockwell 
James Jurdin. 
Ebenezer Seely. 
Simon Bumsey. 
Theophilus Wood. 
Oliver Patterson. 
(Seot^e Leonard. 
David Smith. 
David Sands. 
Nathaniel Sands. 

"Committee of Safety and Observation," 1775: 
Hezekiah Howell, Archibald Little, Elihu Marvin, 
Nathaniel Satterly, Nathaniel Strong, Jonathan 
Brooks, Stephen Gilbert, Zachariah DuBois, Thomas 
Moffat. Thomas Moffat, chairman. 

The " County Committee" of Orange, in 1776, had 
for its chairman Elihu Marvin, of Cornwall, and 
David Pye " deputy chairman for south side of moun- 
tain," — i.e., for Haverstraw and Orangetown. In 
Ulster County, Robert Boyd, of New Windsor, was 

In regard to the action or causes of action of the 
committees of the precinct, or of the county commit- 
tee, there is little of record except inferentially. The 
first duty upon which the former entered was the 
organization of military companies and the pro- 



curing of arms and ammunition ; their second, was 
the arrest of the disaffected. In October, 1775, Ste- 
phen Wiggins and David Purdy, of Newburgh, were 
arrested for inimical conduct and principles. In 
1776, Samuel Devine was committed to jail, he having 
" repeatedly drank damnation to the Congress and all 
the Whigs." In 1778, Samuel Fowler and Daniel 
Denton were arrested as persons of " equivocal and 
suspected characters;" Silas Gardner for "levying 
war against the United States of America, and hold- 
ing correspondence with and assisting the enemies of 
the said States," — his real offense being that he had 
assisted the wife of Sir John Johnston in passing the 
American lines to her husband in New York, for 
which he was sentenced to be hung, and was par- 
doned under the gallows. The next were James 
Flewwelling, Elnathan Foster, John Flewwelling, 
David Wyatt, Solomon Combs, Benjamin Smith, Ste- 
phen Wood, John Moffat, Benjamin Darby, Timothy 
Wood, Robert Denton, James Cosman, and Amos 
Ireland, who, it was alleged, were on their way to 
join the enemy. Cadwallader Colden, Jr., for gen- 
eral conduct inimical to the popular cause, and for 
having concealed weapons, was arrested by the New 
Windsor committee, it appearing that the committee 
of Hanover Precinct, in which he lived, had some 
fear in undertaking proceedings against him. He 
was kept on parole for the remainder of the war, and 
ultimately returned to the possession of his estates. 
Elnathan Foster and Benjamin Smith took the oath 
of allegiance and returned to their homes after a 
period of iiicarceration in Kingston jail, and lived 
and died respected by their neighbors. James Flew- 
welling ultimately joined the cow-boys, and was hung 
at Goshen. James Cosman found refuge in Tarleton's 
Legion, and, after the war, in Nova Scotia. 

Meagre as are these details, they serve to show that 
the committees were not idle, a fact which more 
clearly appears from general records. Joshua Hett 
Smith, arrested for complicity in Arnold's treason, 
writes in his narrative, that the jail at Goshen " was 
filled with those who professed themselves to be the 
king's friends, — Tories, and those who were prisoners 
<Jf war, — felons, and characters of all colors and descrip- 
tions." The jail at Kingstoil overflowed with similar 
prisoners, and the surplus were removed to vessels 
which were anchored in Eondout Creek and termed 
the "Fleet Prison." Notwithstanding the arrests 
•which were made, those who were opposed to the 
revolutionary movement continued to be troublesome. 
Thomas Palmer, under date of March 11, 1777, re- 
ferring to the precinct of Newburgh more especially, 
but with evident application to adjacent country, 
writes : 

"Toil are not altogether strangers to the nest of Tories which has, 
since the troublesome times, infested this precinct in particular. The 
necessary precautions, however, heretofore taken for curbing their in- 
solence has humbled some, while a number of others, not being able to 
retain their venom, have gone over to the enemy and left their families 
vith us, who, being chiefly women and children, speak the language of 

their absconded husbands and parents. But in the midst of onr titnbli 
with these rebels we are greatly satisfied to hear that their leader thi 
mischievous Mnjor Colden, is apprehended and secured; but still even 
day seems to bring along with it new evidences of their rebellions in. 
tentions, for numbers of those who have gone off to the enemy have 1^ 
behind them at their farms near the river crops of wheat and othv 
grain, and as they refuse selling it at any rate, no doubt their intenVn 
are to reserve it for the enemy, as many of them baldly say thattht; 
expect the shipping up daily. It is not only those, but many othera who 
are not gone off, no doubt act upon the same principle, as they xefuse [n 
like manner to psrt with, their grain." 

To what extent " the necessary precautions" adopted 
by the committees had a beneficial ^ect cannot be 
stated, but that they were not sufficient to prevent no 
small number from joining the British, army in activt 
hostilities is only too evident. The occupation of 
New York City, Long Island, and the eastern part of 
New Jersey by the British gave to this class of their 
allies peculiar opportunities for predatory warfare, 
and from their operations the Highland districts of 
Orange were especially harassed. Gathering in small 
bands under some chosen leader, they sallied forth on 
their errands of plunder from New Jersey and ftom 
secure retreats in the lower Highlands, covered by 
the enemy's works at Stony Point and at Fort Lee, 
and became a terror to the inhabitants. The names 
of the captains or leaders of these several bands have 
not in all cases been preserved. Conspicuous among 
them, however, were Capts. Moody, John Mason, and 
Claudius Smith, and his son, Richard Smith. Capt 
or Ensign Moody is introduced by Joshua Hett Smith, 
who writes of him : 

" The Clove was celebrated for the attachment of the inhabitants in 
general to the British interests, who had frequently encouraged aai 
protected parties from New York in their mountainous recesses, andlt 
was in this defile that the celebrated Capt Moody, lu May, 1781, !•• , 
tercepted an express from Gen. Washington to Congrese, commuid» 
ting the result of his interviews with the commanders of the land sod 
naval forces of France." 

Subsequently we find him in New Jersey, at the 
head of a party of nine men, bearing a commission 
from Gen. Knyphausen, " to carry off the person of 
Governor Livingston, or any other person acting in 
public station" that he might meet with whose arrest 
he might deem necessary to secure his own safety and 
that of his party. He failed in the undertaking, and 
barely escaped capture. When the facts became 
known Governor Livingston offered a reward of two 
hundred dollars for his apprehension, or for any or 
either of his associates, whose names, so far as known, 
were recited as Caleb Sweesy, James O'Hara, John 
Moody, and Gysbert Eyberlin. Moody retaliated 
with a proclamation offering two hundred guineaslH 
the delivery of Livingston alive into the custody of 
Cunningham, the provost-keeper in New York, and 
thus the matter ended.* It may be remarked that 
the dispatches which he captured were designed by 
Washington to fall into the hands of the British, and 
had the effect to lead Sir Henry Clinton to withdraw 
a portion of the forces under Cornwallis, renderiiig 

* " Diary of the Revolution," ii. 308, 466. 



the capture of the latter at Yorktown a matter of 
much easier accomplishment. 

Of John Mason nothing appears of record farther 
than the fact stated by one of his accomplices under 
arrest that he was a leader of one of the bands which 
had their headquarters in the Clove, and is said to have 
been engaged in several robberies and at least one 
murder. The theme of local interest and history is 

Who was Claudius Smith ? His family is said to 
have been of English origin, and to have been among 
the early settlers of Brookhaven, L. I., where he was 
bom, and from whence he removed with his father 
some years anterior to the Revolution, and took up 
his residence at a place more recently known as Mc- 
Knight's Mills, in the present town of Monroe, where 
he grew up to manhood, married, and had sons of suf- 
ficient age to unite with him in his predatory excur- 
sions. , It is not necessary that his identification 
should be made more complete, and an attempt to do 
so, in the absence of positive evidence, might result 
in injustice. It may safely be stated, however, that 
the family of Smiths were early settlers in and gave 
their name to Smith's Clove. Claudius is described 
as " a man of large stature and powerful nerve, of 
keen penetration ; one upon whom nature had be- 
stowed abilities worthy to be exerted in a better cause. 
He conducted his expeditions with such cautiousness 
as scarcely to be suspected until in the very execu- 
tion of them ; and if a sudden descent was made upon 
him, by some bold stroke or wily manoeuvre he would 
successfully evade his pursuers and make his escape." 
That he had the credit of doing much that he did not 
do is no doubt true ; murder was not one of his 
offenses, although murder was committed ; he was a 
" cow-boy," a stealer of horses and cattle, perhaps of 
silverware, and money, if he could find it, and as a 
thief he was tried and executed at Goshen on the 22d 
of January, 1779. his indictment being " for burglary 
at the house of John Earle ; for robbery at the house 
of Ebenezer Woodhull ; for robbery of the dwelling 
and still-house of William Bell." Whatever other 
sins he may have committed were not charged against 
him. He had good qualities. It is said " that the 
poor man found in him a friend ready to share both 
his meal and his purse, and it is believed that much 
of what he extracted from the wealthy he bestowed 
upon the indigent." He was hospitable. " The late 
Judge Bodle, of Tompkins County, a former resident 
of Orange, related a circumstance which occurred 
with himself. On the morning following the capture 
of Fort Montgomery by the British, he was pursuing 
his way homeward from the neighborhood of the dis- 
aster, when he suddenly met Claudius Smith in the 
road. They knew each other. Judge Bodle was per- 
plexed ; to escape was impossible, and putting on a 
bold front he approached Claudius, who addressed 
him with a friendly good-morning, and after in- 

quiring the news from the river, continued, 'Mr. 
Bodle, you are weary with walking : go to my dwel- 
ling yonder (directing to a place off the road) and ask 
my wife to give you a breakfast, and tell her that I 
sent you.' " He hated meanness, and when one whom 
he knew had money refused to lend that which was 
necessary to Mrs. Col. James McClaughry to relieve 
her husband, then a prisoner in the hands of the 
British, it is said that he sent members of his band 
and abstracted the money the loan of which had been 

At what time Claudius Smith commenced his dep- 
redations in the interest of the British government is 
not known ; he is first met in public records in July, 
1777, as a prisoner in Kingston jail, in company with 
one John Brown, " charged with stealing oxen be- 
longing to the continent." From Kingston he was 
transferred to the jail at Goshen, from whence it is said 
he escaped. In anything like a tangible record, he 
is next met on his capture on Long Island, in the fall 
of 1778, and the official narrative closes with his exe- 
cution. The immediate act which led to his arrest was 
the murder of Maj. Nathaniel Strong, of Blooming- 
Grove. Immediately following this outrage, and with 
a view to break up the band, Governor Clinton (Oct. 
31, 1778) offered a reward for the apprehension of 
Claudius and his sons, Richard and James. Claudius 
fled to Long Island, where he was recognized by Maj. 
John Brush, at that time visiting Long Island from 
his residence in Connecticut, who, having previously 
read Governor Clinton's proclamation, returned across 
the Sound and made up a party, who visited the island 
in the night, seized Smith in his bed, and conveyed 
him to Connecticut, where he was placed under guard. 
By direction of Governor Clinton, to whom the arrest 
was immediately reported, Smith was taken through 
Connecticut to Fishkill Landing, where he was met 
by Col. Isaac Nicoll, sheriff of Orange County, and, 
under guard of Capt. Woodhull's troop of light-horse, 
taken to Goshen, where he was ironed and placed in 
jail. His trial was held at the Oyer and Terminer, 
Jan. 13, 1779, and his execution followed on the 22d 
of the same month. 

Smith's associates were greater criminals than him- 
self. Five of them, viz. : " Matthew Dolson, John 
Ryan, Thomas Delamar, John Gordon, and Amy Au- 
gor, late Amy Jones,'' were executed with him. His 
son James is believed to have been executed at Go- 
shen soon after his father, in company with James 
Flewwelling and William Cole ; his son William was 
shot in the mountains before his father was executed, 
and also Benjamin Kelley, another member. Not one 
of the band was ever tried for murder, although mur- 
der was committed by them in the case of Maj. Strong, 
and also in the case of one John W. Clark, who re- 
sided near the Stirling Iron- Works.* Richard, the 

* The following is from the Fiahkill Packet, April 28, 1779 : " We hear 
fh>m Goshen that a horrible murder was committed near the Stirling 



youngest son of Claudius, with several members of 
the band, escaped to Nova Scotia after peace was de- 
clared. Traditions of the mode of procedure and 
operations of these men are numerous and varied. 
One of the best authenticated is supplied by Mr. 
Quinlan in his " History of Sullivan County," who 
recites the story of the attack on Henry Eeynolds, 
of Monroe (subsequently of Sullivan County). On 
one occasion the " avengers of Claudius Smith" sur- 
rounded Eeynolds' house and endeavored to effect 
an entrance, but the doors and windows were securely 
bolted and barred. Determined not to be baffled, 
they got upon the roof, and were descending inside 
the wide, old-styled chimney, when one of the family 
threw a basket of feathers on the fire, and the in- 
truders were literally smoked out, and gave up further 
operations. A second attempt, in July, 1782, was 
more successful. Benjamin Kelley, Philip Eoblin, 
and several others went to Eeynolds' house in the 
night, and pretending that they were a detachment 
from Washington in search of deserters, he opened 
the door to them. They had scarcely entered when 
they discovered their true character by attacking 
Eeynolds, who endeavored to escape. The noise 
aroused the family, consisting of Eeynolds' wife, 
seven children, and a lad who lived with him, but 
they were powerless in such hands. In their pres- 
ence Eeynolds was cut and wounded with knives and 
swords, and finally hung by the neck on the trammel- 
pole of his fireplace. They then proceeded to search 
the house for valuables, and, in their absence from 
the room, Eeynolds' daughter, Phebe, cut the rope 
and released her father and got him upon a bed. Ee- 

IrOQ-WorkB on the night of Saturday, the 26th of March, by a party of 
viUainB, five or Bix in number, the principal of whom was Bichard Smith, 
eldest surviving son of the late Claudius Smith, of infamous memory, 
his eldest son having been shot last fall at Smithes Clove, in company with 
several other villains, by one of our scouting parties sent out in search 
of them. These bloody miscreants, it seems, that night intended to 
murder two men, who had shown some activity and resolution in appre- 
hending these robbers and murderers who infested the neighborhood. 
They first went to 'the house of John W. Clark, near the iron-works, 
whom they dragged from his house and then shut him, and observing 
some remains of life in him, one of them saying, ' he is not dead enough 
yet,* shot him through the arm again and left him. . He lived some 
hours after, and gave an account of their names and behavior. They 

then went to the house of , who, hearing some noise they made in 

approaching, got np and stood on his defense with his gun and bayonet 
fixed, in a corner of his little log cabin. They burst open the door, but 
seeing him stand with his.gun were afraid to enter, and thought proper 
to mai-ch off. The following was pinned to Clark*s coat : 

" * A Warning to (he Rebels. — You ale hereby warned at your peril to 
desist from hanging any more friends to government as you did Claudius 
Smith. You are warned likewise to use James Smith, James Flewwel- 
ling, and William Cole well, and ease their irons, for we are determined 
to hang six for oue, for the blood of the innocent cries aloudfor vengeance. 
Your noted friend, Capt. Williams, and his crew of robbers and murderers, 
we have got in our power, and the blood of Claudius Smith shall be re- 
paid. There are particular companies of us who belong to Col. Butler's 
army, Indians as well as white men, and particularly numbers from New 
York, that are resolved to be avenged on you for your cruelty and murder. 
We are to remind you that you are the beginners and aggressors, for by 
your cruel oppressions and bloody actions you drive us to it. This is the 
first, and we are determined to pursue it on your heads and leaden to 
the last, till the whole of you are murdered.* '* 

turning to the room and discovering what had been 
done, they whipped the daughter with the rope until 
they thought she was disabled, and again hung Key. 
nolds to the trammel-pole, from which his heroic 
daughter again rescued him. They then flew at Key. 
nolds with knives and swords, and only ceased their 
work when they supposed he was dead. After de^ 
stroying Eeynolds' papers, and taking whatever of 
value that he had, they left the building, and after 
fastening the door on the outside set it on fire. The 
daughter, Phebe, again proved a heroine by extin- 
guishing the fire. Then, finding that her father was 
not yet dead, she devoted herself to him and suc- 
ceeded in stanching his wounds. With the coming 
of morning she started out and alarmed the neighbor- 
hood, and shortly after sunrise a company of armed 
men was in pursuit of the marauders, who were fbl- 
lowed to the mountains and overtaken. A well-di- 
rected shot from a man named June wounded one of 
them, Benjamin Kelley. His body was subsequently 
recovered and identified by a suit of Quaker clothes 
which he had stolen from Eeynolds. Meanwhile a 
physician had reached Eeynolds' house and dressed his 
wounds. He was found to be wounded in over thirty 
places. One of his ears were so nearly severed that 
it hung down to his shoulder. It was put back in its 
place, but healed in such a way as to leave him dis- 
figured for life. One of his hands was also so badly 
cut that he never recovered its use. He lay for weeks 
on the brink of the grave, but ultimately recovered, 
and lived to see his eighty-fifth year. Phebe, who was 
then only twelve years of age, married Jeremiah Drake 
after her removal to Sullivan County, where she died 
in 1853. It may be added that Phebe's mother was 
brought to confinement by the excitement of the ter- 
rible night through which she had passed, and that 
the daughter then born to her (Polly) subsequenfly 
became the wife of Dr. Blake Wales.* 

From tradition we turn to the written record, — the 
" confession of William Cole, taken at New Barba- 
does, March 29, 1779," which was as follows: 

" William Cole saith that about the 3d day of April, 1777, he, ap^ 

conipanied by John Bahoock, William Jones, and John Ellison, at ,. 

where he enlisted in Col. John Bayard's regiment (loyalists), iu which fat- 
continued until the battle of Fort Uontgomery. That at the surreuderof. 
the fort, and at the departure of the British troops from there, he, thenii 
William Cole, and one James Babcock, being left sick about two milM* 
from the fort at Moses Clements*, Esq., went to the house of the said JamN- 
Babcock at Stirling, where the said James Babcock continues (having iaa. 
short time thereafter delivered himself up to justice). That from thsoM- 
he, the said William Cole, went to Fompton Plains, where he resided about 
a month, being suspected of having been with the enemy. That from. 
Pompton he returned to the Clove, and from thence, In company with sndii 
by the persuasion of one David Babcook and one Jonathan Gage, he well|( 
to New York. That some time in the latter end of last fall he left Nor 
York in company with Thomas Ward, John Everett, Jacob Acker, Janu^- 
Cowen, George alias Thomas Harding, David Babcock, James Twaddls, 
Martinus Lawsou, and Peter Lawson, and a certain John Mason, who 
was the bead of the gang. That he parted company with them at till 
Clove about amile beyond Sidman's, being something indisposed, and re- 
mained in the house of Edward Bohlin in the Clove, while the afaoTti- 

• " History of Sullivan County," 472, etc. 



meationed peraoos robbed Mr. Erekiue and Mrs. Sidman. That the 
above-named George Harding made a present of Mrs. Grskine's gold 
walrh to DftTid Matthews, Esq., mayor of New York, and that Mr. Er- 
Skiiie*s I ifle was given by Mason to Lord Cathcart. That the same party to- 
gellier with Weat, and Banta, and Richard and James Smith, sons of Clau- 
dius Smith, and a certain Nathaniel Biggs, were the persons who robbed 
Muster-Master General Ward, &c., for wliicb they received one hundred 
guineas from Lord Cathcart, aa be, the said Cole, was informed by them 
on their return from New York. Tliat just before he was taken he met 
witti John Masou, David Babcock, Thomas Ward, and Richard Smith, 
near the bridge commonly called the Dwaas, who threatened vengeance 
for the execution of Claudius Smith, from whence he conjectures them 
to have been the penons who murdered Mr. Clark ; soon after tliat Da- 
vid Babcock, Richard Smith, and Jonas Ward, with about eleven of Gen. 
Burguyne's meu, were the persons that fired upon Mfg. Goebbius, some 
time in last January, as he was informed by said persons, in New York 
after the fact That as he heard from them, one Henry McManus, who 
generally had his haunts near Stirling, one William Stagg, and one or 
two of Burgoyne*8 men, were the persons who robbed a certain Light- 
body, towards Wallkill, and that David Babcock aud Richard Smith 
brought two lioives, robbed ft>om Nathaniel Seely, in Smith's Clove, into 
New York, in January last, which they sold to John Day, who for- 
merly lived in Tine Valley. That when he robbed Mr. Ackerman he 
was accompanied by George Bull, Jacob Low, James Flewwelling, all 
of whom formerly lived at Wallkill, That the above robbery was the 
only one in which he was ever concerned in, except that he took Hen- 
drick Odell's gun. 

" That the persons who harbor these gangs are Benjamin Demarest, 

Tunis Ilelme, John Harring, John Johnston (under mountain}; 

William Ounkling, £lisha Babcock, Elisha Babcock, Jr., John Dobbs 

(near ); Edward Roblin, in the Clove; Peter Nail, Benjamin 

Eelley, and Powers , all in the Clove; Edward Enuers and John 

Winter in ; Peter Acker in Paskock; and Jacobus Peak. That 

there is a cave dug under ground by the sons of Isaac Maybee and on 
the said Maybee's land, about half a mile from John Harriog's, and an- 
other at about a quarter of a mile distant from the former, dug by the 
same persons, and a third about three miles from the house of Joseph 
Weseets in the Clove, and well known by Rohlins in the Clove, each of 
which nwy contain about eight persons, where these robbers generally 
resort; and that John King, Jacob Acker, and John Staatare now in the 

Clove at , or in the bouees around it. That Harding, Everett, he 

as soon as the weather grows warm, intend to plunder Col. at 

Wallkill, to bum Col. Nicolls' house, the gaol, and some other houses 
in and near Goshen, and to remain in the county fur that purpose. That 
there is a gang of the same kind on the east side of Hudson's River, 
whose names are Mandeville , Peter Wood, William Hulliker, Wil- 
liam Danforth, Aaron Williams, James Houston, and others, who plun- 
dered and brought some cattle and horses from Tarrytowu to New York 
the diiy before the said Cole left it." 

" William Welcher says that some time last January, Wiert Banta and 
others applied to him to go with them to take Governor Livingston, for 
whose capture r reward of two hundred guineas was offered by the mayor 
of New York, which he refused. That he never was concerned in any 
robberies but that for which he is condemned. Mentions the same per- 
sons who harbor gangs as named in Cole's confession, and besides, one 
Arie Ackerman, at Paskock, where the wife of one of those robbers 
(John Mason) lives." 

It was for many years a current belief that the val- 
uable plunder obtained by these bands was buried in 
the mountain!?, and among other articles a silver stand, 
aquantity of pewter plates, and a large number of mus- 
kets. The story of searches for the buried articles by 
the grandsons of Claudius Smith, and also by sons of 
one of the Roblins, is told with no little minuteness 
of detail, but there is no evidence that anything more 
than guns were ever found. Like the buried treas- 
ures of Kidd, they have failed to be revealed to the 
earnest gaze of credulous searchers. It is apparently 
the fact that they never stole much besides cattle, as 
there was very little of gold or silver, money or stocks, 
in the possession of the people whose houses they 

visited. They may have become infamous, but they 
were never made rich by the business in which they 
engaged. It is said that their operations were con- 
tinued until the permanent encampment of the Amer- 
ican army in the Highlands (October, 1781) rendered 
their operations extremely hazardous, and finally 
ceased on the exchange of the preliminary articles of 
peace (1782), which obliged the British officers in New 
York to withdraw the encouragement which they had 
previously extended. 



Perhaps less is known, at the present time, in re- 
gard to the second war with England, commonly called 
the war of 1812, than there is in regard to the Eevo- 
lution. Two reasons may be assigned for this, — the 
Revolution gave birth to the nation, and participants 
in it have commanded that respect, and its influence 
upon the world has been such, that the most thorough 
attention has been devoted by historians to the collec- 
tion of facts and records with a view to preserve its 
most minute details ; and, second, whatever of docu- 
mentary evidence exists touching any of its details is 
accessible to those wishing to make examinations. 
The second war has not been so fortunate. Its suc^ 
cesses were mainly through the navy on the ocean. 
But two triumphs occurred on land of any consid- 
erable importance — ^the victories at Plattsburgh and 
New Orleans — -to compensate for many humilia- 
tions, not the least of which was the capture by the 
British of the capital of the nation, and the burning 
of the national records, an event which, by drawing 
from the States whatever records they possessed to 
supply the place of those which were thus destroyed, 
has rendered them almost wholly inaccessible. 

The causes of the war were manifold. It was not 
without some prophetic accuracy that Franklin, re- 
plying to congratulations on the success of the colo- 
nies in their struggle for independence, remarked, 
" Say, rather, the war of the Revolution — the war for 
Independence is yet to be fought," for at no time until 
after the war of 1812 did England fully recognize 
the independence of the United States. There was a 
constant friction between the two governments, grow- 
ing out of the weakness of the one and the powerful- 
ness of the other, which culminated in the impress- 
ment of American seamen and the enforcement of the 
claimed right to search every vessel bearing the flag 
of the United States and the involvement of the 
United States in the war between England and 
France. This involvement did not grow out of any 
act of the United States government further than was 
necessary for the protection of American commerce. 
The English government issued its famous Orders in 



Council, which declared that all American vessels 
going to and from the ports of France and her allies, 
without first touching at or clearing from an English 
port, should be considered lawful prizes. These or- 
ders provoked the Berlin and Milan Decrees, on the 
part of France, by which all vessels that had touched 
at an English port, or submitted to be searched by an 
English cruiser, were pronounced to be the property 
of France ; while British goods, wherever found, 
were made subject to seizure and confiscation. 

Under such circumstances the American govern- 
ment could not remain inactive and allow its com- 
merce to be ruled or ruined by the policy or pride of 
Britain or of France. Accordingly, in December, 
1809, Congress resolved, as a matter of protection, to 
lay an embargo upon all American vessels and mer- 
chandise. This embargo prohibited American vessels 
from sailing from foreign ports, and all foreign ships 
from carrying away American cargoes. Its effect was 
suddenly to suspend commerce, to expose thousands 
of merchants to the risk of bankruptcy, and to check 
at once the flow of produce from the interior to the 
sea-board, — results which were severely felt by the 
people and which tried their patriotism to the utmost. 
The navy of the United States was actively employed 
in enforcing this embargo on the coast, and in the 
course of its operations brought on the historic con- 
test between the " President" and the " Little Belt," 
on the 16th of May, 1811, which tended materially to 
the alienation of the nations. " In the winter of 1812, 
a plot on the part of English agents to sever the Amer- 
ican Union was revealed to the government, and at a 
later day the determination of the English ministry 
to adhere to her Orders in Council was formally com- 
municated to the President. At the same time the 
claim to impress English seamen out of American 
ships on the high seas was maintained in theory, 
while in practice the impressment was constantly ex- 
tended to natives, the boarding officers claiming that 
the seaman who failed to prove that he was an Amer- 
ican should be seized as an Englishman." From 
this determination there could be but one appeal, and 
on the 18th of June, 1812, Congress formally declared 
war against England. 

Throughout the controversy preceding the declara- 
tion of war, and in the subsequent efforts to maintain 
it, the great majority of the people of the county were 
unwavering in their support of the national authori- 
ties. From first to last, by resolutions passed in con- 
ventions, by the expression of their sentiments through 
the ballot-box, by the prompt offer of volunteers, and 
by the contribution of men to actual service, they 
evinced their purpose to resist the " attacks of domes- 
tic enemies and the insolent aggressions of foreign 
powers." The first formal manifestation of local sen- 
timent occurred in 1807, when the "Republican 
Blues," of Newburgh, tendered their services to the 
Governor of the State, as volunteers. This was fol- 
lowed by the overwhelming defeat of the Federal 

party, which was charged with being in sympathy 
with the English (though perhaps without sufScient 
reason), at the election in 1808 and 1809, and again 
in 1814, when Jonathan Fisk, representing the Wu 
party, obtained a majority of 1785 for congressman 
over Jonas Storey. The issue was perhaps mote 
fairly joined in 1809 than in 1814. In that year 
(March 9th) the Republicans held a county conven- 
tion at Goshen, preparatory to the State election,-- 
Gen. Hathorn, chairman, and Jonathan Fisk, Esq. 
Col. John Nicholson, Gen. Reuben Hopkins, Capt 
Josiah Brown, and Judge Nathan H. White, commit- 
tee on resolutions, — and resolved, " That we view the 
laying of an embargo as a wise and patriotic measure, 
imperiously demanded by the exposed condition of 
Our seamen, shipping, and trade to the audacious out- 
rages of foreign powers ; that it has saved thousands 
of our seamen from imprisonment and slavery, and 
millions of property of our countrymen from capture 
and confiscation.'' On the <5ther hand, the Federal 
party — Daniel Niven, chairman, and John Barber, 
Alex. R. Thompson, Alanson Austin, John Bradner, 
J. N. Phillips, John Morrison, John Duer, Samuel 
Sayer, Jonas Storey, Solomon Sleight, John Decker, 
and Samuel B. Stickney, committee on resolutions- 
resolved, "That the act for enforcing the embargo, 
passed Jan. 9, 1809, in our deliberate opinion, is un- 
just, illegal, and oppressive, subversive of the rights 
and dangerous to the liberties of the people." When 
the war filially came on, many of the anti-embargo 
men of 1809 sustained the administration, holding 
with the majority that it was "just and necessary to 
redress our grievances and avenge our violated right*." 
The minority who withheld their assent are perhaps 
correctly represented by the vote in 1814 for Mr. 
Storey. We have no criticism to make on the course 
of any men or body of men, but believe it to be the 
highest prerogative of an American citizen to apjirove 
or refuse to approve of any war which may be declared' 
by Congress, or into which the nation may be plunged. 
The citizen only becomes criminal by the commission 
of acts of treason, of which the expression of opinion 
is not a recognized element. 

During the continuance of the war the militia were 
not without service in the field, while in the navy 
and in the volunteer regiments recruited by order of 
the government the county was honorably repre- 
sented. For the reasons already stated, an accurate 
account of the movements of the militia during the 
war cannot now be obtained. The plan for raising 
troops was simple enough. The coast fortifications 
were to be well garrisoned by the local militia, as- 
sisted, .when necessary , by regular troops, while aggres- 
sive operations were to be intrusted to the regular 
army and volunteers. The militia was to be called 
out to garrison the fortifications and for coast defense 
in detachments which were to include uhiformed com- 
panies only, and in case their ranks were not full, 
drafts were to be made upon the enrolled militia to 



supply the deficiency. Second requisitions were not 
to include those serving under the first, and from the 
third, the first and second were relieved, the object 
being to divide the burden of duty as equally as pos- 
sible. The first call was made April 21, 1812, and 
under it the detached militia were arranged in two 
divisions and eight brigades, and the brigades were 
divided into twenty regiments, to the command of 
each of which a lieutenant-colonel was given. Ste- 
phen Van Rensselaer, of Albany, was appointed to 
the command of the first division, the second brigade 
of which, under Brig.-Gen. Reuben Hopkins, of 
Goshen, embraced the militia detachments of Orange 
and Ulster, which were organized as the fourth regi- 
ment under Lieut.-Col. Andrew J. Hardenburgh, of 
Shawaiigunk. The cavalry and the artillery com- 
panies were similarly organized, the artillery in the 
first brigade of artillery, and the cavalry in the first 
brigade of cavalry. This arrangement was continued 
during the war, Lieut.-Col. Isaac Belknap, Jr., of 
Newburgh, taking the place of Col. Hardenburgh, in 
1813 and 1814. The first call (1812) included all the 
uniformed companies ; the second, made in July, 

1813, included " all the uniformed companies of in- 
fantry, grenadiers, and riflemen," excepting members 
who had been on duty in 1812, and, as the number of 
exempts was considerable, the deficiency in the com- 
pany rolls was made up by draft ; the third call, 
made July 20, 1814, included infantry, artillery, and 
cavalry. Newburgh and New Windsor were made 
the place of rendezvous, and from thence the com- 
panies were moved to New York by sloops, and as- 
signed to Harlem Heights and the fortifications 
around New York. The periods of service were three 
or four months.* 

We have been unable to obtain a complete list of the 
uniformed companies of the county at that time, but 
the following were among the number, viz.: the 
Orange Hussars, of Montgomery, Capt. William 
Trimble (subsequently Capt. Millikenf) ; Capt. Van 

*- Tliu detaclied niililia reoilezvuiisod at Newburgh and New Windsor in 

1814, enil'arked Aii(». 28tli and returned Dec. -tth, a period of four nioDllis. 
t The history of thiti company wiia referred to by Mr. Hugh B. Bull, 

in an aililri'U delivered by him ut the prcseutiitiou of a staud of colors 
to tlie col-ps, AU}!. D, 186.% aa fullowb: 

"'riiis coni|iany of cavalry has been in existence for more than six de- 
cades of years without an interregiiuin. It was organized shortly after 
the Uevolntioiniry war, under the auspices of Joseph Barbour, a patriotic 
citizen of the town of Montgomery, who some thiity years or more since 
went to that rent which asvaits the soldier equally witli others of our 
race. His descendants and kindred are among the most respcctalde and 
honoralde of onr uiiunty. His couiniisbiun bears date Oct. 9, 1793, under 
tlio hand and seal of His Excellenuy George Clinton, the then Governor 
of our State. This company haa preserved an actual existence from that 
until the present period. It lias been nnirshaled in succession under 
Barbour and Millilien; and in what is called the war of 1812, when the 
design was formed by the perlidious foe to humble anil crush our infant 
nation, this troop rallied ou Brooklyn Heights, and bore tlieir part In 
turning lack llie Invader and avei ting the tulo of desolation that was 
athiut to flow over our domains. AI>o, under Hill, Waugh, and that in" 
duniilalde and energetic suldier, VVilllnni Wright, who, for a quarter of 
a century or more, causeil IiIm ardent soldiery to appear at his call, and 
they In turn responiled with alacrity. He iias sustained this corps duiing 
that period through good oud evil report, under adverse and favorable 

Orsdall's and Capt. Dorcas' companies of infantry, of 
the same town ; Capt. Kerr's company of artillery, of 
New Windsor ; Capt. Butterworth's company of ar- 
tillery, of Newburgh ; Capt. Westcott's company of 
cavalry, of Goshen ;t Capt. Acker's company of cav- 
alry, of Newburgh and Marlborough ; Capt. Dennis- 
ton's and Capt. Birdsall's companies of infantry, of 

In 1812 (Nov. 30th), Capt. Denniston, whose com- 
pany was known as the " Republican Blues," proposed 
the organization of a company of volunteers, to serve 
for one year or during the war, and succeeded in en- 
listing about fifty men, who elected Jonathan Gidney 
captain. The company went to New York and 
formed part of a detached regiment of riflemen, 
ranked, we are informed, as the Twenty-seventh TJ. S. 
Infantry, of which Capt. Denniston became major, 
and subsequently colonel. The name of Capt. Ben- 
jamin Wood, of Goshen, also appears in connection 
with this regiment, which is presumed to have been 
the regiment in which volunteers from the county 
mainly enlisted. 

From a sketch written by Moses H. Corwin, and 
published elsewhere, it appears that there was a com- 
pany or a portion of a company from Wallkill, in 
September, 1813. This company was known as the 
" Republican Blues,'' and proceeded to Waterford, via 
sloop from Newburgh, where it was embraced in a 
regiment under Col. Abraham Hardenburgh, of Ulster 
County. From Whitehall the command moved to 
Plattsburgh, and from thence to Fort Hampton, near 
the Canada line. The regiment had no special ser- 
vice other than guard duty. The muster-roll of the 
company, as supplied from memory, was as follows : 

Captain, Clark ; lieutenant, Stacey Beaks, commaudaut ; first ser- 
geant, Nathaniel Penny. 

PritifUea. — John Canfield, John B, Cox, Samuel Cox, Abner Miller, Moses 
H. Corwin, Stephen Sayre, Andrew Gunsoules, Gabriel Hill, Daniel 
Parsons, David Toumaus, S.imuel Canfield, Henry Coleman, William 
Penny, Joseph K. Owen, Joseph Kien, Peter Quick, Alexander Par- 
sons, John S. Clark, Matthew Faulkner, Benjamin Parsons. 

The following roll of a detached company cannot 
be located, from the fact, already stated, that all such 
companies were, made up from other companies of an 
entire regimental district. The list embraces Orange 
as well as Ulster County names : 

" Muster Boll of a company of New York militia under the command of Capt, 

John Ikmning, in the consolidated regiment of infantry commanded by 

Lieut.-Col. Micliael Smith from the seventh of September^ 1814, when 

j mustered^ to the first dm of November, 1814, in the service of the United 

I Btat&t : 

John Dunning, captain. 

William Mullicks, fii^t lieutenant. 

! legislation. His mantle has now fallen ou the present commandant, 
, Capt. William C. Brewster, who is resolved to wear it manfully and with 
I the true spirit of the soldier." 

' X The following brief record occurs in the local newspapers, April 11, 
I 1813: 

" In the squadron of Maj. Westcott of the first regiment of cavali-y of 

ithis State, Charles Lindsey has been appointed captain ; Joseph H. Jack* 
son, first lieutenant; Daniel McNeal, second lieutenaut; and Stephen P. 
Bockefellow, cornet." The persons named were all residents of Mont- 
gomery, except Maj. Westcott. 



Walter Moore, ensign.* 

Buotli, Jeffrey, first sergeant. 

Crane, John A., second ser- 

Dunning, Henry, third ser- 

Huwell, Josiab, fourth ser- 

Clark, Oliver, first corporal. 

Genung, Pierson» second cor- 

Murray, Archibald Y., third 

Lewis, James, fourth corporal. 

Smith, DeiTJck, fifth corporal. 

Wilkiu, Diiuiel, sixth corporal. 

Brown, Siimuel, drummer. 

Genung, Harvey, fifer. 

Bruwn, Elisha. 

Brundage, Abijah. 

Brown, Neal. 

Bennett, Levi. 

Brown, Daniel. 

Baily, Nathaniel. 

Benjamin. John. 

Booth, Thomiis A. 

Bedford, Bei^'amin. 

Cash, Stephen. 

Clark, Stephen. 

Corey, Benjamin. 

Crawford, James. 

Caldwell, Gabriel. 

Christie, Andrew. 

Corwin, Nebat. 

Corwiri, Joseph. 

Cox, Jereniiali. 

Cox, Thompson. 

CanfielO, Joseph. 

Decker, Stephen. 
kDunuiiig, Michael. ^ 

Dunning, John, Jr. 

Fanning, Samuel. 

Goldsmith, Salem. 

Gale, Heory. 

Gregory, Lyman. 

Goldsmith, Moses. 

Gardner, Samuel. 

Gardner, Silas L. 

Goldsmith, Juhn D. 

HortoD, Bamabaa. 

Hulse, Jonas, Jr. 

Hudson, Eleazer. 

Hines, John W. 

Jackson, Daniel T. 

Jagg«r, Paul. 

Kirk, Robert. 

Kortright, John C. 

Kerr, Nathan. 

Kirk, David. 

Keen, Elihu C. 

Knnx, James. 

Knnpp, Elijah. 

Long, Artemas. 

Lockwood, Jared. 

Loder, Isaac W. 

Millspaugh, Samuel. 

McNish, Joshua. 

McNish, Spicer. 

McNish, Henry. 

McCarter, James. 

McCarter, Allen. 

McVey, James. 

Mires, Juhn, Jr. 

Monnel, Joseph. 

Moore, Lurierwick. 

Miller, John C. 

McVey, John. 

McVey, Arden. 

McCarter, William. 

Miller, Geurge. 

Nicolls, Alien. 

Ogden, Gilbert. 

Prescott, btephen. 

Puff, Adam. 

PufT, James. 

Kubhius, John. 

Robbins, Peter. 

Ray, Jumes. 

RodgurB, John. 

Selteck, Isaac 

Slauson, Alva. 

Sayer, William. 

Sands, Samuel. 

Stringham, Jacob. 

Smith, Isaiah W. 

Screder, Elijah. 

Smith, Giaiit. 

Smith, Silas W. 

Smith, Beziileel. 

Thompson, Juuathan. 

Treadwell, Charles. 

Taylur, Moriison. 

Uptegrove, Ricliard. 

Van Benschoten, John. 

Warren, David. 

Warren, Solomon. 

Warren, Eliphalet. 

White, Jonathan. 

Watson, James. 

Wilkin, William. 

Wood, Juhn. 

Youngs, Virgil W. I 

militia at Quarantine Ground, | 

" Mustered as a company of detached 
Staten Island, Nov. 1, 1814. 

" Robert 0. Hunter (Blooming-Grove), Surgeon.*^ 

In the navy the county was represented by Silas 
Horton Stringham, Charles Ludlow, Augustus C. 
Ludlow, Eobert C. Ludlow, and others. Stringham, 
then a midshipman, was with Commodore Rogers in 
the frigate " President" during her action with the 
"Little Belt," in 1809, and served until the close of 
the war under his early tutor. His subsequent career 
is a matter of history. Robert C. Ludlow was ou the 
" Constitution," and participated in the capture of 

* Accompanying commission : 

"Walter C. Moore, Ensign, of a company in the regiment of detached 
militia, whereof Benjamin Webb is Lieutenant 'Colonel commandant, 
Issued by Daniel D. Tompkins, Governor, Feb. 9, 181U." 

the " Java." Augustus C. Ludlow was ou the " Presi- 
dent," the '* Constitution," the '* Hornet," and the 
"Chesapeake," of which latter he was lieutenant 
under Capt. Lawrence, in the action with the English 
ship "Shannon" (July, 1813). His heroic conduct 
in that action, and his almost tragic death, made for 
him a name which will be an example while American 
history shall be cherished. Sailors in merchantmen 
were captured by English cruisers and confined in 
Dartmoor prison, and among their number were those 
whose birthplaces and homes were in the county of 

Immediately following the capture of Washington 
in 1814, the people of the county were brought to- 
gether in determination to resist to the utmost the 
apparent purpose of England to destroy the independ- 
ence of the nation. Party spirit was hushed in the 
presence of the impending danger, and, if at no other 
time, it could then be written, " patriotism reigns pre- 
dominant." At Goshen, on the 30th of August, a 
"patriotic meeting" was held, for the purpose of 
"taking into consideration the propriety of erecting 
new or repairing the old fortifications at West Point 
and in the vicinity thereof, and of devising some plan 
for effecting that object, and for other purposes of 
public defense under the present circumstances of the 
country."! This meeting, of which Gen. James W. 
Wilkin was chairman, and Dr. David R. Arnell, 
secretary, " Eesolvedj That John Duer, Jonathan 
Fisk, William Ross, James W. Wilkin, George D. 
Wickham, James Finch, Jr., and Nathan H. White 
be a committee to devise some plan for accomplishing 
the above object," and to enable them to report, the 
meeting adjourned until the afternoon of the Slat 
At the adjourned meeting, the committee reported as 
follows : 

" The situation of our country calls upon the people to feel and act 
like freemen at war with a powerful enemy. An invading foe desolating 
our towntj must he met and repulsed. A sense of danger, the dictates at 
duty, and the spirit of patrioUsm summon us tu offer our united and 
zealous exertions for the defense, the safety, and the protection of our 
country. If wo cannot go forth to meet the enemy, we can prepare to 
receive him on his approach to ns. The forts and works of defense U 
West Point and ita vicinity we can repair, strengthen, and defend. That 
this object may he accomplished 

" Resnlved, That a Committee of Defense for the county of Orangey to 
consist of twenty-two members, be appointed. 

" Resolved, That it he recommended to the people in the several towM 
of the county to meet withont delay, and take measures to co-openti 
with the Committee of Defense. 

" BcMolved, That the Committee of Defense invite our fellow-citizens of 
the couuties of Duchess and Pntnani, Ulster, Greene, and Colnmbit, tv 
unite and co-operate with the citizens of Orange County in adopting 
measures of defense. 

" lietolvedf That the Committee of Defense meet at the house of OoL 
Tuthill. in Goshen, on the 2d day of September next at 3 o*clock VJL, 
and afterwards on their own o4]ournments. 

" The following gentlemen were then appointed a Committee of De- 
fense : From the town of Minisink, John Bradner and Nathan'Arnrt; 
Deerpark, James Finch, Jr., and Joseph Baird ; Wallkill, Henry B. Wto- 

t The people of Philadelphia and New York took the lead in organiriig 
committees of this character. Under the committee of New York three 
thousand persons gave voluntary labor on the 13th of Augnst, 8 
work was continued by volunteers until completed, August 3lBt 



nerand Benjamin WoodMard ; Gonhen, John Duerand Freegift Tuthill; 
Warwick, Dr. Samuel S. Saward and Jeffrey Wisner; Monroe, Jamee D. 
Secor and Benjamin Cnnningham; Cornwall, William A. Clark and 
Joaeph Chandler, Jr.; Blooming-Grove, ("oL Selah Strung and Jeremiah 
Horton ; Montgomery, Job'n Blake, Jr., and Juhannea Milter; New- 
burgh, John D. LawsoD and Jacob Powell ; New Windsor, Joseph Mor- 
rell and David Bill." 

At the meeting of the Committee of Defense, ac- 
cording to appointment, September 2d, all the mem- 
bers named were present except John D. Lawson and 
Joseph Morrell. Selah Strong was appointed chair- 
man, and John Duer, secretary. It was 

"ReMolvedt that a committee of five be appointed to communicate with 
the general and State governments, to tender the services of the citizens 
of this county in repairing the fortifications in and about West Point, to 
ascertain the proL-ise state of the works and the extentof the repairs that 
may be necesHary, and that the committee consist of the following per- 
sons: The cbairmuii and secretary, William A. Clark. Joseph Murrell, 
and Johannes Miller, and that they report to the committee at their 
next meeting. 

**ff««o/rerf. That this committee recommend to their fellow-citizens of 
this county that town-meetings be held at the usual place of holding the 
same in the different towns, on Saturday the tenth day of September, for 
the purpose of appointing committees to co-operate with the general 
committee in such measures of defense as the situation of the county 
may require. 

"SeBolved^ That our felluw-citizens (exempt by law from the perform- 
ance of military duty) be requested without delay to form themselves 
into military associations for the defense of their coantry. 

** Resolved, That the chairman of this committee be authorized to call 
meetings of the general committee from time to time, as he may think 
necesaary, and that seven members constitute a quorum." 

At an adjourned meeting of the committee, Sep- 
tember 17th, it was 

" Buohed, That the town committee be Instructed to proceed without 
delay in collecting subscriptions of money and labor, from their respec- 
tive towns, for the repairing and erecting fortifications at and about West 
Point, and that it be recommended to them to request subscriptions 
agreeably to the rate of the last assessment of tuwn and county taxes, 
and that they report to the general committee the amount of their sev- 
eral Bubecriptions. 

" I{e*olved^ That the town committees be further instructed to inquire 
into the state of the iirms and ammunitiou in their respective towns, and 
to report to the general committee the quantity of arms and ammunition 
which their respective towns may wish to procure. 

" Resolved, That the town committees be further instructed to take the 
necessary measures for organizing the exempts and the volunteers of the 
Middle District (Senatorial), and that they report the number organized 
to the general committee." 

On the 25th of October it was reported that a letter 
had been received from the Secretary of War inform- 
ing the committee that he would " order a skillful en- 
gineer to repair to West Point to superintend the 
•works and point out the sites most eligible for defense." 
At another meeting it was reported that the people 
of Montgomery had subscribed three hundred and 
thirty-two days' work and four hundred and eleven 
dollars. Here the newspaper record ends. It does not 
appear that the repair of the forts was commenced ;* 
but in several of the towns military companies, com- 
posed of exempts, were organized. Of the latter a 
single record has found its way to preservation, as 

* Maj. Boynton, in bis " History of Wwt Point." states that Fort Put- 
nam was partially repaired about 1794, from appropriations made by 
Congress. It is not believed that any repairs were made in 1814 through 
the efforts of the Committee of Defense. 

"Notice. — In the present alarming crisis of our affnlrs, when our 
country is iuvaded, our seaports destroyed, our rights infringed, and our 
liberty and independence threatened, it becomes the imperious duty of 
every person capable of bearing arms to step forward in defense of his 
bleeding country. 

"We therefore, the subscribers, inhabitants of the Town of Warwick, 
in the County of Orange (being exempt by law from military duty), do 
hereby agree to enroll oui selves for the purpose of forming an independ- 
ent company to be called the Warwick Volunteers, — and as soon as 
there shall be the number of forty able-bodied men thus enrolled, we 
agree that on notice being previously given at a day and place certain, 
we will meet and by a plurality of votee present choose officers to com- 
mand said company ; immediately after which we will tender our ser- 
vices to the Governor and Council of this State in defense of the middle 
district of this State, and pray them to grant commissions to said oflicers 
agreeable to law. 

" Warwick, Sept. 16, 1814."- 

" Warwick Volunteers. 

" Company Roll : James Burt, captain ; Samuel S. Seward, first lieu- 
tenant; Benjamin Barry, ensign; Thomas Swezy, Wm. W. Brooks, 
Abraham Peck, John Palmer, Belden Burt, Samuel Drew, Cornelius 
Furehee, John Magee, Samuel Benjamiu, John Wood, Jeremiah More- 
house, Wm. Holland, Amos Hyatt, Isaac Babcock, Samuel J.Vance, Joel 
Wheeler, Anthony Bishop, Wm. Johnson, Abraham Gregory, Silvanus 
Fancher, Shadrack Sellek, Enos McDaniel, Josiah Everett, Nathaniel 
Ketcham, John A. Grossman, Wm. Minturn, Icbabod Barker, Joseph 
Lloyd, John M. Fought, Joseph Downes, Samuel G. Hopkins, Winans 
Harris, Jesse M. Foster, Wm. Jackson, Wm. Carr, Jr., Henry Randall, 
Daniel Carpenter, Zenophan Mead, Isaac Dusenberry, Jesse Wood, John 
McAmbly, Joseph Wilcox, Benjamin Davis, Andrew Layton, Zebulon 
Wheeler, Nathaniel Wheeler, John Miller, John Carr, Christopher Aspell, 

The return of peace was celebrated in every town 
in the county. Speeches, toast-tables, cannon, and 
illuminations proclaimed the general joy, while the 
churches emulated each other in public offerings of 
thanksgiving and praise. As indicative of the gen- 
eral spirit, the action of the people of Hopewell is in 
point, viz. : 

"On Thursday the 24th ult. (April 24th), soon after information of the 
treaty of peace was received in Hopewell, a number of the inhabitants 
of the place assembled at the public-house of Isaac Schultz, in order to 
adopt such measures as might be deemed most expressive of the feelings 
of joy on the occasion. Mr. E. Gillman being called to the chair, and 
Mr. Isaac Schultz chosen clerk, it was 

" * Resolved^ to assemble in the church, on the Tuesday evening follow- 
ing, and there solemnly to offer up thanksgiving and Praise to Almighty 
God for granting Peace to our country. It wtis likewise resolved that 
the Rev. Mr. Van Doren, pastor of the congregation, be requested to lead 
in the devotion of the evening, and to deliver an address.* 

" Agreeably to the foregoing resolution, on Tuesday evening a large 
concourse of people assembled in the church, which was elegantly illu- 
minated with about seven hundred candles; when, after appropriate 
sacred music and solemn prayer and praise, the following address was 
delivered. The most becomiug behavior was observed throughout the 
whole assembly, and jny and gratitude appeared to irradiate every coun- 

" Aduress. 

" Afsciiililed, as we are, on this joyful occasion, to celebrate, in the 
house "r God, the return of peace to our bleeding country, it becomes 
us, in ilio iirst place, to celebrate His praise who maketh war to cease 
unto the ends of the earth ; who breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear 
in sunder; who burneth the chariot in the fire. Since not to acknowl- 
edge His hand in our deliverance would be both ungrateful and impious, 
let us then, as a Christian people, indulge the warm affections of grati- 
tude and joy, joy for the blessing of peace, which the Governor of the 
Universe has bestowed upon us, and gratitude, as an expression of our 
obligation to Him for the favor. Such affections are pleasing in Hia 
eight, who looketh on the heart. While then our hearts are glowing 
with gratitude and leaping with joy under a sense of the recent display 
of divine goodness to us, let us for a moment call to mind the many dis- 
tinguished with which the f3od of Heaven has been pleased to signalize 
our infant coantry. 



'* CollectPd OQ the Bbures of the American wilderuess, as its first set- 
tlers were, from almost every nation and clime, fugitives from oppression, 
from persecution, and from want, the God of their fathers has prospered 
and blessed them. He cast out the heathen from before them, and planted 
them in a goodi}' soil. He crowned the laliur of their hands with plenty, 
and prospered their institutions, both civil ami religious. Thus pardoned 
with the smiles of Heaven, they increased in numbers, in arts, in wealth, 
and respectability. Colleges were formed, temples for the worship of the 
living God were raised, the sound uf the hammer was hf>ard tn every 
quarter, and commerce began to unfurl her thousand snils. 

" Ni)r was our prosperity unobserved by the natiuus of the earth. They 
saw, they wondered, and they admired. Our prosperity excited the cu. 
pldity, especially of that nation which claimed us as her colunies. But 
before the yoke which she had prepared for us was riveted to our necks, 
we cast It to the ground and dashed it in pieces. It would be ungrateful 
here nut to acknowledge the hand of God in enabling us to assert our 
rights and to obtain our independence, by which we took a place among 
the nations of the earth. Although the conflict was long and bloody, the 
Lord of Hosts crowned our arms with success, and said to our country, 
thou art free I and thereby taught mankind that the race is not always 
to the swift, nor the battle tu the strong, but that salvation is of the Lord. 
Nur can we doubt that God taught our senators wisdom, since they were 
enabled to devise and prepare a constitution for the States by which the 
wisdom and wealth and power of each were coucentnited and made to 
flow in the same channel for the common benefit of all ; a constitution 
which, while it secures life, libei'ty, and property to each individual, yet 
sufficiently nerves thearm of government to guide and protect the whule. 

** And what has been our situation since that time ? While the plains 
of Europe have for years smoked with the blood of the slain, while 
mighty ctinvulsions have overturned her mighty thrones and shaken 
whole kingdoms to their centre, we for thirty years enjoyed the sunshine 
of peace and of equal laws. The thunder of Europe's cannon was heard, 
but at so great a distance that its sound came only murmuring on our 
ears. And so familiar did we become with her oft-repeated tale of woe, 
that the fate uf her mighty armies, which marched into the field but 
never returned, excited in us feelings of com misi; ration but for a day. 
While thus in a great measure insensible to the distress of others, their 
broils enriched our cofTera. 

"But, alual with our growing wealth we became more proud, more un- 
grateful, mure wicked, and therefore more ripe fur the judgment of 
Heaven. Nor have they been delayed. The sword has been unsheathed 
on our borders, and made drunk with the blood of our fellow-citizens. 
Many have been made to feel sorely the rod of Gud*a displeasure. Yet 
as a nation we have eufiered but lightly compared with what the nations 
of Europe have lately experienced from the awful ravages of war. And 
fs it, Lord, because our crimes have been less? Or is it not rather that 
Thy compassion and grace to us have more abounded? Although a 
righteous God has visited our favored land with the fire and with the 
sword, and with pestilence, He has in His abundant mercy preserved us 
from the horrors of famine, a still sorer judgment, for the earth has 
yielded the fruits of her increase in abundance, and we have eaten to the 

" War on our coasts and throughout our land has ceased. God hath 
said to the destroying angel, It is enough. The sword has been returned 
to the scabbard, aud we are now permitted each one to sit under hisowu 
Tine and fig-tree, there being none tu alarm us or make us afraid. And 
shall we not be glad on that account, and joy in the God of our salva- 
tion? Surely he that does not and will not r^oico must be destitute of 
the feelings of humanity, as he is insensible to the dying groans of the 
soldier, and regardless of the bitter cries and despairing agonies of the 
aged parent, the affectionate wife, and helpless youth, from whose ten- 
der embrace war tears a son, a husband, or a father, and writes in char- 
acters of blood the name of the first, childless ; of the next, a widow ; of 
the last, an orphan. And who can tell how many such have been called 
during the last war to mourn in secret, and have pined away in anguish 
a life that was bound up in the life of their departed friend ? None can 
tell but He whose eye is over all, and who deigns to notice 
the sighs and tears of the widow and fatherless. Oh ! their departed 
friends shall never return ; their blood has flowed at their country's call 
and their eyes are sealed in death. 

"Sad and gloomy as these reflections are and must be to a virtuous 
mind, yet we, as a congregation, have abundant ground for rejoicing, 
since not one from among tu hiM been calUd into the field of batUef and al- 
though a number of you have, for u short time, exchanged your ordinarj* 
pursuits for the life of a camp, yet, through the goodness of God, you 
have returned in safety to your friends, one ontff excepted, and are per- 
mitted to join with us in ofiering thanksgiving to the God of all our ar- 

mies. And what, 1 what, shall we render unto the Lord fur all Hii 
' benefits tuwards us? Oh that men would praise the Lord for Hisgood- 

nt-ss and fur His wonderful works among the children of men 1 

I *' Whatever may be our feelings on this occasion, yet as no hostile foot 

I has visited our doors, as no alarms for pentorfal safety have disturbed onr 

slnmbers, as none of us have been called to njoairn the loss of friends 

whosH blood has flowed in the service of our country, we cannot so fully 

! appreciate the blessings of returning peace as many throughout our land. 

Would you, at least in some measurp, rightly estimate the blesBlngn of 

: peace, imagine for a moment the situatiun uf those inhaldbinta living on 

, our seaboard on the east, or on our frontiers on the north and west, who 

I were either driven from their homes or were daily exposed to an invading 

I fleet, or morc'to-be-dreaded seal ping-knife of the Indian. Imagine for a 

I moment the situation of those iuhal itnnts whose homes were laid lo 

ashes, and themselves obliged tu wander as fugitives and strangers on 

: their native soil. Imagine for a niument the feelings uf those reninants 

I of families from which one or more t>f their number has been ravaged 

I by the war. As little as we are willing or able to realize these scenes of 

distress and misery, they are not fictitious, but have actually and fr»< 

qiieutly taken place during the past war, and in a gi-eater or less degree 

I do take place in all wars. 

** But blessed be His name who maketh the wars to cease, Tlie toma- 

I hawk is now buried, and the late ho-tile fleets now visit our shores in 

peace. And 0! may the confused noise of the wanior and garments 

, rolled in blood no more be heard or seen in our land in our day, nor in 

the day of our children, nor children's children. 

" And since the judge of all the earth has deigned to bestow upon us 
the blessings of peace, may we nut hope that with it He will also grant 
us other tokens of his favor? May we not hope soon to see new fields of 
industry and wealth opened tu the farmer, a now opting given to the 
mechanic arts, and our dying commerce a^^ain revive? Tes ; may we not 
hope soon to see commerce, the parent of industry and source of wealth, 
unfurl her canvas to every wind, visit every clime, and isle, and continent, 
return with their riches and pour their wealth upon onr favured shores? 
May we not hupe that, being restored to peace with our enemy, wo will 
lay aside all enmity against them, and view them as brethren descended 
from the same cummon parent, sharers in the same benign religion oi 
Jesus, and warmed with the same hupes of immortality with ourselves? 
May we not hope that, with returning peace abroad, the bitterness of 
party spirit among ourselves, which has disgraced all ages, and ranks, 
and sexes, may be eradicated from our bosoms, and exchanged for an am- 
bition who shall become the best member of society by fulfilling all ths 
duties of their several stations? For in the final issue of things it will 
then be made to appear that the befit Christian is the best patriot. 

" Would we then truly enjoy the blessings of peace, let us imbibe and 
cultivate the spirit of the Gospel and fearlessly discharge all the duties 
It enjoins, both public and private. Let us enlist under the banners (tf 
the Prince of Peace, who is the Prince of the kings of the earth, that 
we may enjoy Hin smiles and gracious protection. And let ua anlently 
desire aud pray for the coming of that day wheu the kingdoms of this 
world shall become the Ulngdunis of our Lord antl of His Christ; that 
He may have dominion frum sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends 
of the earth, for in His days shall the righteous flourish, and abundance 
of peace so long as the moon endureth.'* 

The war with Mexico drew a number of volunteers 
in New York City regiments, but so far as we can 
learn there were no cora.panie3 organized in the 
county, except Company K, of the Tenth Kegiment 
United States Infantry, Capt. Alexander Wilkin, 
which was recruited at Goshen. A history of this 
company will be found in connection with the town 
of Goshen. 



In the civil war of 1861-65, the people of this 

county proved themselves worthy representatives of 

I a heroic ancestry. In all the larger towns meetings 



were held immediately upon the fall of Fort Sumter. 
Men and money were freely tendered for the defense 
of the Union. Enlistments commenced forthwith, 
and the action of the citizens was everywhere prompt 
and enthusiastic. When it became necessary at a later 
period to raise large sums to fill the several quotas, 
these were voted without hesitation. 

Briefly recapitulated, the following regiments and 
companies were recruited and organized in the county, 

Sd Begiment, Co. B, infantry, 1861. 
18th Begiment, Cki. D, infantry, 1801. 
18th Begiment, Co. I, infanti-y, 1861, — in part. 
36th Begiment, Co. B, Infantry, 1S61. 
e6th Begiment, Oo. A, iarantry, 18C1. 
6Gth Begiment, Co. B, infantry, 18GI. 
S6th Regiment, Co. I), infantry, 18GI. 
SGth Regiment, Co. B, infantry, 1861. 
63d Regiment, infantry, 1864. 
10th Regiment, Co. F, infantry, 1861. 
8'Zth Begiment, Co. C, infantry, 1861. 
98th Regiment, Co. C, infantry, 1864. 
98th Begiment, Co. I, infantry, 1864,— in part. 
124th Begiment, infantry, 1862,-1047 men. 
124th Begiment, infantry, 1864, — one company. 
168th Regiment, infantry, 1862,-335 men. 
176th Begiment, infantry, 186i,— 272 men. 
let Begiment, Co. C, Mounted Rifles, 1861. 
2d Regiment, Co. B, cavalry, 1861. 
16th Begiment, Co. I, cavHlry, 1864, — 140 men. 
16th Begiment, Co. M, artillery, 1864,-82 men. 
7tli Begiment, artillery, 1864,-70 men. 
7th Independent Battery, 1861. 
19th and 7l8t Militia, 1861-62,-317 men. 

There were, in addition, many enlistments in 
other regiments and also in the navy. The following 
aggregate of men furnished may be accepted as very 
nearly accurate : 




Cornwall , 

Crawford , 





High lands. 




Mount Hope 


New Windsor , 





April, 1861, to 
July, 1862. I 

Total Credits under 
Subsequent Calls. 
























493 429 922 


79. I881 

12 . 
447 . 
100 . 

12 . 

» _: ' 3. -: 

5-3 0-; 

0, 30 






4 ^21 
4l 192 
52 361 
26 165 
91 692 
6 303 
10 1U1 
14' 119 

11 128 
14' 298 
3 520 


6 137 
249! 122 2301 
24 3 237 
20' 60 
60 583 
13 163 

Total 1605, 517 2022 201111776 1293 631,7624 

While a detailed history of the services of the com- 
panies and regiments enumerated is not within the 
province of this work, more than a mere reference is 
due to some of them. 


Company B, Third Regiment Infantry, claims to 
have been the first company recruited and ready for 
muster in the State, although not the first mustered. 
Recruiting for it was commenced in Newburgh imme- 
diately on the passage, by the Legislature, of the 
act of April 16, 1861, entitled " An act to authorize 
the equipment of a volunteer militia and to provide 
for the public safety." Although the movement for 
the recruiting of the company was inaugurated by 
Stephen W. Fullerton; Esq., at that time a member 
of Assembly, and subsequently captain of the company, 
James A. Raney was in charge. The company was 
mustered in May 14, 1861, — seventy-seven men, — for 
two years. At the expiration of its term its remain- 
ing members were mustered out. The company was 
reorganized, however, and continued in the field until 
finally mustered out, Aug. 28, 1865. Big Bethel, Fort 
Wagner, Bermuda Hundred, Petersburg, Fort Gil- 
mer, Chapin's Farm, Fort Fisher, and Wilmington, 
N. C, were its more important fields of service. Its 
officers were : 

Stephen W. Fullerton, captain, April 20, 1861 ; died of disease at New- 
burgh Sept. 11, 1861. 

Ervine A.Jones, first lieutenant, April 20, 1861; promoted captain Sept. 
25, 1861 ; dismissed Aug. 16, 1862. 

Alexander Mann, second lieutenant, April.20, 1861 ; promoted first lieu- 
tenant Sept. 30, 1861 ; captain, June 10,1862; discharged Aug. 31, 

Jeremiah D. Mabie, first sergeant, May 14, 1861; second lieutenant, 
Sept. 14, 1861 ; first lieutenant, April 24, 1362 ; captain, Co. F, June 
15, 1S63 ; discliarged Sept. 18, 1864. 

James H. Beeve, fourth sergeant, May 14, 1861; first sergeant ; second 
lieutenant, April 21, 1862; captain, Co. 1, Oct. 3, 1864; lost leg at 
Fort Fisher; discharged June 2G, 1865. 

The personal record of its non-commissioned officers 
and privates will be found in the Newburgh list of 


This regiment is described in the official reports as 
having been organized at Albany to serve two years. 
The companies of which it was composed were raised 
in the counties of Albany, Schenectady, St. Lawrence, 
Ontario, and Orange. It was mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States May 17,1861, and mustered 
out May 28, 1863, by reason of the expiration of its 
term of service. The portion of this regiment enlisted 
in Orange County consisted of Company D, — John C. 
McGinnis captain, George Barry first lieutenant, and 
Roswell M. Sayre second lieutenant. It was formed 
at Middletown immediately upon the call of the 
President for seventy-five thousand volunteers. One 
of the commissions bears date April 22d, and the rank 
of quite a number of the commissioned officers dates 
back from that time. 

There were so many enlistments in the company 
that on reaching Albany, besides organizing Company 
D, about thirty of the men were taken to assist in or- 
ganizing Company H. The company which went from 
Orange County was mostly compo.sed of railroad men. 



The Eighteenth, after its organization, left Albany 
for Washington. They encamped for about two weeks 
on Capitol Hill. They were at the battle of Bull Run 
and supported a battery, but did not share to any ex- 
tent in the actual fighting. They remained at Centre- 
ville the next night, and then marched back to Wash- 

The regiment remained in that vicinity and in 
winter-quarters near Alexandria until the spring of 
1862. At the opening of that year's campaign they 
were sent out to Brlstow's Station, were snowed in, 
and soon after returned to Alexandria. They then 
went on board transports, and went to the Peninsula. 
They shared in the McClellan campaign against 
Richmond, through the final Seven Days' fight, and 
encamped at Harrison's Landing with the army. 
After that they were detailed as a guard at various 
points. Their winter-quarters 1862-63 were at White 
Oak Church. Early the following spring they were 
transported to Albany and discharged according to 
terms of their enlistment. The date of the mustering 
out was May 28, 1863. 

Many of the members of the Eighteenth re-en- 
listed and did good service during the remainder of 
the war. 

Promotions among the men who went from Orange 
County in the Eighteenth : 

Thomas S. Lane, commissioned as second lieu- 
tenant Dec. 2, 1861, and his rank dating from Nov. 
6th ; was promoted to first lieutenant Nov. 10, 1862. 
He was mustered out with the regiment May 28, 1863. 

Wm. E. Carmichael, commissioned as second lieu- 
tenant July 4, 1861, and his rank dating from May 
7th ; was promoted to first lieutenant Dec. 2, 1861. He 
resigned July 16, 1862. 

Robert A. Malone, commissioned as second lieu- 
tenant Dec. 2, 1861, and his rank dating from Nov. 
11, 1861 ; was promoted to captain Nov. 10, 1862, and 
mustered out with the regiment May 28, 1863. His 
rank as captain dated from Sept. 8, 1862. 

Roswell M. Sayre, commissioned as second lieu- 
tenant July 4, 1861, and his rank dating from April 
30, 1861 ; was promoted to first lieutenant Dec. 21, 
1861, and to captain Nov. 10, 1862, his rank in the 
latter position dating from June 26, 1862. He was 
mustered out with the regiment May 28, 1863. 

John S. King was commissioned as first lieutenant 
Nov. 10, 1862, his rank dating from June 26, 1862, 
and was mustered out with the regiment May 28, 

George Barry, commissioned as first lieutenant July 
4, 1861, and his rank dating from April 30, 1861 ; was 
promoted captain Dec. 2, 1861, and was killed in 
battle at Gaines' Mills, Va., June 27, 186?. 

John C. McGinnis, commissioned as captain July 4, 
1861, and his rank dating from April 30th ; was pro- 
moted to major Dec. 2, 1861, and to lieutenant-col- 
onel Oct. 14, 1862. He was mustered out with the 
regiment May 28, 1863. 


Immediately after the close of his connection wi 
the recruitment of Co. B, Third Regiment, Jame» 
Raney, of Newburgh, at that time captain of Co. P, 
19th Militia, obtained authority to recruit a company 
for the Thirty-sixth Regiment of volunteers, ^then 
being organized in the city of New York. Sergt 
Timothy Donoghue, also of Co. F, united in the en- 
terprise and rendered very material assistance. Re- 
cruiting was commenced on the 13th of May, 1861, 
and the company was mustered into the service of the 
United States on the 17th of June following, with 
seventy-seven members. The regiment left Biker's 
Island July 12th, and arrived in Washington on the 
14th ; remained in camp until the 24th of March, 
1862, when it was brigaded under Brig.-Gen. Couch 
in the division commanded by Gen. D. C. Buell, and 
subsequently by Gen. Keyes. From that time the 
history of the regiment was blended with the move- 
ments under Gen. McClellan on the Peninsula. Capt 
Donoghue and sixteen of his company were the first 
of the army to cross the Ohickahominy at Bottom's 
Bridge, May 22, 1862. At the battle of Fair Oab, 
on the 31st of the same month ; at Seven Pines, June 
25th ; at Gaines' Mill, June 27th ; and at Malvern 
Hill, .July 1st, the regiment made a brilliant record. 
At Malvern Hill Co. B was particularly distinguished, 
and won the approbation of the general commanding. 

Returning to Yorktown Aug. 29th, the regiment 
embarked for Alexandria, where it arrived on the 
30th, and was pushed forward to Chantilly, where it 
was again under fire (Sept. 1st). Crossed into Mary- 
land and (Nov. 3d) into Virginia, and advanced to 
Fredericksburg, where it was in Gen. Devens' brigade, 
which was the first of the left grand division to cross 
the Rappahannock, Dec. 11th, and covered the retreat 
of the army on the 15th, Co. B being detailed to col- 
lect stragglers, and finally crossing under a shower of 
balls from the enemy. On the 3d of May following 
the regiment led the centre column of attack on 
Marye's Heights, where Co. B captured a battery from 
a Mississippi brigade, and was the first to plant its 
colors on the heights. In the afternoon of the same 
day the regiment was detailed, as a part of Sedgwick*! 
corps, in the assault on Salem Heights, and performed 
most excellent service. The records of the regiment 
were destroyed June 30, 1863, at Westminster, Md., 
to prevent falling into the hands of the enemy, but 
Capt. Donoghue determinedly preserved his descrip- 
tive book, from which records of his men will be 
found in the list of Newburgh volunteers. The last 
service of the regiment was in Hooker's campaign. 
At the commencement of the " mysterious move- 
ments of Gen. Lee" which culminated at Gettysburg, 
the regiment was again sent over the Rappahannock, 
where three divisions of the enemy were found, but 
no action ensued. Falling back towards Centreville, 
the regiment crossed the Potomac at Edwards' Ferry, 
and its term of service being more than filled, it was 



ordered home. No braver, better, or more gallant 
men served in the volunteer force than Co. B. Its 
officers were : I 

James A. Baney, captain, Jane 15, 1861 ; promoted major Deu. 21, 1861 ; 
reeigaed Oct. 16, 1862. 

Timothy Uonoglnie, fintt lieutenant, June 15, 1861; prumotetl captain 
Nov. 12, 1861 ; mustered out with regiment July IS, 1863. 

Jolin M. Lewis, second lleutenaut, June 15, 1861 ; promoted first lieu- 
tenant Bee. 2, 1861 ; mustered out witii regiment July 15, 1863. 

Cbarlefl !£. Lewis, iirst sergeant, Oct. 1, 1861 ; second lieutenant, Nov. 12, 
1861 ; iiist lieutenant, Aug. 20, 1862 ; mustered out with regiment 
July 15, 1863. 


This organization was popularly known as the Tenth 
Legion. It was organized at Newburgh, mostly in the 
month of August, though the rank of some of the 
officers dates from July. 

The Fifty-sixth was composed of companies raised 
in Ulster, Orange, Sullivan, and Delaware, and it was 
mustered into the service of the United States be- 
tween July 31st and Dec. 10th. As elsewhere stated, 
the companies recruited in Orange were A, B, D, and 
E, with scattering men in other commands. The 
Seventh Battery and Co. C, First Mounted Rifles, were 
also recruited for it but subsequently detached. It 
left for the seat of war Nov. 7, 1861, eleven hundred 
and forty-three strong. It was formed as a three 
years' regiment, but by re-enlistments the organiza- 
tion was continued, and was not mustered out until 
Oct. 17, 1865, making a period of four years' service. 

By the adjutant-general's report of 1868 this regi- 
ment was entitled to inscribe upon its banners the 
following battles : 

Lee's Mills, Va. ; Williamsburg, Va. ; Honey Hill, 
S. C. ; Devaux Neck, 8. C. ; John's Island, S. C. ; 
White Oak Swamp, Va. ; Fair Oaks, Va. ; Yorktown, 
Va. (siege) ; Chickahominy, Va. ; Coosawhatchie, 
S. C. ; Malvern Hill, Va. ; Carter's Hill, Va. ; Bot- 
tom's Bridge, Va. ; Dingle's Mills, S. C. 

The following is the official record of the rank and 
promotion of the commissioned officers ; the date of 
commission being first given, followed by the date of 
rank : 

Cliarles H. Van Wyck (bvt. brig.-geu. U.S.V.), Nov. 13, 186i ; Sept. 4, 

1801 ; mustered out with the regiment Oct. 17, 1865. 
Kookwell Tyler, Sept. 29, 1805; Sept. 27, 1865; not nmstered as colonel. 

Lieutenant- Colonels. 

James Jordan, Dec. 20, 1861 ; Dec. 19, 1861 ; discharged Aug. 5, 1862. 

Frederick Decker, Nov. 17, 1862 ; Aug. 5, 1802 ; not mustered as liouten- ' 
ant-colonel. I 

John J. Wheeler, Dec. 15, 1862 ; Nov. -.3, 1K62; resigned Feb. 11, 1864. 

Roikwoll Tyler (brevet col. N.Y.V.), Feb. 27, 1864 ; Feb. 13, 1864 ; mus- 
tered out with the regiment Oct. 17, T86S. 

Eliphas Smith, Sept. 20, 1805; .Sept. 27, -1805; not mustered as liouten- 


Jacob Sharpe, June 28, 1862 ; Sept. 1, 1861 ; discharged Ang. 5, 1862. 

Jiihn J. Wlieeler, Nov. 17, 1862 ; Aug. 2, 1862 ; promoted to lieutenant- 
colonel Dec. 16, 1862. 

Rockwell Tyler, Dec. 15, 1862 ; Nov. 23, 1862 ; promoted to lieutenant- 
colonel Feb. 27, 1864. 

Eliphas Smith (bvt. lieut.-col. N.Y.V.), Feb. 27, 1864; Feb. 18, 1864; 
must, out with the regiment Oct. 17, 1865. 

Jamea Dubois, Sept. 29, 1866 ; Sept. 27, 1865 ; not mustered as miu'or. 

Eli H. Evans, Aug. 7, 1862; Sept. 1, 1881 ; dismissed Oct. 26, 1863. 
Henry B. Lomas (bvt. capt. N.T.V.), Nov. 30, 1863; Oct. 1,1803; mus- 
tered out with the regiment Oct. 17, 1865. 

John C. Gerard, Aug. 7, 1862 ; July 31, 1801 ; discharged Nov. 3, 1863. 
Jesse F. Shafer, Nov. 17, 18B2 ; Sept. 6, 1862 ; resigned Oct. 16, 1864. 
Addison J. Clements (bvt. capt. N.T.V.), Nov. 30, 1864; Oct. 16, 1864; 
mustered out with the regiment Oct. 17, 1866. 

Surgeons. • 

Solomon Van Etten (bvt, lieut.-col. N.T.V.), Aug. 7, 1862; Sept 23, 
1861 ; mustered out on expiration of term of service Sept. 28, 1864. 
George H. FossanI, Oct. 7, 1861; Oct. 7, 1804; resigned July 5, 1865. 
Ira S. Bradner, Sept. 19, 1865; Sept. 19, 1866; not mustered as surgeon. 

Aasiatattt Surgeons. 

G. A. Carrol, Aug. 7, 1802; Sept. 23, 1861; promoted to surgeon 143d 
N.Y.V. May 13, ISO?. 

Ira S. Bradner, May 2, 1863; April 25, 1863; must, out with the regi- 
ment Oct. 17, 1805. 

Albert S. Turnei-, Ang. 29, 1862 ; Aug. 19, 1862 ; promoted to surgeon of 
103d N.Y.V. Nov. 18, 1863. 

Daniel S. Hardenburgh, Nov. 12, 1863; Nov. 11, 1863; resigned April 1, 


Charles Shelling, Aug. 7, 1862 ; Sept. 1 6, 1861 ; discharged Dec. 23, 1862. 

George P. Van Wyck, Dec. 30, 1802 ; Dec. 20, 1802 ; mustered out with 
the regiment Oct. 17, 1805. 


Thomas S. Marvell, Jr., Dec. 18, 1801 ; July 31, 1861 ; resigned Ang. 5, 

James H. F. Miltun, Nov. 17, 1862; Aug. 5, 1862; mustered out on the 
expiraticm of term uf service Marcli 31, 1865. 

John Metcair, May 1,1866; May 1,1865; mustered out with the regi- 
ment Oct. 17, 1865. 

Charles F. Thayer, Dec. 18, 18r,1 ; Ang. 16, 1801 ; resigned April 9, 1862. 

Alfred W. Lomas, Dec. 6, 1862 ; April 10, 1802 ; resigned Aug. 11, 1863. 

James H. Smith, Nov. 30, 1S03 ; Aug. II, 1863 ; resigned July 26, 1804. 

Melville Sears, Aug. 12, lb04 ; Aug. 12,1864; mustered out on the expi- 
ration of service July 31, 1865. 

Norman Perkins, Sept. 19, 1805 ; Sept. 1, 1865 ; not mustered as captain. 

Frederick Decker, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Aug. 16, 1861 ; discharged Nov. 23, 1863. 

Wm. T. Calkins, Nov. 17, 1862 ; Aug. 5, 1862 ; mustered out on expira- 
tion of term of service Feb. 22, 1865. 

James Gowdey, May 1, 1865 ; May 1, 1866 ; resigned June 28, 1865. 

Reuben S. Gillett, Sept. 19, 1865 ; June 28, 1865 ; not mustered as captain. 

John J. Wheeler, Dec. 18, 1861 ; promoted to major Nov. 17, 1862. 

Edward Wheeler, Dec. 30, 1862 ; Aug. 5, 1862; resigned March 16, 1864. 

John Connell, May 26, 1864; March 15, 1864; mustered out with the 
regiment Oct. 17, 1866. 

William J. Williams, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Sept. 20, 1801 : killed at Fair Oaks, 
Va., May3], 18U2. 

Daniel D. Siting, July 18, 1862; May 31, 1862; resigned March 9, 1804. 

Joseph S. Holmes, May 25, 1864 ; May 8, 1864 ; mustered out with the 
regiment Oct. 17, 1865. 

Melvin S. Wells, Dec. 18, 1801 ; Aug. 29, 1861 ; discharged Nov. 23, 1862. 

James Dubois (bvt. maj. N.Y.V.), Nov. 24, 1862; Nov. 14, 1862; mus- 
tered out with the regiment Oct. 17, 1865. 

Henry A. Hawkes, Sept. 29, 1806; Sept. 27, 1865; not mustered as cap* 

William D. Fuller, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 1, 1861 ; resigned March 10, 1863. 

Francis Hines, Jan. 10, 186 ; ; March 14, 1803 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 17, 1866. 

William K. Joslyn, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 3, 1861 ; resigned June 8, 1863. 

Alonzo H. Chittenden, Nov. 30, 1863; June 6, 1863; mustered out with 
the regiment Oct. 17, 1865. 

John Ernhout, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Got. 3, 1861 ; discharged Oct 3, 1862. 

James J. Cox, Dec. 30, 1862 ; Oct. 3, 1802 ; mustered out with the regi- 
ment Oct. 17, 1865. 

Asa Hodge, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 10, 1801 ; discharged Feb. 26, 1862. 

Eliphas Smith, June 10, 1362; Feb. 26, 1862; promoted to mi^or Feb. 27, 

Norris Grossman, April 29, 1864 ; April 20, 1864 ; mustered out with the 
regiment Oct. 17, 1866. 



Rockwell Tylor, Nov. 20, 1802; Oct. 5,1862; promoted to major Dec. 15, 

Henry P. KelUm, Dec. 30, 18C2 ; Nov. 23, 1862 ; resigned Nov. 26, 1864. 
Marshall L. Battsford, Nov. 30, 18C4 ; Oct. 27, 186*: mustered out with 

the regimeut Oct. 17, 1865. 
Wm. H. Burnett,* missing since April 30, 1862. 

First Lieutenants. 
Thomas B. Pope, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Sept. 17, 1861 ; dismissed Sept. 4, 1862. 
Thomas Atwood. Nov. 17, 1862; Sept. 4, 186i ; resigned April 24, 1863. 
John Metcair, Nov. 30, 1863; April 24, 1863; promoted to captain May 

t, 1865. 
Eohert C. Roper, May 1, 1865 ; May 1, 1866 ; mustered out with regiment 

Oct. 17, 1865. 
Efflnghrtm Vauderburgh, Deo. 18, 1861 ; Aug. 16, 1861 ; resigned Feb. 1, 

Alfred W. Lomas, Feb. 19, 1862 ; Feb. 6, 1802 ; promoted to captain Dec. 

5, 1802. 
James J. Cox, Dec. 6, 1862; April 10, 1862; promoted to captain Deo. 10, 

Alphonse Ricbter, Dec. 30, 1862 ; Oct. 3, 1862 ; discharged May 29, 1864. 
Alexander P. Ketchum, June 30, 1864; June 30, 1864; promoted to cap- 
tain in I28tbt U. S. C. T. May 16, 1865. 
Henry A. Still, Deo. 18, 1861 ; Sept. 17, 1861 ; discharged Aug. 26, 1862. 
Edgar B. Morse, Nov. 17, 1862 ; Aug. 26, 1862 ; dismissed Feb. 9, 1868. 
Joseph S. Holmes, Nov. 30, 1863; Feb. 9, 1863; promoted to captain May 

25, 1864. 
John S. Tompkins, May 25, 1804 ; March 8, 1864 ; mustered out with the 

regiment Oct. 17, 1865. 
Edward Wheeler, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Aug. 16, 1861 ; promoted to captain Dec. 

30, 1862. 
Isaac Beckett, Dec. 30, 1862 ; Aug. 5, 1862 ; mustered out on the expira- 
tion of term of service Jan. 27, 1865. 
William J. Sayre, March 14, 1865; Jan. 20, 1805; mustered out with the 

regimeut Oct. 17, 1865. 
Richard M. Mines, Dec. 18, 1861; Sept. 20, 1861 ; resigned Feb. 6, 1862. 
Henry M. Connelly, June 10, 1S62; Feb. 6, 1862 ; discharged Oct. 3, 1802. 
Isaac Rosa, Dec. 5, 1862; Oct. 3, 1802; died Jan. 20, 1863, at Newborn, 

N. C. 
James H. Smith, March 17, 1863; Jan. 19, 1863; promoted to captain 

Nov. 30, 1863. 
Melville Sears, Nov. 30, 1863; Aug. 11, 1863; promoted to captain Aug. 

12, 1864. 
James U. F. Milton, Dec. 18, 1861; Aug. 29, 1861; promoted to captain 

Nov. 17, 1862. 
Francis Hines, Dec. 30, 1862 ; Aug. 5, 1862 ; promoted to captain June 10, 

Reuben R. Gillet, Nov. 30, 1863; March 6, 1863 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct 17, 1865. 
Andrew P. Conklin, Sept. 19, 1865; June 28, 1865 ; not mustered as first 

Daniel D. Siting, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 1, 1861 ; promoted to captain July 

18, 1862. 
Meeker G. Bell, Nov. 17, 1862 ; Aug. 5, 1862 ; not mustered as first lieu- 
Demmon S. Decker, Dec. 30, 1862 ; Oct. 3, 1862 ; dismissed April 11, 1864. 
Norman Perkins, May 25, 1864 ; March 28, 1864; mustered out with the 

regimeut Oct. 17, 1866. 
Benjamiu Terwilliger, Sept. 19, 1865 ; Sept. 1, 1865 ; not mustered as first 

Wm. T. Calkins, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 3, 1861 ; promoted to captain Nov. 

17, 1862. 
Wm. B. Baird, Nov. 17, 1862 ; Aug. 6, 1862 ; not mustered as first lieu- 
Francis L. Van Dugan, Aug. 29, 1864; April 20, 1864; declined. 
Marshall L. Battsford, July 20, 1864 ; June 28, 1864 ; promoted to captain 

Nov. 30, 1864. 
Henry A. Huwkes, Nov. 30, 1864 ; Oct. 27, 1804 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 17, 1865. 
Rufus Moffltt, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 3, 1861 ; resigned Feb. 6, 1862. 
S. Augustus Gould, March 27,1862 ; March 27, 1862; diAnissed March 1, 

Norris Grossman, Nov. 30, 1863: March 1, 1863; promoted to captain 
April 29,-1864. 

* On records of War Department, but not commissioned, 
t So in official report. 

Solomon D. Wheat, April 29, 1864 ; April 20, 1804 ; mustered out on tbi 
expiration of term of service March 31, 1865. 

Dwight W. Auchmoody, May 31, 1865 ; May 1, 1865 ; not mustered n 
first lieutenant. 

Isaac Jelliff, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 10, 1861 ; resigned Feb. 21, 1862. 

James Dubois, June lU, 1862; Feb. 26, 1862; promoted to captain Mor. 
24, 1862. 

Charles B. Young, Dec. 30, 1882; Nov. 14, 1862; mustered out with tin 
regimeut Oct. 17, 1865. 

Enoch Horton, Nov. 30, 1862 ; Oct. 6, 1862 ; resigned Feb. 14, 1862. 

Henry P. Kellam, Nuv 24, 1862 ; Feb. 14, 1862 ; promoted to captain Dee. 
30, 1862. 

Alonzo H. Chittenden, Dec. 30, 1862 ; Nov. 25, 1862 ; promoted to csptiin 
Nov. 30, 186). 

Morris Downey, Nov. 30, 1863; June £r, 1863; mustered out on the ex. 
piration of term of service April 1, 1865. 

Oscar E. Perriue, May 31, 1865 ; May 1, 1865 ; not mustered as first lieu- 

Francis Might, May 31, 1865 ; May 1, 1865 ; mustered out with the regi. 
ment Oct. 17, 1865. 

Edward II. Lonius, Aug. 12, 1864 ; .^ug. 12, 1864 ; disi^iseed Jan. 9, 1866, 

Jeremiah Strickland, March 14, 1865 ; Jan. 18, 1866 ; mustered out with 
the regimen* Oct. 17, 1866. 

Wm. Peake, Sept. 29, 1865; Sept. 27, 1864; nut mustered as first lira- 

James McGuire, Sept. 19, 1865 ; Sept. 19, 1865 ; not mustered as gnt 

Daniel R. Franklin,^ resigned Sept. 17, 1861. 

Silas A. Ilsley.t discharged June 22, 1862. 

Second Lieutenants. 
Peter B. Steele, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Sept. 17, 1861 ; resigned Jan. 14, 1863. 
Wilbur F. Still, Nov. 17, 1862 ; Sept. 4, 1862; resigned Aug^21, 1864. 
Robert C. Roper, Nov. 30, 1864; Nuv. 30, 1864; promoted to first lien. 

tenant May 1, 1865. 
George R. Block, May 1, 1865 ; May 1, 1865 ; mustered out with the regi- 
ment Oct. 17, 1865. 
Alfred W. Lomas, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Aug. 16, 1861 ; promoted to first lito. 

tenant Feb. 19, 1862. 
James I. Cox, Feb. 19, 1862; Feb. 6, 1862; promoted to firat lieutesuit 

Deo. .5, 1862. 
Isaac Roosa, Dec. 5, 1862 ; April 10,1862; promoted to first lieutenant 

Dec. 6, 1862. 
Alphonse Richter, Dec. 5, 1862; Oct. 3,1862; promoted to first lieuteoant 

Dec. 30, 1862. 
Algernon S. Ross, Dec. 30, 1862; Oct. 3, 1862; mustered out on exiiira- 

tioo of term of sei-vice March 27, 1865. 
Henry M. Connelly, Dec. IS, 1861 ; Aug. 16, 1861 ; promoted to first lieu. 

tenant June 10, 1862. 
James H. Smith, June 10, 1862 , Feb. 6, 1362; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant March 17, 1863. 
Melville Seats, March 17, 1863; Jan. 19. 1863; promoted to first lieuUi). 

ant Nov. 30, 1863. 
Edward H. Lnmas, Nuv. :iO, 1863 ; Aug. 11, 1863; promoted to firat Ilea- 

tenant Aug. 12, 1864. 
Isaac Beckett, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Aug. 16, 1861 ; promoted to first lieuteDUlt 

Dec. 30, 186i. 
Benjamin F. Clark, Dec. 30, 1802; Aug. 5, 1862 ; lesigneil Feb. 7, <Mi|| 
John Connell, April 19, 1864 ; April 20, 1864 ; piumoted to captain II||g 
25, 1864. a 

William J. Sayre, May 25, 1864 ; March 15, 1864 ; promoted to first 11* 
tenant March 14, 1865. -g 

Robert E. Halsteiul, March 14, 1865 ; Jan. 20, 1865 ; mustered oat nV 

regiment Oct. 17, 1865. 
M. G. Bell, March 25, 1862; Sept. 20, 1861 ; discharged Oct. 3, 1862. 
Francis Hines, Nov. 17, 1802; Aug. 5, I8C2; promoted to first lieutenw'l 

Dec. 30, 1862. 
Reuben R. Gillett, Dec. 30, 1802 ; Sept. 4, 1862 ; promoted to first lieuUB- 

ant Nov. 30, 1863. 
Victory Champlain, Nov. 30, 1863 ; March 6, 1863 ; discharged March 21 

Edward Lyons, May 17, 18G5 ; May 2, 1865 ; not mustered. 
Charles B. Young, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Aug. 29, 1861 ; promoted to first lis* 
tenant Dec. 30, 1862. 

X On records of War Department, hut nut commissioned. 



Henr; B. Lomas, Dec. 30, I8G2; Nov. 14, 1862; inomoled to adjutant 
Nov. 30, ISM.- 

rranoie W. Rush, Nov. 30, 1863 ; Oot. 1, 1863 ; died Dec. 25, 1863, at Beau- 
fort, S. C, of disease. 

Marshall L. Battsford, May 25, 1864; Hay S, 1864 ; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant July 20, 1!'64. 

£dgar E. Morse, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 1, 1861 ; prumoted to first lieutenant 
Nov. 17, 1862. 

Stephen W. Thompson, Dec. 30, 1862; Aug. 26, 1862; resigned June 2, 

John J. Bryers, Nov. 30, 1863 ; June 2, 1863 ; commission canceled. 

Norman Perkins, Feb. 9, 1864 ; June 2, 1863 ; promoted to first lieutenant 
May 25, 1804. 

Francis Might, May 25, 1864 ; March 28, 1864 ; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant May 31, 1865. 

Wm. B. Baird, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 3, 1861 ; discharged Sept. 19, 1862. 

A. H. Chittenden, Nov. 17, 1862 ; Aug. 6, 1862 ; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant Dec. 30, 1862. 

Morris Downey, Dec. 3n, 1862; Nov. 23, 1862; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant Nov. 30, 1863. 

Solomon D. Wheat, Nov. 30, 1863 ; June 5, 1863 ; promoted to first lien- 
tenant April 29, 1864. 

Jared Pacliard, April 29, 1864; April 20, 1864; must, out with regiment 
Oct. 17, 1865. 

John T. Frear, Dec. IS, 1861 ; Oct. 3, 1861 ; resigned Feb. 0, 1862. 

Demman S. Declier, Feb. 19, 1S62 ; Feb. 6, 1862 ; dismissed April II, 1864. 

Norris Grossman, Dec. 30, 1862; Oct. 3, 1862; promoted to first lieuten. 
ant Nov. 30, 1863. 

Dwight H. Auchntoody, Nov. 30, 1863 ; March 1, 1863 ; mustered out on 
expiration of term of service June 30, 1865. 

Eliphas Smith, Dec. 18, 1861 ; Oct. 10, 1861 ; promoted to captain June 
10, 1802. 

Jesse F. Sliafer, June 10, 1862 ; Feb. 10, 1862 ; promoted to quartermaater 
Nov. 17, 1862, 

Joseph I. Holmes, Nov. 17, 1862; Sept. 4, 1862; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant Nov. 30, 1863. 

Edwin J. Scranton, Nov. 3, 1863; Feb. 9, 1863; promoted to captain in 
128th V. S. C. T., March 27, 1865. 

'clement B. Nenliirlt, M'ly 1, 1865 ; May 1, 1865 ; mustered out with the 
regiment Oct. 17, 1865. 

'Henry P. Kellum, Nov. 20, 1862 ; Oct. 5, 1862 ; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant Nov. 24, 1862. 

'Peter W. Loegan, Nov. 24, 1862 ; Feb. 14, 1862 ; died Aug. 19, 1862, at 
Torktown, of disease. 

'Horace W. McKoon, Nov. 24, 1862; Aug. 18, 1862; dismissed Dec. 10, 

'Heniy A. Hawkes, Feb. 23, 1864 ; Dec. 18, 1863 ; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant Nov. 30, 18C4. 

Anilrew P. (Vinklin, Nov. 30, 1864; Nov. 30, 1864; mustered out with 
regiment Oct. 17, 18B5. 

'Benjamin Terwilllger, May 1.1865; May 1, 1865; mustered out with 
regiment Oct. 17, 1866. 

fWilliam H. D. Blake, Sept. 19, 1865; Sept. 1, 1865 : not mustered. 

Jeese L. Stivers, Aug. 22. 1864 ; Aug. 12, 1864 ; resigned May 15, 1865. 

iCalvin Lambert, May 17, 1865 ; May 2, 1863 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 17, 1865. 

HAddiBon J. Clements, July 20, 1864 ; June 28, 1864 ; promoted to quarter- 
niaster Nov. 30, 1864. 

iBennison Fiske, Nov. 30, 1864 ; Nov. 30, 1864 ; resigned May 18, 1866. 

«Frank Hotchkin, Sept. 19, 1865 ; June 28, 1S65 ; not mustered. 

Charles Becker, May 31, 1865; May 1, 1865; mustered out with the 

II regiment Oct. 17, 1866. 

Alonzo C. Bowers, May 31, 1865 ; May 1, 1865 ; mustered out with the 

I regiment Oct. 17, 1866. 

Conrad Slaver, Sept. 19, 1865; June 28, 1865 ; not mustered. 

I Brevet commissions were issued by the Governor 
to the two following enlisted men of this regiment : 

Hospital Steward Guy K. Sayre, — assistant surgeon. 

Sergeant Charles Johnson, — second lieutenant. 

I The town of Deerpark furnished nearly all the 
members of Company F in this organization. The 
'regiment was raised and organized in New York City 

to serve three years, and was mustered into the service 
of the United States from June 20 to June 29, 1861. 
The original members, except those re-enlisting as 
veterans, were mustered out of service July 1, 1864. 
The veterans remaining were transferred to the 
Eighty-sixth, which was the regiment so long bri- 
gaded with the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth, 
and intimately associated with the latter in the most 
important battles of the war. 

The Seventieth Eegiment was officially recognized 
as sharing honorably in the battles of Williamsburg, 
Fair Oaks, Charles City Cross-Roads, Malvern Hill, 
White Oak Swamp, Bristow Station, Second Bull 
Bun. and Fredericksburg. 

The regiment went out under command of Col. 
Daniel E. Sickles. His commission as colonel was 
dated Jan. 16, 1862, but his rank was from the 29th of 
June, 1861. He was promoted brigadier-general Sept. 
3, 1861, and Lieut.-Col. William Dwight, Jr., suc- 
ceeded to the colonelcy of the Seventieth. The latter 
wa^ also promoted brigadier-general Nov. 29, 1862, 
and the command of the Seventieth devolved upon 
Col. J. Egbert Farnum. 

Among the promotions occurring in Company F 
from Deerpark may be mentioned that of Thomas 
Holt. He was commissioned captain Jan. 16, 1862, 
his rank dating from June 20, 1861. He was pro- 
moted major Dec. 1, 1862 ; lieutenant-colonel Jan. 
14, 1863 ; and mustered out with the regiment July 1, 

Robert Blything (Blighton) was a second lieuten- 
ant, his rank dating from June 20, 1861. He re- 
signed Nov. 28, 1861. Nine commissioned, officers 
were killed in battle. 


The following account of the organization of this 
regiment, of its participation in the various cam- 
paigns, of its heroic sacrifices, of its tedious marches, 
and of its brave conduct on the field of battle, is con- 
densed from the interesting volume published in 1877 
by Col. Charles H. Weygant, of Newburgh. As a 
participator in nearly all of its struggles, as an eye- 
witness of the fierce fights into which it entered, as a 
careful student of public documents published since 
the war, it is evident that he possessed peculiar quali- 
fications for the task, and that he executed it with a 
just pride in the fame of this gallant regiment and with 
a loving regard to the memory of his comrades. In 
editing this chapter, derived from his work, most of 
his personal allusions, his interesting anecdotes, and 
his general descriptions have necessarily been omitted. 
It is due to him to further say that not only is the 
thread of the following account his, and the dates his, 
but oftentimes his exact words are used without quo- 
tation, all of which is intended to be covered in this 
preliminary general acknowledgment. 

The call of the President for three hundred thou- 
sand three years' men was dated July 1, 1862, and on 



the following day Governor Morgan issued his stirring 
and patriotic appeal to " each citizen" of the Empire 
State. The work of preparation was immediately 
pushed with vigor by the State authorities, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan ceased not day or night in his efforts to 
arouse the people. 

The State was divided into military districts, in each 
of which a place of rendezvous was designated, and a 
committee of loyal influential citizens appointed to 
superintend the work of enlisment, and to select and 
recommend suitable persons to command the regi- 
ments to be raised. Special appeals were made to 
nearly every town and county board, and circulars of 
instruction were sent broadcast over the State. The 
military committee appointed by His Excellency for 
the district comprising the counties of Orange and 
Sullivan was composed of the following-named gen- 
tlemen : Hon. Robert Denniston, of Blooming-Grove ;. 
Hon. Ambrose S. Murray, of Goshfen ; Hugh S. Bull, 
Esq., of Montgomery ; Alexander Moore, Esq., of 
Washingtonville ; Alfred Post, Esq., of Newburgh ; 
James M. Barrett, Esq., of Cornwall ; Morgan Shuit, 
Esq., of Monroe. 

On the 11th of July this committee held its first 
regular meeting at the United States Hotel in New- 
burgh, at which they decided to recommend Capt. A. 
Van Home Ellis, of New Windsor, for the colonelcy 
of a regiment it was proposed to attempt to raise in 
the county of Orange. Capt. Ellis was then in the 
service. His company (Co. I), composed principally 
of men recruited in Newburgh, who had served under 
him in the Seventy-first New York State Militia at 
Bull Run, had a few weeks before been called together 
at less than twenty-four hours' notice for a second 
term of active service, and were then stationed in the 
fortifications near Washington. 

The captain was at this time temporarily at home, 
and on being notified of the action of the committee, 
promptly accepted the proffered position. Within an 
hour thereafter he had telegraphed his resignation as 
captain to the commander of his regiment at Wash- 
ington, and was on his way to Albany for instructions 
and the necessary credentials. 

At Albany, the traditional "red tape" of depart- 
ments had given way before the pressure of public 
necessity. In a short time Capt. Ellis had received 
the requisite documents, and the same evening found 
him back in Orange County hard at work upon his 
patriotic mission. 

The work of enlistment was slow and difficuh at 
first. The enthusiasm of April, 1861, when the flag 
had just fallen at Fort Sumter, was to some extent 
gone. The fearful truth that a long and bloody war 
was in progress, now clearly perceivedy, gave to every 
movement a serious tone, far different from the feeling 
of fifteen months before. The prospect of victory " in 
ninety days" had long since vanished. 

The Seven Days' battles, the retreat of McClellan's 
forces, the call for two hundred thousand men, all 

told of the desperate struggle which was in progt^ 
On the first day of August but eight men had beeo 
enrolled, and the prospect of raising a regiment m 
anything but encouraging. 

To the general war committeee there had been 
added E. A. Brewster, of Newburgh ; William PnlJer. 
ton, of Newburgh; C. H. Winfield, of Goshen' 
Thomas Edsall, of Goshen ; Silas Horton, of Goshen; 
James Cromwell, of Cornwall ; William Avery, of 
Cornwall; Daniel Thompson, of Crawford; C. C. 
McQuoid, of Wallkill ; Halstead Sweet, of WallkiU; 
John G. Wilkin, of Wallkill ; John Cummings, of 
Wallkill; Charles St. John, of Port Jervis; John 
Conkling, of Port Jervis ; C. M. Lawrence, of Port 
Jervis ; C. B. Newkirk, of Monroe ; A. S. Dodge, of 
Mount Hope ; Dorastus Brown, of Greenville ; A. F, 
Schofield, of Montgomery ; A. G. Owen, of Bloom- 
ing-Grove ; John Cowdrey, of Warwick ; Thaiui 
Welling, of Warwick. ', 

The doubtful, hesitating condition of affairs soon 
gave way before the threatened invasion of the very 
fields of the North, and before an uprising tide ol 
patriotism that nearly silenced for a time all oppoaing 
voices. The enthusiasm of April, 1861, was again re- 
kindled, and August, 1862, witnessed scenes of heroic 
self-sacrifice such as the world has seldom witnessed. 
The strong under-current of national feeling swelled 
upward to the surface, and men rushed forward vS^l 
to do, and die if need be. Public meetings were held 
almost nightly in every hall, church, and school-hmw 
in the State. Private bounties were offered, sad | 
funds began to be raised for the support of the needj 
families of those who should volunteer. The national 
capital was once more in danger. The government 
was in earnest, the people were in earnest ; the hardy 
sons of the North sprang to arms crying, " We're 
coming. Father Abraham, three hundred thouMnd 
more." Up to the 8th of August not more than i 
score of volunteers had reported at Col. Ellis' head- 
quarters in Goshen. Fifteen days later the regiment 
was fully organized and ready for the field. Its field- 
officers were A. Van Home Ellis, colonel ; Francis M. 
Cummins, lieutenant-colonel ; James Cromwell, major. 
The staff-officers were John H. Thompson, major and 
surgeon; T. Scott Bradner, captain and chaplain; 
Augustus Denniston, lieutenant and quarterma atet; 
G. De Peyster Arden, lieutenant and adjutantwH 
ward Marshall, lieutenant and assistant surgeoii^P 
V. K. Montfort, lieutenant and second assistant ^II^ 
geon. The ten captains were Charles H. Weygan^ 
Co. A ; Henry S. Murray, Co. B ; William SilliniM. 
Co. C; James W. Benedict, Co. D; William A. Me- 
Birney, Co. E; Ira S. Bush, Co. F; Isaac NicoB, 
Co. G; David Crist, Co. H; Leander Clark, Co. I; 
William A. Jackson, Co. K. Musicians: William B. 
Wood and Moses P. Ross, Co. A, buglers; Mr. Hn^ 
drum-major;* John G. Buckley, Charles WhitehjjJi 


* Hired by Col. Ellis, not enlisted. 


Arthur Haigh, Co. H, George W. Dimmick, Co. D, 
Henry C. Payne, Co. B, fife ; Eobert L, Davis, Co. F, 
A. A. Millspaugh, George W. Camfield, Co. K, John 
W. Cole, Co. I, R. L. Stephens, Co. E, Charles W. 
Bodle, Henry M. Cannon, Co. A, William Hamilton, 
Co. B, Henry Hoofman, Co. C, C. H. Van Gordon, 
Co. G, Jehiel Price, Co. F, J. M. Merritt, Co. G, W. 
Johnston, James H. McElroy, Co. D, drum ; Samuel 
M. Weeden, Co. D, bass-drum. 

The names of the rank and file of the One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth are given in the lists at the close 
of the town chapters. 

On the 24th of August orders were received from 
Washington directing Col. Ellis to hold his command 
in readiness to move on the 27th instant. 

Thursday, the 26th, had been designated by the 
ladies as the day on which they would present to the 
regiment that stand of colors beneath whiqh he whose 
hand should receive them and so many of the brave 
men over whose heads they were that day to be un- 
furled should suffer, bleed, and die that the Union 
and liberty might live. 

It was a clear, bright day, and with the rising of 
the sun the friends of the "American Guard" began 
to arrive, and for hours there poured into the village 
of Goshen such a throng of men, women, and chil- 
dren as had seldom before been seen in its streets. 
At 3 P.M. the regiment was formed, and Col. Ellis 
having placed himself at the head of his field and 
staff in front of it, the Hon. Charles Winfield stepped 
forward, and, at the close of a most patriotic speech 
on behalf of the donors, handed the colors to Col. 
Ellis, who, loosing them to the breeze, promised the 
multitude there assembled they should never be dis- 
graced, concluding with these words, "If you never 
again see these colors, you will never again see those 
who bear them from you.'' 

After this Miss Charlotte E. Coulter stepped for- 
ward, and, with a modest but grand little speech, pre- 
sented a pair of embroidered silk guidons, a gift from 
the fair daughters of the little town of Wawayanda. 

The departure of the regiment had been expected 
for the 27th, but delnys occurred, and it was not until 
the 5th of September that an order was received posi- 
tively fixing the departure for the next day, the 6th. 

In accordance with this order, at 1 o'clock p.m. on 
Saturday, Sept 6, 1862, the regiment bid adieu to its 
first camp in Goshen, and, with banners flying and 
drums beating, marched through throngs of weeping 
friends to the depot, where the last hand-shakings 
and final adieus were given. At 2 p.m. the heavily- 
laden train, with wild shrieks to warn away the cling- 
ing multitudes, moved off, and the American Guard, 
as the regiment was known, was on its way to the seat 
of war. At every depot crowds with loyal hearts 
sent after them shouts of approbation, and ever and 
anon, as the train shot along, there were heard from 
sweet voices familiar notes of patriotic songs. 

One impressive tableau could never be forgotten 

by those who saw it. High up on a projecting rock 
stood an old man, dressed in a military suit of Revo- 
lutionary times, the thin locks of his long, white hair 
floating in the breeze, leaning with one hand on his 
staff, and with the other feebly waving the " S^ars and 
Stripes," while two little girls, dressed in the purest 
white, knelt, one on either side of him, their little 
arms stretched out and their eyes turned heavenward, 
as if in earnest prayer to the God of nations for the 
preservation and success of the defenders of the 
Union, which their great-grandsire had fought to 

At New York, the regiment was marched to the 
Park Barracks, and slept that night upon the pine- 
mattresses furnished to them. 

The regiment was supplied with arms in the city, — 
heavy Austrian guns with sword-bayonets. 

Sunday afternoon the regiment left for Philadelphia. 
Arriving there late in the night, the soldiers were 
soon found resting, with sidewalks for beds and knap- 
sacks for pillows. But very early they were invited 
to a sumptuous breakfast furnished by the ladies of 
Philadelphia. At noon they were in Baltimore, and 
in the hot march across the city a number of the men 
fell from sun-stroke and had to be left behind. At 
two o'clock Tuesday morning the regiment might 
have been seen sleeping soundly on the ground and 
on the stone blocks in front of the Capitol at Wash- 

In the afternoon of that day they marched to Camp 
Chase, on Arlington Heights. There they remained 
two or three days, when their encampment was 
changed to another point about four miles away, 
which the soldiers christened Camp Ellis. Here the 
regiment was attached to Pratt's brigade of Whipple's 
Division, Heintzleman's corps, and they remained 
until the 25th in this camp, engaged in active drill, 
learning the actual duties of a soldier's life. 

At 2 P.M. Thursday, September 25th, the regiment 
again broke camp and moved off some six miles, to 
a piece of woods on the west side of Miner's Hill, 
where they built huge log-fires and bivouacked around 
them for the night. The next morning about a hun- 
dred of the men were ordered to report for picket 
duty. - 

During the afternoon of the 26th the regiment 
'moved to the opposite or eastern slope of Miner's 
Hill, where they named their new grounds Camp Crom- 
well. In these moves sixteen four-mule teams were 
employed to transfer tents, traps, and the baggage of 
the oflScers. This was in strong contrast with the 
simple work of a few months later, when officers of 
the line were only allowed transportation for a small 
valise each, while the field and staff were obliged to 
crowd their baggage, tents and all, into a single 

The regiment remained at Miner's Hill for several 
weeks engaged continually in the various drills re- 
quired for army movements. 



On the 16th of October orders were received to 
break camp. This wag immediately done ; but the 
regiment passed a long and uncomfortable night, a 
part of the time in the rain, the order to march being 
delayed until morning. At six o'clock the orders to 
march came, and the regiment moved oflF at a rapid 
gait towards Washington. It was a wet morning, and 
with wet blankets from the storm of the night before, 
the marching was difficult, and a number of men gave 
out and were picked up by the ambulances following. 
The regiment halted at the entrance to the Aqueduct 
bridge, Georgetown. The sun came out; blankets 
were dried on the fences and the grass-plats. About 
four in the afternoon they marched into Washington 
and halted in front of the Capitol. About midnight 
they took the cars, and at the end of a tedious ride of 
eleven hours found themselves at Knoxville, Md. 

The regiment was now transferred from " the Army 
of Defense" around Washington to the " Army of the 

The regiment first halted for a while on a hill- 
side, where it was so steep that anything convenient 
was thrust- into the ground to keep it from sliding 
down-hill. There was a lovely view, but there was 
little chance to admire the beauties of nature or of 
cultivated fields. The soldiers were sore and tired 
after their wet march and their sleepless ride in the 
cars. Wrapped in their blankets they lay down to 
rest early, and slept soundly. 

Sunday afternoon, October 19th, they moved about 
three miles, and encamped in a large field on the 
farm of a crusty old " secesh," who, not satisfied with 
having guards placed over all his movable property, 
objected even to drawing the cool water from his 

Monday afternoon, the 20th, they marched to a 
more congenial spot near Burkettsville, where they re- 
mained several days. Here they had an opportunity 
to visit South Mountain, where the great struggle of 
Autietam had occurred only a few weeks before. It 
was full of sad suggestions as to the fierceness of the 
battles in which the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
was not many months later to engage. 

On the evening of October 24th, at half-past nine 
o'clock, the regiment left camp, and at miflnight 
bivouacked near Berlin, on the banks of the Potomac, 
across which a pontoon-bridge was being laid. This 
bridge consisted of sixty-two scow-built boats, an- 
chored some twenty feet apart, and connected by 
large beams, across which were laid strong planks. 
Pleasonton's cavalry dashed across this, followed by 
the Army of the Potomac, one hundred thousand 

Towards night, Sunday, October 26th, the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-fourth crossed, and a march of three 
miles brought them to Lovettsville, where they halted 
for the night in a cornfield. The wind blew, the 
rain fell ; there were no fires. It was a night of severe 
suflfering, disabling thirty or more. 

Thursday, October 30th, they mtfrched away to- 
wards Winchester, and bivouacked near Hillsborough. 
Sunday afternoon, November 2d, the regiment ad- 
vanced twelve miles to near Snicker's Gap. On flie 
3d they again moved three miles to Bloorafield, iHi 
on the 4th to Upperville, where the camp-fires of the 
enemy were still smouldering. On the 5th to nait 
Piedmont, where they halted thirty minutes, aud 
then moved on for Manassas Gap. That night in 
near proximity to the enemy, they passed without 
fires and with no rations. Eesuming march the next 
morningj they shared in the crossing of the mountaim 
for the purpose of cutting oflf the retreat of a portion 
of the rebel infantry, but the latter had escaped. 
Soon after the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was 
ordered back to Piedmont. On the 8th they marched 
to Orleans, where they stayed three days. On the 
10th, Lieut. -Col. Cummings went out on a foraging 
expedition, and secured fresh meat for the regimeDtt 
On the 11th the regiment moved about six miles to 
near Waterloo. 

On the evening of the 15th a squad of the enemy 
ran into the picket line. Lieut. Weygant and hii 
men captured two of the enemy, which seems to have 
been the first actual contact with the rebel forces by 
the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth. 

On the morning of the 16th the regiment moved 
again, not towards the front, but to the left, and after 
a four hours' march they encamped at Warrenton, 
and became a part of Hooker's grand division. 

On the 17th they resumed their march and halted at 
Libertyville ; on the 18th to Hartwood Church ; from 
the 19th to the 23d to near Falmouth, within four 
miles of Fredericksburg. On the morning of the 
24th they were able once more to arrange a regular 
encampment. The recent march had been a fearful 
one in rain and mud, exposure costing many preciow 
lives. The regiment remained nearly two weeks at or 
near this spot. This was the delay in the movement 
of Gen. Burnside against Kichmond via Fredericks- 
burg which doubtless prevented the success of the 
enterprise. The. delay, Mr. Weygant states, was due 
to the non-arrival of the pontoon-train, which only 
reached the required point December 10th. This de- 
lay gave Gen. Lee tinie to fortify in the rear of Fred- 

The story of the battle that followed cannot heie 
be given in detail. After the bombardment of the 
place, under cover of which the pontoon-bridges were 
finally laid, and the routing of the rebels from the 
ruins of the town, a night intervened before the cross- 
ing of the main body of the army. 

In the general movement on Friday, the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-fourth attempted to cross about ten 
o'clock, but the bridge became blocked, farther pro- 
gress for the time'was impossible. While standing 
there the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was fw 
the first time under fire, the fog and smoke, liftingf 
little, had disclosed the bridge with its massed foroa 



and the rebel battery on an adjacent height. There 
were none injured^ however, in the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth, and soon after the regiment was or- 
dered back. At six o'clock Saturday morning the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth crossed, and with 
the rest of the brigade halted on a level strip of 
ground a few rods up from the southern shore under 
cover of a steep bank. 

Once during the fearful battle of that day the bri- 
gade was ordered to storm a battery, and moved to 
the point designated for forming the line. The order 
to charge did not come, and they remained virtually 
spectators of the battle of Fredericksburg. The One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth passed the night on 
the field. Sunday afternoon they returned to the 
river-bank, and in the retreat of the following night 
the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was among the 
last regiments to recross the river, — a retreat so suc- 
cessfully conducted that the rebels evidently did not 
suspect it until the Union army was nearly back to 
its old camping-ground at Falmouth. 

During the movements of Saturday, Companies E 
and F of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth, under 
command of Capt. McBirney, were sent to the Ken- 
mere House, in the southern part of the city, to sup- 
port a battery, and were for a time under fire, but 
none of the regiment were injured. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth now lay with 
the Army of the Potomac nearly four months at Fal- 
mouth. During this time, however, there are various 
items to be mentioned in the history of the regiment. 
In January new rifles were received — the Enfield — in 
place of the old Belgians. 

January 20th an order to again advance against 
the enemy, and the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
shared in the cold, wet wintry march of the next three 
days, in the rain and in the mud, only to return, the 
weather, the roads, everything conspiring to render 
the advance impossible. Jan. 26, 1863, the Army of 
the Potomac had a new commander, Gen. Joseph 
Hooker. The winter-quarters were now made toler- 
ably comfortable. The 6th of April a grand review 
took place, and also on the 7th. In the order of 
Brig.-Gen. Whipple of the 9th, the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth New York, Twelfth New Hampshire, 
and the United States Sharpshooters are mentioned as 
having been deemed worthy of especial praise by the 
President and the commander-in-chief of the Army 
of the Potomac. 

April 27, 1803, the Third Corps, of which the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth was a part, was re- 
viewed, and on the 28th marching orders reached this 
regiment. Each man carried eighty pounds of am- 
munition. Leaving camp about 4 P.M., they found 
that the whole Army of the Potomac was in motion. 
About midnight they bivouacked near the Rappahan- 
nock not far from Belle Plains. These were a part of 
the movements preliminary to the battle of Chancel- 
lorsville. May Ist the One Hundred and Twenty- 

fourth crossed the Rappahannock at the United States 
Ford, and moved oflf in a northerly direction about 
three miles and halted in an oak wood. They had 
laid in the woods but a short time when skirmishing 
was heard, and then heavy infantry firing from the 
direction of Fredericksburg. The Union army had 
gained an important ridge which Gen. Lee had very 
much desired to hold, but for some inexplicable reason 
Gen. Hooker then ordered a retreat. The details of the 
battle, which has received the name of Chancellors- 
ville, can only be dwelt upon here as they afiect the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth. Gen. Lee engaged 
the attention of Gen. Hooker in an attack of consid- 
erable vigor in front, while Gen. " Stonewall" Jackson 
executed one of the boldest and most successful flank 
movements of the war. 

During the progress of this movement the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-fourth was detached and ordered to 
hasten to a thickly-wooded hill and support some 
troops posted there. They soon reached the hill, but 
did not find the troops they were to support. They 
were, however, hailed by an aide from Gen. Sickles 
with orders to remain where they were and await the 
conduct of another aide who should arrive. The next 
moment the sound of musketry-firing attracted the 
attention, and a portion of the division was discovered 
actively engaged with the enemy. Without waiting 
for orders. Col. Ellis hurriedly formed the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-fourth into line of battle and or- 
dered a charge. As the regiment rushed down the 
slope and reached the level ground, Gen. Whipple, 
in person, ordered a halt, informed Col. Ellis that 
their division was falling back, and ordered them to 
retire with it. They had not fallen back more than 
a mile when news of a terrible disaster came pouring 
in upon them by fugitives, who reported that the 
enemy had turned the Union right, routed the Elev- 
enth Corps, and was even then between the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-fourth and headquarters. 

The offensive movement had changed to one of de- 
fense, and twenty-five thousand Union troops met the 
attack of full fifty thousand Confederates. Forty-five 
thousand Union troops stood idly looking on simply 
because they were not ordered forward. 

In the of the night the battle raged 
fiercely. " Stonewall" Jackson of the rebel forces re- 
ceived his death-wound, probably from the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-fourth. 

At one time two companies of the One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth — F and A — formed a skirmish 
line close upon the enemy's front, and barely, escaped 
capture or death by a sudden flight to a ravine. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was really 
caught between the lines, and the terrible Sunday 
morning battle of Chancellorsville followed. 

Says Weygant's History, — 

" Turn riglit or left grim detitli stared at us. The liearens above Bcpmed 
filled with hut-breuthed shiieking dcmotie. Behind us was ati advancing 
sheet of flame, and the hills in front opposed an angry line of fire and 



BDioke. , . . The battle was now atitsheight^and the One Uuudred and 
Twenty-fourth was in the thickest of the fray; but not a son of Orange 
County was seen to show the white feather, not a man failed, delilierately 
they aimed and rapidly fired/' 

"Backward — forward, down, down our lirave men fell: thinner and 
yet thinner grew the ranks, but not a foot of grwund was yielded." 

" About twenty feet behind the colors stood Cul. Ellis with folded arms 
and cap front turned up." 

" Not a Union soldier was to be seen on our right, the long line on our 
left had fallen back." 

Reluctantly came the order for the One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth to fall back. Still more severe 
fighting followed, and while thousands of fresh troops 
lay in the woods not far away the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth with its wasted ranks was ordered to 
picket duty during the night. Monday morning they 
were relieved, but only to be. put to work in the rifle- 
pits, where death still hunted them down in the shape 
of stray shots from distant rebel sharpshooters. Mon- 
day night those who remained in line were allowed 
to sleep. The battle of Chancellorsville was over, 
Hooker's magnificent army was in full retreat, and by 
the afternoon of Tuesday were back to their old camp 
at Falmouth. 

June 6th the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth left 
its encampment at Falmouth, and after various expe- 
riences on the march reached the vicinity of Beverly 
Ford on the evening of the 8th. The next morning 
they crossed the river, wading it though it was breast- 
deep, and found themselves in the rear of contending 
battle-lines. Up to that time only, cavalry had been 
engaged, and the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
was the first infantry in the field. In this battle it 
had a sharp fight, — an almost hand-to-hand contest in 
Indian style, each man behind a tree, — and lost two 
killed and fifteen wounded. 

The capture of correspondence at Beverly Ford had 
revealed Lee's plan of invading the North. Sunday 
afternoon, June 14th, there commenced a series of 
marches which finally led the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth, with the rest of the Army of the Po-. 
tomac, to the battle-field of Gettysburg. At 11 p.m. 
they had made twelve miles and encamped at Cat- 
lett's Station. At six o'clock in the morning of the 
15th they were off again, and marched sixteen miles 
to Manassas Plains. On the 16th they moved a few 
miles, and halted on the battle-ground of the first Bull 
Eun fight. Here they had the opportunity of bathing 
in that historic stream, washing up and resting until 
the next morning. The 17th they reached Centre- 
ville, and bivouacked at that point for two days. On 
the afternoon of the 19th they were oflf again. The 
Potomac was crossed at Edwards' Ferry on pontoons, 
and the regiment bivouacked the night of June 25th 
in the woods near Poolesville. 

On the 27th they halted near Middletown, and on 
the 28th passed through Frederick. On the 30th they 
reached Emmettsburg. They .were now nearing the 
fatal and yet decisive days of Gettysburg. 

The first day of July sharp bugle-blasts from every 
direction called the men into line. The first day's 

fight at Gettysburg had begun, and two-thirds of (1 
Army of the Potomac were not yet on the field. Froi 
Emmetsburg began the forced march. Men fell fain! 
ing and sunstruck along the route, but ever and anoi 
amid the clouds of dust came the officers' shout, " Foi 
ward ! Forward !" 

Eeaching the heights of Gettysburg, the men slep 
that night with their loaded weapons at their sid« 
Most of the men who had fallen out on the marcl 
came in, and at eight o'clock on the morning of thi 
2d of July the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth num 
bered about two hundred and forty. 

Weygant's History states the position as,follow9: 

" Sickles' corps did not number that morning more than nine tlim 
sand men present for duty. It was composed of two divisions, of tiin 
brigaJes each. Birney's division formed the extreme left of the majj 
line, which was drawn up, nearly iutheformofa liursu'a shoe or caplti 
U, on a ridge about three miles in extent. Ward's brigade was oo Ibi 
left of the division, and occupied the southern slope of a rocky eiiiiiietw 
just beyond a small stream called Plum Bun, and about oue-eiglitli of i 
mile northwest of B(>und Top. The One Hundred and Twentj'-fuiijd 
held position in the right centre of the brigade. There were, wbei 
the battle began, no troops to the left of our leginient except ttM 
Kinety-nitith Pennsylvania. A few minutes after the battle opepsdlh 
Fortieth New York moved tip and took position ou the left of M 
Ninety-ninth Pennsylvania. Ttie l£ighty-eixtti New York was postsdn 
a piece of woods to the right of the One Hundred and Tweuty-funrtlil 
but between them waa a space of about a hundred yai-ds. Smith's lal 
tery was posted behind Ward's bi-igade ; its right section stood on higt 
ground several yards in rear of the One Hundred and Tweuty-fonrtla." 

Of the actual fighting by the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth we quote at length : 

" When the enemy's advance line drew near the base of the hill w( 
were on, it appeared to almost halt for a minute and then started mpidtj 
forward again, and with fierce yells began ascending the slope ; aud tbm 
was heard an opening crash of riflei-y all along our front, which vfu th( 
death-knell of hundreds; yet on they came, but very slowly, — onlyafsv 
feet at a time. Now Cromwell huriies to Col. Ellis, who stands bebind 
the color company, and asks him Ui order a charge, but the coloDli 
shakes his head and tells the major to go back to bis place agMin. Noi 
the enemy has been brought to a stand, but he is only a few lods avijr, 
Again Cromwell walks towards Ellis. This time he is accompanied b; 
Adjutant Ranisclell. Once more he requests the colonel tocbarge,IM 
is again told to go back to the left of the regiment; yet a moment lltn 
their horses are brought up, and against the remonstrances of Oapt.Sl^ 
liman and others they mount. The major's only rejily is, 'Themei 
must see us to-day,' aud he rides slowly to and wheels bis horee ilxnl 
in the rear of the centre of the left wing, where, with drawn sword sod 
eyes fixed on the colonel, he impatiently waits his Buperiur's pleasure. 

" Presently Kllis by a simple nod gives the desired perniidsloo, kl 
which Cromwell waves his sword twice above his head, makes a lanji 
forward, shouts the charge, aud putting spurs to his horse, dashes foe 
ward through the lines. The men cease firing for a niiuute, and Kill 
ready bayonets rush after him. Ellis sits still in his saddle andlodkl 
on, as if in proud admiration of both his loved migor aud the gallul 
sons of Orange, until the regiment is fairly under way, and then nisba 
with them into the tUlckest of the fray. 

" The conflict at this point defies description. Boaring cannou, craib< 
lug riflery, screeching shots, bursting shells, hissing bullets, tbHO, 
shouts, shrieks, and groans were the notes of the song of death vbitb 
greeted the grim reaper aa with mighty sweeps he leveled down till 
richest field of scarlet human grain ever garnered ou this conttuesL 

"The enemy's line, unable to withstand this our fierce onset, bnlH 
and fled,and Cromwell, his noble face flushed with victory, and llllW 
tended right arm waviug his flashing sabre, uttered a shout of triamj^ 

" But it had scarcely escaped his lips when the second line of tbefc* 
poured into us a tenible fire, which seemed in an instant to brioft don 
a full quarter of our number. Once more we hear Cromwell's sbQi^ 
and once again we see amid the fit e aud smoke his noble form and t)^ 
ing blade ; but the next instant his brave heart is pierced by a rebfll ^ 
let, his right arm drops powerless, his lifeless body falls backwaidM 



bis saddle, aud, loud above the dlo of battle, we hear Ellis shout, * My ; 
God, men, your major is down ; save him ! save him I' Again the onset 
of Orange Gonnty^s sons becomes irresistible, and the second line of the foe 
wavera and falls back, but another and more solid line takes its place, 
whose fresh fire falls with friglitfnl effect on our now skeleton rauks. So 
terrible is it that two-thirds of the artillfry-men in our rear are either 
killed or wounded, and the balance driveu l^om their guns by the shells 
and bullets which pass over and through our line. 

" Lieut-Ool. Cummins, with the experience and eye of an old soldier, 
realizes that a skirmish line without reserves, be the men who compose 
it ever so brave, must eventually be swept away by a continually-re- 
newed solid battle-line, and unwilling the regiment should be disgraced 
by the loss of the guns it is expected to protect attempts to get them 
started to the rear, but while in the act is so badly iifjured by a shell, 
which stiiklng a gun-carriage hurls it against him, that he is carried 
from the field, l^ut our brave Ellis yet remains, now seen in bold relief, 
now lost amid the clouds of powder-smoke. A moment longer, the cen- 
tral flgnie, he directs the regiment. Again the rebel line begins to waver, 
and we see his proud form rise in his stirrups, his long, sharp sword is 
extended upward, a half.uttered order escapes his lips, when suddenly 
his trusty blade falls point downward, his chin drops on his breast, and 
his body with a weave pitches forward head foremost among the rocks, 
at which his wounded beast rears and with a mad plunge dashes away, 
staggering blindly through the ranks of the foe, who is now giving 
ground again, firing wildly as he goes. 

" But we are too weak to follow them ; yet with desperate effort the 
Orange Blossoms struggle forward and gather up such as they may of the 
wounded, aud with them and the bodies of Ellis and Cromwell we fall 
slowly and mournfully back to the main line, from which we should 
never have advanced, and there reform our shattered ranks and prepare 
to receive as best we may the next onset of the foe. 

" Three times we have beaten him back, but now we are exhausted. 
For forty minutes the brigades of Ward and De Xrobriand, at first scarce 
three thousand strong, and now reduced to but little more than half that 
number, have held their ground against Lougstreet's entire corps." 

The situation was fearful. Gen. Sickles was se- 
verely wounded. Birney now commanded the corps, 
Ward the division, Berdan the brigade. Of the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth Regiment, Col. Ellis 
was killed, Lieut.-Col. Cummins carried to the rear 
wounded, Maj. Cromwell dead, and Capt. Charles H. 
Weygant, of Company A, who had been only fourth 
in command when the battle commenced, was now in 
charge of the wasted ranks of the regiment. The ten 
little companies, now numbering a trifle over a hun- 
dred men, are gathered together in squads, like picket 
posts along the front they are yet expected to hold. 

'' But the gallant boys fought on. Every few mo- 
ments a man would drop a rifle which had become 
clogged or so hot that he could not hold it steadily, 
and bidding those beside him be careful when they 
fired, rush forward and pick up in place of it one that 
had fallen from the hands of a dead or wounded com- 
rade. The active part that the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth was to play in this great three days' 
battle had now been performed. Moving to a piece 
of wood about a mile in the rear of the Union line, 
we prepared and with saddened hearts and gloomy 
thoughts partook of our evening meal." 

On the 7th of July the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth marched away from the hills of Gettysburg. 
Only one hundred and fifty men were left, and nine 
commissioned officers. They halted for the night at 
Mechanicstown, twenty miles or more from Gettys- 
burg. On the 8th they went twenty-three miles more, 
and were south of Frederick, in Maryland ; on the 
flth twelve miles down the Hagerstown road; the 

10th, twelve miles to Millpoint ; and the 11th to 
Roxbury Mills, where the regiment, with loaded 
pieces, was placed in line of battle, ready for an ex- 
pected force of the ejiemy. But Gen. Lee was only 
too glad to get his forces over the Potomac without 
any more fighting. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth crossed the 
river on the 17th, and on the 18th were at Hillsbor- 
ough. Sunday, the 19th, they moved about seven 
miles in the direction of firing heard at Snicker's 
Gap. The 20th they marched eighteen miles and en- 
camped near Upperville. On the 22d they moved to 
near their camp-grounds of nine months before at 
Manassas Gap. The regiment shared in the move- 
ment of Gen. Meade on the 23d, to fall upon an iso- 
lated detachment of Lee's army reported to be at 
Front Royal, on the opposite side of the mountain. 
Little was however accomplished, though the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth, as usual, made a good 
record for bravery and promptness. Tbe Gettysburg 
campaign was over ; Lee and his army were again on 
the south side of the Rappahannock, Meade and the 
Union army on the north. 

Lieut.-Col. Cummins (now colonel), injured at Get- 
tysburg, was away from the regiment but a brief time, 
taking command July 28th. The regiment shared in 
very important movements for some weeks. 

At the time Lee's army threatened Washington in 
the fall of 1863, the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
was moved from Culpepper to Centreville, arriving 
at the latter place on the evening of October 14th. 
The series of movements by which Lee forced Meade 
to fall back to Centreville, and Meade in turn forced 
Lee to retire once more to the southern shore of the 
Rappahannock, lasted several weeks. 

During November there were various movements 
that involved the battle of Kelly's Ford, in which the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth participated, and 
lost two killed and several wounded. 

The battle of Mine Run occurred soon after the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth had reached the 
side of the run opposite from the enemy, on Sunday, 
the 29th, and had passed the day in full view, though 
distant of the frowning heights, along which ran a 
line of the enemy's works. 

At two o'clock Monday morning the One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth, with other regiments of the bri- 
gade, were Ordered out to relieve a line of pickets 
which had, during the early hours of the night, been 
pushed up to within two hundred and fifty yards of 
the Confederate works. The regiment crossed the 
run with the difficult marshy lands adjacent, and at 
three o'clock reached the picket line. About seven 
o'clock in the morning the long line of Union forces 
moving to the attack began advancing over the cleared 
fields, through the valley below, and around the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth. The latter was ordered 
i to bring up the reserves and form a skirmish line. 
' Col. Cummins gave the order, " Forward, men ! for- 



ward !" and as the men sprang to their feet the enemy- 
opened a furious cannonade. It was a critical point, 
and several casualties occurred. Having advanced 
about fifty yards they were ordered to halt, and 
threw themselves flat on the ground. The orders to 
assault were soon after countermanded, and the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth returned to its position 
of the morning. 

Following this affair the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth and the Army of the Potomac generally en- 
camped on the north bank of the Rapidan, while 
Lee's army was on the south side, and there was a 
pause of nearly five months in actual hostilities, at 
least on a scale of any magnitude. Log cabins were 
erected, soldiers made themselves as comfortable as 
possible, and the months wore away in "picket duty, 
occasional foraging expeditions, now and then a brief 

In the month of April the movements for the great 
campaign of 1864, under Gen. Grant, began. On the 
■12th all surplus clothing was ordered to be packed 
and sent to Washington ; on the 16th all sutlers were 
ordered to leave the camp ; on the 22d there was a 
grand review; on the 26th the army vacated its 
winter-quarters, moved out, and pitched its tents on 
an open field. 

At eleven o'clock on the night of May 3, 1864, the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth struck its tents and 
bade adieu to the camping grounds at Culpepper. 
The next morning, after a march of twenty miles, 
they reached the Bapidan at Ely's Ford, and crossed 
on pontoons to the southern shore. At 2 p.m. of the 
4th they were encamped on the old battle-field of 
Chancellorsville. Hancock had been ordered to halt 
there and await the arrival of Meade's entire train, 
which is said to have consisted of four thousand 
wagons, all of which had been ordered to follow the 
Second Corps across the river by way of Ely's 
Ford. This would seem to indicate that, unlike his 
predecessors, Grant had determined under no circum- 
stances to return to the old camping grounds north of 
the Bapidan. 

At 4 P.M. on the 5th of May the Army of the Po- 
tomac was awakened from its slumbers. It had 
crossed the Bapidan without opposition, and had 
spent the night quietly resting on the edge of the 
tract known as the Wilderness. 

The details of the fearful struggle must be omitted, 
and only such detached portions of the account given 
as include the movements of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth. This regiment came into action 
about four o'clock on the afternoon of the 5th, and 
shared in the fearftil struggle which ended with both 
armies mutually ceasing firing for the night. The 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth lost about twenty- 
three severely wounded. They had taken thirty-two 
prisoners, including one commissioned officer. On 
the morning of the 6th the Union line faced to the 
southwest, and was about five miles long. It was con- 

fronted by Lee's lines, well formed. Grant's order 
had been, " Attack along the whole line at five o'clool 
in the morning." That order was obeyed. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth formed part 
of Hancock's advance line, and shared in the fighting 
which immediately followed with Heth's and Wilcox'i 
divisions of the enemy. Here Col. Cummins was 
wounded, supposed to be at that time mortally, and 
was carried to the rear. The command devolved upon 
Lieut.-Col. Weygant. After a short lull in the tem- 
pest, and during which the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth had pftrtially succeeded in eating their break- 
fast, there came Gen. Longstreet's great flank move- 
ment, before which the Union lines gave way, and 
more than twenty thousand men (among them the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth) were in full retreat 
The tangled " wilderness" was a " vast, weird, horrible 
slaughter-pen," and the rout continued for more than 
two miles. What might have happened had not the 
firing of the enemy and their hot pursuit suddenly 
ceased few can tell. Lieut.-Col. Weygant, in com- 
mand, with only Corp. Edwards, now made a stand 
along a wood-road, loosened the colors, and the men 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth flocked once 
more around the standard, and soon after the retreat- 
ing forces were rallied and formed the lines again, now 
in the rear of a long line of temporary breastworfa 
that had been hastily thrown up. This became an 
impregnable wall that shielded the Union troops, and 
against which the charges of the rebels were hurled 
in vain. 

Darkness closed the fighting of this fearful day. 
The battle was not renewed on the 7th. At eight 
o'clock on the morning of the 8th the command was 
again on the march. 

The passage of the Po Biver on the 9th coat 
something of a skirmish, in which the Twen- 
tieth Indiana and the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth New York engaged. On the 10th the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth moved back over.the Po 
Biver, and formed part of the new line which Grant 
had formed before Spottsylvania. They shared in the 
unsuccessful assault by Hancock's corps on the after- 
noon of the 10th, in the forward movement during 
the next night (the 11th), which preceded the great 
battle of Spottsylvania. 

That battle opened with Hancock's great succeBS 
in capturing Johnston's whole division, includiiig 
Brig.-Gen. George H. Stewart and about three thou- 
sand prisoners. This made the rebels rally, however, 
with desperate energy, and the advance movement was 
not carried further. The rebels made five distinct 
assaults to recapture the works taken by Hancock's 
forces, but failed after the most terrific slaughter. 

In the surprise and success of the morning, in the 
fierce fighting of the day, the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth was steadily engaged. They went 
with the "advancing line over the enemy's works, 
were in the hand-to-hand fight that followed, <uid 



shared in the desperate resistance it was necessary to 
make to the desperate assaults. Col. Weygant was 
wounded and borne to the rear, the command de- 
volved on Maj. Murray, and so the day wore away 
with its horrible carnage. The wonderful eighteen 
hours' struggle ended at midnight by the Confeder- 
ates abandoning the impossible task of retaking the 

As to the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth, at the 
close of the battle Lieut. Robinson with twenty men 
was ordered out on picket duty, and the remainder 
managed to get some refreshment, after which, with 
weapons loaded, two-thirds only were allowed to 
sleep at the same time. 

On the morning of the 13th the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth could not muster more than one hun- 
dred and twenty men, and two of these were killed 
during the day. 

For several days after the battle of May 12th the 
Union army attempted no direct attack. On the 
morning of the 18th, Hancock's command made an 
assault upon the works, but deeming them too formid- 
able to be carried, the forces rrere withdrawn. At 
this time the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was in 
the second line, which was not ordered forward, as 
the movement was abandoned. Then followed an- 
other attempt at a grand turning movement. 

Gen. Meade's trains were parked on the Fred- 
ericksburg road, and Tyler's division was sent to 
guard them. This force was attacked on the 19th. 
Tyler repulsed the enemy, while the One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth, with a brigade of the Fifth Corps, 
dashed after the flying foe and captured a large num- 
ber of prisoners. 

About this time the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth was so reduced that it was consolidated into 
three companies ; the Eighty-sixth and One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth were united into one regiment for 
field service. This regiment shared in the assault 
which captured the bridge over the North Anna 
known as Chesterfield bridge, and lay in the works 
taken during the night of the 23d of May. 

The whole army now moved over the Pamunkey 
River, but found the rebels in too strong force before 
them. While Birney's command was eredting works 
near the Elliott House, many casualties occurred. 
They were bloody days, though no general engage- 
ment took place. Capt. Crist was killed while direct- 
ing the staking out of a new line of defense. In the 
battle of Cold Harbor, the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth, as a part of Birney's command, was in the 
reserve, and for the first time in this long series of 
bloody battles were simply spectators. 

Then followed a period when picks and shovels 
were brought into requisition, and the army made 
itself ready for a long campaign. It was evident by 
this time that the great commander at their head had 
no thought of retreat, but that a steady, persistent 
movement was to be kept up until Richmond was 

captured or the Union army had perished on the way. 
Gen. Grant finally resolved to transfer the army by a 
bold and rapid movement to the banks of the James. 
This was effected during several days following the 
12th of June. Several skirmishes occurred during 
this movement; as usual, the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth was engaged, and it frequently lost 
one or more men. 

Finally the regiment settled down to its place in 
the main line before Petersburg. At this time it was 
reduced to less than a hundred men. Lieut-Col. 
Weygant having nearly recovered from his wound re- 
joined the regiment on the 4th of July. 

The morning report of August 11th showed thai 
there were remaining on the rolls of the regiment 
four hundred and twenty men and twelve officers, 
but only one hundred and forty-two men present for 

The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was a part 
of the force engaged in the movement up the river to 
Deep Bottom, August 13th. The landing was effected 
at daybreak, and the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth, the Seventy-third, and the Eighty-sixth New 
York, which had been transported on the same boat, 
threw out a strong picket line and awaited the arri- 
val of the balance of the corps. At nine o'clock two 
regiments deployed as skirmishers, and followed by a 
supporting force moved forward through the woods. 
About a mile distant the skirmishers met those of the 
enemy, and the two lines were soon hotly engaged. 

The Confederates soon gave way, and retired to a 
strong line of earthworks on the brow of a commatid- 
ing ridge. In front of these works the Union skir- 
mishers were formed into a strong picket line, while 
the main body was massed a short distance in the 
rear. Presently the One Hundred and Twenty- fourth 
was ordered to advance to the support of a sec- 
tion of the Fourth Maine Battery, which had taken 
position just behind the picket line and opened on 
the enemy's works. The Union battery did some 
excellent work. It was here that Capt. W. E. Mapes 
was wounded by the ball of a sharpshooter passing 
through his thigh, carrying with it a small piece of 
bone that adhered to his pants just below the wound. 
The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was soon after 
relieved from this point. 

The next day, the 15th, the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth performed a great amount of picket 
duty, and just after they were relieved, at eight o'clock 
in the evening, were again ordered out to prolong the 
I picket line to the left. In this movement they be- 
1 came exposed to the fire of a Confederate squad am- 
bushed in a field of grain. It was finally necessary 
to charge on the unseen foe and drive them out. The 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was not relieved 
from this tour of picket duty until nine o'clock on the 
evening of the 17th. Twenty-four hours later Han- 
cock's entire command was on the way back to 
Petersburg. The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 



was now stationed about three miles to the left of 
the place from which it had moved on the 12th. 
Weeks and indeed months now passed away in the 
trenches before Petersburg and on picket duty, the 
latter much of the time dangerous to the very last de- 
gree. Several of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
were wounded and others killed in this line of service. 
On the last day of September offensive operations 
against the enemy at Deep Bottom were renewed, and 
for several days there was severe fighting at different 
points along the Richmond and Petersburg lines, but 
the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth did not become 
actually engaged. October 1st, their division was 
hurried out of camp, and, taking the cars, were con- 
veyed to the extreme Union left, where Warren with 
a heavy force had succeeded in extending his lines 
across the Weldon Railroad, which was one of the 
enemy's main arteries of supply. Warren was having 
a hot time to hold what he had secured. The One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth, with six other regi- 
ments, were set to work cutting drive- ways through a 
strip of woods, and building a strong redoubt in front 
of a Confederate mansion, called the Clement House. 
After spending three days and nights at this work, 
they were relieved by Gen. Ferrero's division of col- 
ored troops. The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
moved back to the Jerusalem plank-road, and en- 
camped in the second line near Fort Sedgwick, but 
they were still under fire. Grant B. Benjamin and 
Lieut. Jonathan Birdsall were killed about this time, 
and others were wounded. 

The regiment had, however, filled up somewhat its 
wasted ranks. Convalescents had returned, a few new 
recruits had been received, and the roll showed two 
hundred and thirty men with sixteen officers present 
for duty. 

In this movement the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth had a part. Within a half-mile of Hatcher's 
Run a brisk skirmishing fire broke out in front of 
the ford. This was when Gen. Eagan's command 
were forcing the passage of the stream. When this 
was accomplished the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth crossed without difficulty, and moved on in 
column with flankers on the left. It was thus in 
the rear of Eagan's battle-line. Presently an order 
came directing the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
to relieve the brigade on the left. In this advance 
considerable fighting occurred, but the whole line 
reached the Boydton road. Here a halt took place 
by order of Gen. Meade. 

Omitting the details of the battle, we trace the 
movements of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth. 
While holding the road a flanking company of rebel 
dismounted cavalry with a battery of rifled ^uns came 
thundering down until halted by the fire of the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth. Then hastily creeping ■ 
up to the woods which were beyond an open lot in i 
front of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth, they 
opened a sevete fire. i 

At this juncture an aide of Gen. De Trobriand rode 
up and asked Col. Weygant if he did not think hig 
command could capture that battery. The reply was, 
" We can try," but the assistance of another regiment 
was very desirable. A company of sharpshooters im- 
mediately came up. Just as the leader tendered his 
services to Col. Weygant a bullet tumbled him fi:om 
his horse dead, but his men joined in the assault with 
a will, as if to avenge the death of their leader. Col. 
Weygant was wounded and borne from the field. The 
charge was not made, but the attempt of the Con- 
federates to pass down the road was steadily resisted 
by the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth, by the com- 
pany of sharpshooters, and by Kirwin's powerful 
regiment sent to their aid. 

Capt. Benedict, the senior officer, in the absence of 
Lieut.-Col. Weygant, was now in command of the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth until the latter re- 
turned to the regiment November 22d. A large rein- 
forcement was now received. Capt. Malone, of Mid- 
dletown, brought an entire company. November 25th 
the muster-roll showed nineteen officers, and three 
hundred and sixty-two men present for duty. About 
the last of the month, and during the early days 
of December, the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
Regiment shared in the new attack on the Weldon 
Railroad, tvhich destroyed a portion of it further to 
the south, still more embarrassing the receiving of 
supplies by the rebel army. 

The year 1864 had now drawn to a close. The great 
campaign which was to be fought " out on this line if 
it took all summer" was still in progress, the summer 
and the fall had passed away, and yet the desired vic- 
tory had not been won. Still with unyielding per- 
sistency the Union army maintained the. siege. Daily 
the lines around Richmond tightened. 

The month of January, 1865, was devoted to thor- 
ough preparation for a spring campaign. February 
4th the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth received 
orders to be ready for a march. Another demonstra- 
tion against the enemy's right had been ordered, and 
the next morning the Fifth and Second Corps, pre- 
ceded by Gregg's division of cavalry, pushed out to 
Reams' Station, and thence to Dinwiddle Court- 
House, the Fifth Corps being directed to turn the 
rebel right while the Second assailed in front. At 
seven o'clock on the morning of the 5th the brigade 
column, which included theOne Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth, marched to the left about two miles, and halted 
in the rear of Meade's most advanced picket-posts. 

After a regiment had been deployed as skirmisheiB 
they moved beyond the Union picket line, drove i* 
the rebel pickets a mile or more to the small stream' 
known as Hatcher's Run. On the further side of this 
stream a small rebel force behind a line of earth- 
works held the Union skirmishers at bay until assist- 
ance came up, when the Confederates were quickly 
dislodged, and the brigade forded the stream in battle 
line. They pushed on about three-quarters of a mile 



until they were near the enemy's main line. Here 
Gen. De Trobriand took up a strong position and set 
his men to building a corresponding line. The brigade 
worked all day unmolested, and at night lay down to 
rest behind formidable earthworks. The remaining 
brigades of Mott's division had moved up on the left 
and also intrenched themselves. About dark Mott's 
line was assaulted by a heavy rebel force that w.ere 
elated with having forced back Warren's command 
during the day. This was quickly repelled by McAl- 
lister's New Jersey brigade. About three in the 
morning of the 6th the brigade of which the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth was a part being re- 
lieved, moved to the left about half a mile and massed 
themselves in a ravine in the rear of McAllister's line. 
That night it was learned that Hancock's command 
had held every foot of ground gained in spite of the 
most determined assaults, and that the Union lines 
were permanently advanced beyond Hatcher's Run. 
On the morning of the 9th the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth was able to get into position on the 
new line, and for three weeks or so was once more in 
winter-quarters. During the first half of March, 
1865, many signs indicated that a final campaign was 
about to open which would end in absolute triumph. 
Sheridan's victories in the Valley, and Sherman's in 
the Carolinas, became known in the ranks of the 
Army of the Potomac. From the 14th to the 23d of 
the month the time was fully occupied in pushing to 
completion every detail of preparation. 

On the morning of the 24th everything was ready 
in the camp of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
for marching on five minutes' notice. There was not 
long to wait. Orders had already been issued by Gen. 
Grant directing an advance on all parts of the line 
on the morning of the 29th. Sheridan with his ten 
thousand troopers, flushed with their victories in the 
Valley, were now with the besieging army waiting 
to move once more against their old enemy, Lee's 
grand Army of Northern Virginia. 

The Confederate leaders did not wait for Gen. 
Grant to commence. On the morning of the 26th of 
March they made a vigorous assault on Fort Sted- 
man.the capture of which would have cut the Union 
lines in two and opened up a chance for Lee to move 
south and unite with Johnston to overwhelm Sherman. 
The movement was partially successful, the Union 
troops were driven out of the fort, but the rebels could 
not follow up their success. Their supporting columns 
failed to come up ; they could not seize' the crest of the 
hill which was held by the Union troops in the rear 
of the fort. The Confederates, too, were soon between 
two lines of Unionists, and two thousand were forced 
to surrender or be cut to pieces. Gen. Meade, too, or- 
dered an advance at other parts, and wrested away a 
portion of their intrenched line, which the rebels never 
recovered. This action was simply heard by the brig- 
ade in which the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was 
enrolled. They had no share in the movement. Yet 

they were soon ordered to strike their tents, and during 
that day they assisted in holding important positions, 
but were not engaged until just dark. They had se- 
cured themselves in a line of earthworks which a 
New Hampshire regiment had just vacated, and which 
was now strengthened by the materials of some small 
buildings torn down for the purpose. Col. Weygant 
had videttes carefully posted and instructed in case 
of attack to reserve their' fire until the enemy was 
within fifty yards, then empty their pieces as deliber- 
ately as possible, and hurry back to the lines. A 
force of the enemy, perhaps five hundred in number, 
soon emerged from the thicket on the road at the foot 
of the slope, just in front of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth. They evidently had seen the New 
Hampshire men leave these works, and did not know 
of their occupation by other Union men. The vi- 
dettes obeyed orders, the enemy, disregarding their 
fire, lowered their bayonets, and started up the hill 
on a charge. As soon as the videttes were in, the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth, from behind their 
intrenchments, poured upon the enemy a most de- 
structive fire, completely demoralizing the charging 
line. The Confederates threw themselves upon the 
ground or piled into the picket-pits, and the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth, pouring over the works, 
made a sudden charge upon them. The Confederate 
commander. Col. D. S. Troy, grasped from his stand- 
ard-bearer the colors of his regiment, and waved them 
frantically in vain efibrts to reform his lines ; but ere 
twenty of his followers could rally around him a 
bullet pierced his breast. George W. Tompkins 
grasped from his hands the standard, and trailed it 
beneath the colors of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth. One hundred and sixty-four men were cap- 
tured and six oflicers, while volley after volley was 
hurled after the remainder as they rushed pell-mell 
down the hill. Not a man of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth was killed or wounded, — a circum- 
stance scarcely paralleled in the history of the war. 
Private Tompkins received a medal frota the Secre- 
tary of War for his capture of the enemy's colors. 

The original order of Gen. Grant was not appa- 
rently changed or its execution delayed by the Con- 
federate attempt upon Fort Stedman. On the 29th, 
30th, and 31st occurred the grand advance which 
ended with the victorious battle of Five Forks, on 
the 1st of April, when Sheridan held the place with 
five tli')usand prisoners, and the entire right wing 
of Lee's army was fleeing westward, — in the language 
of Pollard, — " routed, demoralized, and past control;" 
In this decisive action the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth was not engaged, but it had borne an important 
part in the three days' operations, holding perilous 
positions, and at one point, in a skirmish of some 
magnitude, silenced a Confederate battery. 

That same night, while the defeat at Five Forks 
was carrying consternation through all the Confed- 
erate lines. Gen. Grant ordered the bombardment of 



Petersburg by all the available artillery in the grand 
circle of forts surrounding the doomed city. 

At a quarter of twelve that night the One Hundred 
and Twenty -fourth was ordered by Gen. De Trobriand 
to advance up to within two hundred and fifty feet of 
the enemy's works in their immediate front, open a 
vigorous fire, and maintain their position, if possible, 
for half an hour, but not to assault their lines. This 
strange order (as it then appeared), and one full of 
peril, was promptly executed. A sharp midnight 
struggle ensued, so fierce that the commanding gen- 
eral sent the Seventy-third New York and the One 
Hundred and Tenth Pennsylvania to the assistance 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth. An aide 
soon after recalled the force. The One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth had several men wounded, and Capt. 
Edward J. Cormick, of Company F, was killed. A few 
hours later the officers of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth learned that this midnight engagement was of 
great importance to the general movement, and that its 
object had been fully accomplished. Gen. Grant in- 
tended a general assault on the lines to the south and 
east of Petersburg for the next morning. Gen. Lee, 
supposing Grant's intention was to throw his forces 
next against the right wing, had withdrawn his army 
considerably from Petersburg, and night attacks like 
that made by the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
were to engage the enemy's attention and prevent the 
return of his forces to the defense of Petersburg. This 
strategy was successful. 

Early on the morning of April 2d the grand assault 
upon Petersburg was made as Grant intended. Parke 
on the Union right carried the enemy's outer lines, 
capturing several guns and a few prisoners, but found 
the inner lines so strong that he despaired of carrying 
them without additional forces, and therefore deserted. 
Wright with his own corps, the Sixth, supported by j 
two divisions of Ord's, made an impetuous advance, 
losing heavily but carrying everything in his front, 
capturing a large number of guns and taking several 
thousand prisoners. Ord's remaining division forced 
the enemy's line at Hatcher's Run, and with the main 
body under Wright swung around and pressed for- 
ward from the west towards Petersburg. At length, 
about nine o'clock a.m., Humphrey advanced with 
the divisions of Mott and .Hays, carried a redoubt, 
scaled the enemy's works in his front, and closing in 
on the left of Ord's men, pushed on with the vic- 
torious lines towards the fated city. In this advance 
a portion of De Trobriand's brigade, led by the One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth, moved at a double- 
quick over one of the main roads leading into Peters- 
burg. Ahead was a demoralized, fleeing body of Con- 
federates, whose pace was occasionally quickened by 
hurling into them a few bullets. Several times a 
squad of the hindermost wheeled and returned the 
fire, but in so wild a manner that the Union men 
were not injured by it. The enemy was driven 
within his inner line of intrenchments, which it was 

no part of Grant's plan to assault at a fearful waste 
of life. 

The beginning of the end had come. Gen. Lee 
made a re-disposition of his forces about Petersburg 
that same afternoon in full sight of the Union army, 
but he was only covering his purpose to allow the 
Confederate leaders to evacuate Richmond. He knew 
he could hold neither Petersburg nor Richmond many 
hours longer. This was the day when he sent the 
famous dispatch to Richmond, which was carried to 
Jefierson Davis seated in church ; and then followed 
that wild scene never paralleled on this continent: 
of a fleeing government, a city given up to riot and 
mob law, ending with a fearful conflagration, the last 
legacy of the dissolving Confederacy to its ill-fated' 
capital. ' During the night following the 2d of 
April the Confederate forces stole silently out of 
Petersburg over muffled bridges, and on the morning 
of the 3d, Gen. Grant, pausing in his victorions 
career only to send a governor and a provost-guard 
into the city, set his army in motion after Lee's flee- 
ing veterans. 

The Confederate forces, after their hasty flight from 
the lines which they had so long defended around 
Richmond and Petersburg, concentrated at Chester- 
field Court-House, about eight miles west. From 
that point the Army of Virginia, still forty thousand 
strong, moved rapidly westward along the northern 
shore of the Rappahannock River some thirty miles, 
to Amelia Court-House. By a misunderstood dis- 
patch, three long trains of supplies, which had been 
telegraphed to meet Gen. Lee at Amelia Court-House, 
were sent forward to Richmond the very day of the 
evacuation, and were burned in the great fire set by 
the Confederates as they were leaving. 

In the pursuit which Sheridan with his cavalry be- 
gun on the morning of the 3d before the sun was up, 
the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth took a part, 
their brigade having the advance of the Second Corps. 
During the day they marched about twenty miles, 
capturing two hundred dismounted Confederate cav- 
alry and one brass field-piece. 

On the morning of the 4th they were aroused from 
slumber at three o'clock and were on the march at 
four. About ten o'clock a halt of Gen. Humphrey's 
corps was ordered, and Gen. De Trobriand sent the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth out to forage a meal 
for the brigade. They were successful, notwith- 
standing the war-swept condition of the neighbo^ 
hood, in finding a mill, which they set to grinding 
grain found there, and which stopped finally by the 
upper millstone being hurled from its spindle and 
thrown through the side of the building. They also 
secured fowls, cattle, sheep, and pigs, though most of 
them were fearftilly lean. The foraging and eating 
used up most of the day, but they moved three miles 
farther just at night. At three o'clock in the morn- 
ing of the 5th they were on the march again ; a very 
welcome supply-train overtook them with three days' 



rations. At dusk the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth joined Sheridan at Jettersville, where he held 
the Danville Railroad, cutting off one more of Lee's 
lines of communication. During the day a severe 
engagement had taken place there, resulting in a loss 
to the Confederates of a foraging train of one hun- 
dred and eighty wagons, together with a battery of 
artillery and a hundred prisoners. 

On the morning of the 6th the pursuit was resumed, 
the brigade of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
again leading the advance of the Second Corps. 
They soon came up with Lee's rear-guard at a point 
where the road crossed a small stream. The Twen- 
tieth Indiana was deployed as a heavy skirmish line, 
and soon became hotly engaged. The One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth was ordered to the front, and 
moved off on a run. Gen. Mott added, " Deploy as 
soon as you cross and take that train." The train 
was not in sight. As Gen. Mott rode up to the colonel 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth and com- 
menced to give an additional order, he was wounded 
and borne from the field. A delay of ten minutes oc- 
curred, when the advance was resumed, with the 
entire division to which the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth belonged in battle line, but the enemy 
had fled. The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth was 
sent to relieve the Twentieth Indiana, and that 
brought the Orange County boys to the front and in 
sight of the wagon-train which Gen. Mott had di- 
rected them to take. They were soon able to open an 
effective fire on the teamsters, and compelled the 
abandonment of fifteen or twenty wagons and two 
brass guns, which were being moved with them. The 
regiment was now wildly enthusiastic; the colonel 
was obliged to force his horse into a trot to keep up 
with the excited men. They soon came in sight of a 
line of rebel earthworks, which Capt. Travis would 
have charged immediately with his single company of 
thirty men had not the superior officers recalled him. 
The main line soon came up, a charge was made, and 
the enemy was driven from his works, losing a large 
number of men captured by the Union forces. Two 
hours later the advance came up with another Con- 
federate battle line, and this proved to be held by a 
considerable body of Lee's main army. The works 
were manned by a solid battle line, studded at inter- 
vals with artillery, and gayly decked with Confederate 
battle-flags. In a few moments the main line again 
came up. The entire division of which the One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-fourth was a part made one general 
charge, swept over the works, capturing several hun- 
dred prisoners, together with a number of battle-flags 
and five or six pieces of artillery. The Sixth Corps 
and Sheridan's cavalry were having severe fighting 
on the left; they met with strong opposition, were re- 
pulsed twice with serious loss, but eventually cap- 
tured nearly two-thirds of Gen. Ewell's corps, in- 
cluding Ewell himself and five of his general officers. 
After this engagement, known as the "battle of Sailor's 

Creek, in which the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
Regiment took twenty-eight prisoners and lost several 
men, there was a halt of nearly an hour. But when 
once under way again the enemy's rear-guard was 
soon overtaken. It was driven from hilltop to hill- 
top, prisoners by the hundred being taken, guns and 
wagons being abandoned, and this was only sus- 
pended by the darkness of the night. Lee had lost 
during the day nearly six thousand prisoners, four 
hundred wagons, and upwards of thirty pieces of ar- 

The pursuit on the 7th was continued. About 
eight o'clock in the morning they reached Highbridge, 
a small place six miles east of Farmville, and where 
the Appomattox is crossed by both a wagon road and 
a railroad bridge. The rebels had fired the bridges, 
and had quite a formidable force to resist the passage. 
Gen. Barlow's division, then in the advance, dashed 
over the burning wagon bridge, scattered the defend- 
ing force, and captured, with a number of prisoners, 
eighteen pieces of artillery. Barlow then moved off 
in the direction of Farmville on similar service. 
From Highbridge, Humphrey's division and De Tro- 
briand's, including the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth, moved on over the old stage road towards 
Appomattox Court-House. About five miles beyond 
the river they came up to the main body of Lee's 
army, so strongly posted that it was not deemed pru- 
dent to attack. A short time afterwards, on the sup- 
position that Lee was again retreating, an attack was 
made by several regiments of Miles' division, which 
was repulsed with a Union loss of six hundred. 

But the end had come. Lee was surrounded. 
Sheridan's cavalry and the Sixth Corps had swept 
around his lines far to the west, and now held Ap- 
pomattox Station on the Lynchburg Railroad, ex- 
tinguishing Lee's last hope of escape. At eight on 
the morning of the 9th of April the order to renew 
the advance was obeyed by a slow but steady march, 
but at noon orders were passed down the column to 
move from the road and rest. The now famous and 
historic interview between Grant and Lee was being 
held, and the terms of surrender adjusted. 

The paroled rebels disappeared, the Army of North- 
ern Virginia was no longer in existence. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-fourth soon after- 
wards moved to Burkesville Junction, where it received 
the news of Lincoln's assassination. Resuming soon 
after their northern march, they moved leisurely 
along. About the middle of May they were again in 
sight of Washington. The One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth was in the grand review, and immediately left 
for home. They were delayed about a week on Hart's 
Island, after which they took the steamer " Mary 
Powell" for Newburgh. 

Well might the Newburgh Daily Union, a few days 
previous, say, — 

" This regiment of heroes, for such they have proved 
themselves to be, are expected home soon. They 



have made as noble a record aa any regiment in the 
field. They have poured out their blood on dozens 
of historic fields, and have a roll of heroic dead 
whose memory should be precious to old Orange 

From the Newburgh Daily Union of June 14th we 
take the following paragraphs relating to the welcome 
in that city : 

" When the cannon on the long dock began to roar, the boya involunta- 
rilysetupashoutof delight, as if they recognized the tones of an old friend. 
But the belching, bellowing tube sent out no missiles of death among them 
this time,— nothing but the notes of a glorious welcome. The sight that 
greeted the eyes of those who were on the ' Powell' as she neared our 
Tillage can hardly ever be forgotten by them. Ever*- pla^e which com- 
manded a view of the river seemed to be crowded with eager spectators. 
Flags were flying, bells rinsing, cannon booming, innumerable handker- 
chiefs waving, and the whole village seemed bent on making itself seen 
and heard. The boys looked on all this display with undisguised delight, 
and gave vent to their feelings in repeated cheers. They were marched 
to the corner of First and Front Streets, through the immense throng 
which had assembled to do them honor, and between open flies of the 
flr^men and Union League, who stood with heads uncovered. The pro- 
cession then formed in the following order: First the firemen; then the 
trustees of the village and distinguished citizens ; tlien the Union League, 
accompanied by Eastman's splendid band of Foughkeepsie ; then came 
the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth. The procession moved up Front 
Street to Water, up Water to South, up South to Grand, down Grand to 
Western Aveuue, up Western Avenue to Liberty, down Liberty to Wash- 
ington's headquarters. Every flag was out all along the route, and the 
sight of the bullet-torn battle-flag of the regiment seemed to be regarded 
with intense interest. Before the boys got around the route they were 
well furnished with bouquets from the hands of the fair ladies of New- 
burgh. Every soldier had a bouquet in the muzzle of his rifle. What a 
change I The weapons from which, for the past three years, had been 
issuing the death-dealing bullet now decorated with the floral tribute of 
victory and peace. They were distributed by a flower brigade, led by 
Miss Travis, and organized by Mr. J. T. Sloan. 

" The firemen and Leaguers on reaching the headquarters formed in 
front of the stand in a hollow square, into which the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth marched. The crowd on the ground was immense, entirely 
covering the lawn from the house to the eastern limits. There could 
not have been less than ten thousand persons present. 

*' The regiment was welcomed by Judge Taylor in an eloquent address, 
of which we can only quote detached passages : 

" ' On behalf of the citizens of the county of Orange, I bid you a warm 
and cordial welcome to your homes again. Yon come to us war-worn 
and scar-worn from the hundred battles of the Army of the Potomac, 
and you come to us too at a time when peace rests upon our beloved 
country. With proud hearts we welcome you. But that pride is mingled 
with somewhat of sadness when we remember the thousand comrades 
whom you have left upon the' battle-fields of the sunny South. . . . But, 
my friends, you come home to us having completed your work and 
completed it nobly. To-day our beloved country, which for four long 
years has been threatened with destruction, is saved by the valor of your 
arms, and those glorious iuBtitutions which our fathers purchased for us 
with their blood, have been [treserved, though threatened by traitorous 
hands and rebel foes. . . . You have presented to us anew our glorious 
Union, more pure, more elevated, more perfect than before. Tou will 
have enabled us on the eusuing Fourth of July, the anniversary of our 
natiimal independence, to celebrate the absolute fact that all men are 
' born free and equal,' that the ' Stats and Stripes* wave over none but 
freemen, and that the contradictiou which has existed for the last three- 
quarters of a century that four millions of bondmen were held under the 
starry flag no longer exists, but that all, of whatever color, birth, or nat- 
ionality, when they come upon the soil of the United States, under the 
shadow of that glorious banner are freemen, and entitled to its protection 
under all circumstances.' 

"The address of welcome was appropriately responded to by Col. Wey- 
gant. Tbe great assembly dissolved, the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth 
was disbanded, and the record of its glorious achievements passed forever 
into the archives of history." 

The report of the adjutant-general for 1868 pre- 
sents the following summary statement of the battles 

which the regiment- was authorized to inscribe upon 
its banners: 

Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Kel- 
ly's Ford, Mine Kun, Wilderness, Po Kiver, Spotte- 
ylvania, North Anna, Tolopotomy, Cold Harbor 
Petersburg, Strawberry Plains, Boydton Road. 

Col. Weygant's history does not show that they par- 
ticipated to any extent in the battle of Cold Harbor 
while Boydton Road, Deep Bottom, and others in 
which they did participate are not named in the 

We add the following official record of the com- 
missioned officers, also from the adjutant-general's re- 
port of 1868 ; the date of commission being first given, 
followed by the date of rank. 


A. Van Horn Ellis, Sept. lu, 186^ ; Aug. 23, 1862; killed in action at M 

tysburg, Pa., July %, 1863. 
Francis M. Cummins, Oct. 10, 1863 ; July 2, 1863 ; discharged Sept. U, 

1S64. -* 

Charles H. Weygant, Jan. II, 1865; Sept. 19, 1864; not mustered. 

Francis M. Cummins, Sept. 10, 1803 ; Aug. 16, 18Q2 ; promoted to colonel 

Oct. 10, 1863. 
Charles H. Weygant, Oct. 10, 1863 ; July 2, 1863 ; mustered out with iv 

iment June 3, 1865 (brevet colonel, U.S.V.), 
Henry S. Murray, Jan. 11, 1866 ; Sept. 19, 1864 ; not mustered. 

James Cromwell, Sept. 10, 1862 ; Aug. 20, 1862 ; killed in action at Getty» 

burg. Pa., July 2, 1803. 
Charles H. Weygant, Sept. 14, 1863 ; July 2, 1863 ; promoted to heuteii. 

ant-colonel Oct. 10. 1863. 
Henry S. Murray, Oct. 10, 1863; July 2, 1863; mustered out with ngi- 

ment June 3, 1865. 
James W. Benedict, Jan. II, 1865 ; Sept. 19, 1864 ; not mustered. ' 

William Silliman, Sept. 10, 1862 ; July 16, 1862 ; promoted to capttin 

Oct. 3, 1862. 
C. Depeyeter Arden, Oct 3, 1862 ; Aug. 20, 1862 ; discharged Jan. 14, 

William Brownson, Feb. 20, 1863; Dec. 31, 1863 ; resigned Sept 17, ISO. 
Williau) B. Van Houten, Oct 10, 1863 ; Sept. 17, 1863 ; discharged Ju. 

23, 1866. 
Wines E. Weygant, Jan. 31, 1865 ; Jan. 31, 1865 ; not mustered. 

Augustus Denniston, Sept ID, 1862; July IS, 1862 ; resigned Jan. 1^ 

Henry F. Travis, Feb. 27, 1863 ; Jan, 14, 1863 ; promoted to captain All|, 

20, 1863. 
Ellis Post, Aug. 20, 1863; April 21, 1863; mustered out with reglaunt 

June 3, 1865. 

John H. Thompson, Sept 10, 1862; July 26, 1862; dismissed Nov. 96, 

1864; disability, removed by order of the President, Jan. 14, 18&&. 
John H. Thompson, Feb. 15, 1866 ; Feb. 16, 1865; failed to muster 
Robert V. K. Montfort, March 22, 1866 ; March 22, 1865 ; mustered «i 

with regiment June 3, 1866. 

Awialant Surgeont. 
Edward G. Marshall, Sept 10, 1862 ; Sept. 6, 1862 ; dismissed Aug. 7, UK 
Bobert V. K. Montfort, Sept 10, 1862 ; Sept 10, 1862 ; promoted to nl>' 

geon March 22, 1866, 
Edward C. Fox, April 6, 1865; April 7, 1866; mustered out with rsit 
ment June 3, 1866. 

Thomas Scott Bradner, Oct '.21, 1862 ; Aug. 23, 1862 ; mustered out wltt 
regiment June 3, 1866. 




Charles H. Weygant, Sept. 10, 1862 j Aug. 12, 1862 ; promoted to mnjor 
Sept 14, 1863. 

Charles B. Wood, Oct 10, 1863 ; July 2, 186.1 ; discharged Sept. 21, 1864. 

Thomas TafI, Nov. 15, 1864 ; Sept. 21, 1864 ; ninstered out with regiment 
June S, 1865. 

Henrjf S. Murray, Sept. 10, 1862 ; Aug. 14, 1S62 ; promoted to major Oct. 
10, 1863. 

Willinm E. Mapes, Sec. 17, 1863 ; July 2, 18113 ; discharged Dec. 15, 1864. 

Hubert J. Maloue, Dec. 17, 1864 ; Sept. 15, 1864 : mustered out with regi- 
ment June 3, 18>id. 

James Cromwell, Sept 10,1862 ; Aug. 15, 1862; promoted to major Sept. 
lU, 1862. 

William Silliman, Oct 3, 1862 ; Aug. 20, 1862; promoted to colonel 26th 
TJ. S. C. T. Feb. 1, 1864. 

James Finnegan, Feb. 9, 1864; Feb. 1, 1864 ; died of wounds Oct. 28, 1864. 

James A. Giier, Nov. 15, 1864 ; Oct 27, 1 8G4 ; not mustered. 

Jamee W. Benedict, Sept 10, 1862; Aug. 16,1862; mustered out with 
regiment June 3, 1863. 

John C. Wood, Feb. 18, 1865 ; Jan. 1, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment 
June 3, 1865. 

WilUam A. HcBuraey, Sept 10, 1862 ; Aug. 19, 1862 ; resigned March 9, 

Daniel Sayer, Dec. 17, 1863 ; March 6, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment 
June 3, 1865. 

Isaac Niooll,Sept. lU, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; killed in action at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 2, 1863. 

James 0. Denniston, Aug. 20, 1863 ; July 2, 1862 ; not mustered. 

Henry P. Ramsdell, Dec. 12, 1863 ; Oct. 7, 1863 ; not mustered. 

Thomas J. Quick, Deo. 17, 1863 ; Dec. 10, 1863 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment June 3, 1865. ^ 

Ira S. Bush, Sept. 10, 1862 ; Aug. 20, 1862 ; resigned June 21, 1864. ' 

John W. Houston, July 16, 1864 : June 21, 1864; not mustered. 

Edward J. Cormick, Nov. 15, 1864 ; Aug. 10, 1864 ; killed in action near 
Petersburg, Va., April 1, 1865. 

Lander Clark, Sept 10, 1862 ; Aug. 20, 1862 ; resigned May 13, 1863. 

Henry F. Travis, Aug. 20, 1863 ; April 21, 1863 ; must out with regiment 
Junes, 18G5. 

William A. Jackson, Sept. 10, 1862 ; Aug. 23, 1862 ; killed in action near 
Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864. 

Lewis M. Wiener, July 15, 1864 ; July 14, 1864 ; not mustered as captain. 

Thomas Bradley, Nov. 15, 1864 ; Aug. 2, 1864 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment June 3, 1865. 

David Crist, Sept 10, 1862 ; Aug. 23, 1862 ; killed in action May 30, 1864. 

Theodore M. Boberson, Feb. 18, 1865 ; Jan. 1, 1865; mustered out with 
regiment June 3, 1865. 

FirH Lieutenants. 

Charles B. Wood, Sept 10, 1862 ; Aug. 12, 1862 ; promoted to captain Oct 
10, 1863. 

Charles T. Cressy, April 19, 1864; Hay 1, 1864; not mustered. 

Thomas Taft, Aug. 2, 1864 ; July 20, 1864 ; promoted to captain Nov. 16, 

David n. Quick, Feb. 18, 1866; Jan. 1,1865; mustered out with regi- 
meut June 3, 1865. 

Wines E. Weygant, Sept 10, 1862 ; Aug. 14, 1862 ; resigned Fob. 8, 1863. 

William E. Mapes, Feb. 27, 1863; Fob. 8, 1863; promoted to captain Feb. 
27, 1863. 

Edward J. Cormick, March 23, 1864; March 17, 1864; promoted to cap- 
tain Nov. 15, 1864. 

Abrani P. Francisco, Feb. 18, 1865 ; Jan. 1, 1865 : mustered out with regi- 
ment June 3, 1865. 

William Brownson, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 15, 1862; promoted to adjutant 
Feb. 20, 1863. 

Henry P. Ramsdell, Feb. 20, 1863; Dec. 31, 1862; discharged Dec. 13, 

Daniel Sayer, Sept. 10, 1862 ; Aug. 16, 1862 ; promoted to captain Deo. 
17,, 1863. 

John W.Houston, Dec. 17, 1863; March 6, 1863; discharged Dec. 13, 

Ebenezer Holbert, July 15, 1864 ; June 21, 1864 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment June 3, 1865. 

Wm. A. Verplanck, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 10, 1862; discharged Sept. 23, 

Theodore M. Boberson, Dec. 17,1863 ; Sept. 25, 1863 ; promoted to captain 
Feb. IS, 1865. 

Woodward T. Ogden, Feb. 18, 1865 ; Jan. 1, 1865 ; not mustered. 

James 0. Denniston, Sept 10, 1862; Aug. 20,1862; discharged Oct 17, 

William H. Benjamin, Feb. 18, 1865; Jan. 1, 1865; mustered out with 
regiment June 3, 186.^. 

Thouiaa J. Quick, Sept. 10, 18li2; Aug. 20, 1862; promoted to captain 
Dec. 17, 1863. 

James A. Grier, Dec 2t, 1803; Dec. 10, 1863 ; not mustered. 

John B.Staubrough, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 20, 1862; resigned Nov. 12, 

Isaac M. Martin, Dec. 311, 1862; Nov. 12, 1862; dismissed May 15, 1863. 

Wm. B. Van Houten, Aug. 20, 1803 ; May 15, 1863; promoted to adju- 
tant Oct 10, 1863. 

Charles Stuart, Oct. 10, 1863 ; Sept. 17, 1863 ; discharged May 15, 1865. 

James H. Rrmsa, Sept 10, 1862 ; Aug. 23, 1862 ; resigned March 7, 1863. 

James Finnegan, May 26, 1863; March 7, 1863; promoted to captain 
Feb. 9, 1864. 

Lewis M. Wiener, Feb. 23, 1864; Feb, 1, 1864; discharged Aug. 5, 1864. 

John C. Wood, Nov. 15, 1864; Aug. 1, 1864; promoted to captain Feb. 18, 

Thomas Hart Feb. 18, 1865; Jan. 1, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment 
June 3,1865. 

Henry Gowdy, Sept 10, 1862; Aug. 22, 1863; died May 11, 1863, of 

Jolin E. Hayes, Dec. 17, 1863 ; May 10, 1863 ; not mustered. 

Thomas Bradley, Sept 27, 1864; Aug. 1, 1864; promoted to captain 
Nov. 16, 1864. 

John S.King, Dec. 17,1864; Sept. 15, 1864; muslered out with regiment 
June 3, 1865. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Charles T. Cressy, Sept. 10, 1862 ; Aug. 12,1862; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant Apiil 19, 1864. 

Jonathan Birdsall, Aug. 2, 1864; July 20,1804; killed in action near 
Petersburg, Va., Oct. 22, 1864. 

Gabriel Tutliill, Feb. 27, 1863 ; Feb. 8, 1863; discharged Feb. 23, 1864. 

Henry P llanisdell, Sept. 10, 1862; Aug. 15, 1862; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant Fell. 27, 1863. 

James A. Grier, Feb. 20, 1863 ; Dec. 31, 1862; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant Dec. 24, 1863. 

Thomas Hart Nov. 15, 1864; July2l, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant 
Feb. 18, 1865. 

.John W. Houston, Sept. TO, 1862; Aug. 16, 1862; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant Dec. 17, 1803. 

Ebenezer Holbert April 2, 1864; July 20, 1864; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant Jnly 15, 1864. 

Thomas G. Mabie, Nov. 15, 1 864 ; Jnly 26, 1864 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment June 3, 186"). 

Adolphus Wittenbeecher, Sept. 10, 1862 ; Aug. 19, 1862; dismissed March 
19, 1863. 

Theodore M. Rolieraon, May 26, 1863 ; March 6, 1863 ; promoted to first 
lieutenant Dec. 17, 1863. 

Woodward T. Ogdeii, Nov. 15, 1864; July 21, 1864 ; mustered out with 
regiment June 3, 1865. 

Sylvester hawson. March 14, 1865; March 3, 1865; mustered out with 
regiment June 3, 1865. 

Davidlilbbs, Sept. Ill, 1802; Aug. 20, 1862 ; resigned Feb. 26, 1863. 

Wm. H. Benjamin, May 26, 18ii3 ; Feb. 25, 1863 ; promoted tu first lieu- 
tenant Fell. 18, 1865. 

Joshua V. Cole, Feb. 18, 1865 ; Jan. 1, 1865 ; not mustered. 

SamnelW. Hotchkls8,Sept. 10, 1862; .\ug.20, 1862; resigned April 2, 1864. 

David U. Quick. Nov. 15, 18114; .Inly 21, 1864; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant Fob. 18, 1865. 

Lewis T. Slinltz, Feb. IS, 1865; Jan. 1, 1805; mustered out with regiment . 
June 3, 1:165 

Isaac M. Martin. Sept. 10, 1802 ; Aug. 20, 1862 ; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant Dec. 20, 1H62. 

Milnor Brawn, Deo. 30. 1862 ; Dec. 30, 1862 ; killed in action at Gettys. 
burg. Pa., .Inly 2, 186:i. 

Charles Stuart, \«g. 20,1803; July 2, 1863; promoted to first lieutenant 
Oct.lO, 181.3. 

William W. Smith, April 19, 1864; Sept 17, 1863; not mustered. 

James Finiieiran, 10, 1862; Aug. 2.3, 1862; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant May26, 18II3. 

Jacob Dentiin, May 26, 1863; March 7, 1863; not mustered; killed in ac, 
tion May 3, 1863. 

Lewis M. Wisner, Aug. 20, 1863 ; May 3, 1863 ; promoted to first lieuten- 
ant Feb. 23, 1864. 

John R. Hayes, Sept. 10,1862; Aug. 22, 1862 ; discharged April 8, 1864. 



Col. William Silliman was born at Canterbury, 
Orange Co., on Oct. 18, 1837, and was the only child 
of Rev. Jonathan Silliman, for nearly thirty years 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Canterbury. 
His childhood was mostly passed in the society of his 
parents, his weak physical constitution precluding 
his attendance upon the schools of his day for any 
length of time. His early education was received at 
home. He acquired knowledge with great facility, 
and his memory was so tenacious that what he once 
learned he seemed never to forget. His mind was 
inquisitive, active, and discriminating, and he was in- 
terested in almost every branch of art and science. 

When he was about fourteen years of age his father 
purchased a farm in the neighborhood with a view of 

educating his son as an agriculturist, and two years 
later the family took up a residence upon the farm. 
After some time spent in agricultural pursuits Mr. 
Silliman formed a desire to study engineering, and 
he spent two winters in the pursuit of that branch of 
science at the school of Rev. A. C. Roe, in Cornwall. 
He afterwards spent a term in the normal school at 
Montrose, Pa., and later engaged in school-teaching 
for a time. Having finally determined to make the 
practice of law his life-work, he entered the Yale Law 
School at New Haven, Conn., in the fall of 1858, and 
spent one year at that institution. The following 
year he entered the Albany Law School, with a view 
of admission to the bar in New York State, and con- 
tinued a regular and diligent scholar until his gradu- 
a,tion in 1860. He subsequently located at Newburgh, 

where he acquired considerable reputation for hii 
knowledge of the principles of the law, and for hi 
skill in managing his causes. 

It was at this time that the civil war of 1861 broke 
upon the country and stirred to the bottom the pa- 
triotism of the young blood of the North. An ardent 
Republican, feeling a warm interest in the preserva- 
tion of the institutions of his country, and a devotion 
to the cause of liberty, the first gun that opened upon 
the walls of Sumter seemed to arouse all the latent 
fire of patriotism that burned in the bosom of young 
Silliman, and made him eager to enter the ranks of 
the Union army to battle for his country's rights. The 
battle at Bull Run made him still more restless, and 
he soon after participated with others in raising a 
company for service under Col. Morrison in the Sec- 
ond New York Cavalry. The work of recruiting #gr 
commenced Sept. 15, 1861, and on October 9th, Mr. Sil- 
liman went into camp with the rank of second lieu- 
tenant. The captain of the company, James Crom- 
well, a friend of his boyhood days, being taken ill, 
the labor of drilling fell upon Lieut. Silliman, He 
was very prompt and active in the performance of 
his. duty, and on Oct. 31, 1861 , received a commigsion 
as first lieutenant of the company. Soon after the 
regiment entered the field, but after lying in camp foi 
several months at Washington, was disbanded, owing 
to the reduction of the cavalry force, and the offioera 
returned home. Lieut. Silliman resumed the practice 
of law, this time in his native village. He continuel 
his business until the President's call for three hun- 
dred thousand volunteers, in July, 1862, when he ac- 
cepted the adjutancy of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth New York Volunteers, then being recruited by 
Col. A. Van Home- Ellis in Orange County. Capt 
Cromwell, of Company C, having been promoted to 
be major of the regiment soon after, Adjt. Silliman 
was made captain of that compapy, but continued 
to discharge the duties of the adjutancy until the 
regiment left for Washington, on Sept. 6, 1862. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to detail all the 
movements of the regiment to which Capt. Silliman 
belonged, nor how at Fredericksburg, ChancelloB- 
ville, Beverly's Ford, Gettysburg, and on other bloody 
fields its members distinguished themselves for bravery 
and personal courage. In all the engagements in which 
Capt. Silliman participated he manifested the courage 
of a brave and efiScient soldier, and frequently elicited 
the warmest commendations of his superior oflScete, 
Of his conduct at the battle of Chancellorsville Wey^' 
gant's " History of the New York State Volunteers" 
says, " Capt. Silliman, conspicuous for his height, dis- 
played great gallantry ; waving his sword above his 
head he ever encouraged his men, and kept his eye on 
the colors, of which he had charge, his being the color 
company." Farther on, the same authority adds, "r 
braver officer than he showed himself to be on the 
battle-fields of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg h»« 
seldom drawn a sword." At the battle of Gettysburg 



Capt. Silliman commanded his regiment, the colonel 
and major having been killed, and the lieutenant-col- 
onel wounded. He manifested great coolness and 
courage, and assisted by his lieutenant, James Grier, 
virtually saved the fortunes of the day. 

Ou July 22, 1863, Capt. Silliman was detailed to 
'proceed North for the drafted men who should be as- 
signed to his regiment, and was stationed on Hiker's 
'Island, near New York City. He was subsequently 
'detained by the post-commandant, because of his use- 
' fulness in organizing the new material for the army, 
and first drilled some of the white conscripts, and 
'when the Union League of New York City began to 
"send their colored recruits to Riter's Island,' he asked 
'and obtained permission to drill them. He continued 
'in this occupation until the middle of January, 1864, 
;when he was ordered back to his regiment. He re- 
^mained with the regiment until February 5th foUow- 
«ing, when he received a commission as colonel of the 
'Twenty-sixth United States Colored Troops, having 
ipreviously passed a creditable examination before the 
■examining board at Washington. He at once repaired 
ito New York and spent several weeks in drilling his 
iregiment. On March 18, 1864, he was married to 
iMary L., daughter of Hugh F. Randolph, of Bloom- 
ifield, N. J., and a short time later went into camp, 
(first at Annapolis, Md., and finally near Beaufort, 
iS. C. The regiment subsequently engaged in the 
(campaigns near Hilton Head, and in one engage- 
iment, while at the head of his regiment. Col. Silli- 
^man was stricken down by sun-stroke and carried 
(from the field. He obtained a short furlough soon 
(lafter and made a visit to his home, returning to his 
■command on Aug. 18, 1864. He participated in the 
.further movements of the army in South Carolina, a 
ipart of the time in command at Beaufort, and ever 
."performing the part of a gallant and true soldier, 
(Until Dec. 9, 1864, when he received a severe wound 
(in the thigh while commanding the attacking brigade 
(dispatched to cut the Charleston and Savannah Rail- 
jToad near Pocotaligo. He was carried to the rear, 
^his leg amputated, and was finally removed to Beau- 
jfort, where he soon after died fi-om the efiects of his 
,wound. His young wife was near him to the last, 
,|and as the strong soldier bade adieu to life a smile of 
jtriumph illumined his face, and he passed quietly 
^way to join the shadowy army of heroes who had pre- 
ceded him to the peaceful realms of the far beyond. 
, It is the record of this young soldier that he per- 
formed his duty ; his glory belongs to the Republic, in 
whose service he died and in whose story he must 
ever live. His death caused great grief in his regi- 
ment, so highly did his men appreciate all that he 
had done in their behalf. His remains were accorded 
military honors in the field, and were finally brought 
North and, in accordance with the wishes of his 
widow, interred at Bloomfield, N. J., where a simple 
white monument marks the last resting-place of a 
mother's gift to her country. His aged and afliicted 

' parents still live to mourn the loss of an only child, 
the hoped-for comfort of their declining years, and a 
faithful wife still mourns in solitude the loss of a 
kind and dear husband. 

The following extracts are made from a letter written 
to his widow on March 14, 1865, by Brevet Maj.-Gen. 
Rufus Saxton, under whom he served at the time of 
his death : 

" During nearly the whole of his service in this 
department as colonel of the Twenty-sixth United 
States Colored Troops he served with me and Under 
my command. I loved him very dearly as a friend, 
companion, and counselor, honored him as a brave, 
skillful, and accomplished soldier, and sorrowed 
deeply for his loss. He was one of those gifted men 
who are equal to any position they may be called to 
fill. He was one of the most efficient colonels I have 
ever known in service, as the bearing and deeds of his 
splendid regiment have ever borne evidence. His acts 
bear witness to his faith in God and humanity, and 
that black muster-roll which he headed in her cause 
shall be to him a crown of glory. I have seen him 
in battle when the danger was most imminent, and 
he ever seemed as collected as if upon ordinary duty. 
He fell at his post in action, with his face to the foe, 
bravely battling for the freedom and country that he 
loved, and soon another hero had gone. Of all that 
long muster-roll of heroes whose lives this war has 
cost the nation, there was no braver, truer, or more 
worthy one than Col. William Silliman. A grateful 
country should cherish his memory, for he served her 
faithfully and honorably, and at last gave up his noble 
life to her cause." 


Company I, Seventy-first Regiment, N. G. S. N. Y., 
was recruited in Newburgh, principally from Company 
L, Nineteenth Regiment, N. G. S. N. Y., between the 
20th and 31st of May, 1861, by Capt. A. V. H. Ellis. 
There was, of course, the usual red-tape connected 
with the organization. Col. Brown, of the Nineteenth, 
readily gave his consent, but Go vernor Morgan refused 
to permit to leave the State. Capt. Ellis 
thereupon took the company on his own responsibility 
to New York. Col. Vosburgh, of the Seventy-first, 
with whom Capt. Ellis had made his arrangements, 
having died, it was for some days a matter of doubt 
whether the company would be accepted. The com- 
pany was furnished transportation to Washington, 
however, and after its arrival, through the efforts of 
Secretary Seward, it was accepted, and mustered in 
the service for three months. After being stationed 
at the navy-yard at Washington until June 28th, it 
was sent with Company F, of same regiment, to 
Chapel Point and Port Tobacco, but returned without 
encountering the enemy. The company had in the 
mean time been furnished with U. S. rifles. Harper's 
Ferry, 1850, pattern. Left navy-yard July 16th, ar- 
rived in Washington, and was brigaded with the First 



and Second Ehode Island Infantry, Second Ehode 
Island Battery, and Second New Hampshire Infantry, 
under Col. Burnside. The company was placed in 
charge of two twelve-pound boat howitzers, July 4th. 
To these guns' prolongs were attached, and they were 
drawn all the way by hand (twenty men to each) to 
Bull Run battle-field, and eight miles on the return 
march. Crossed Long Bridge July 16th, and reached 
Ball's Cross-Eoads ; on the 17th reached Fairfax Court- 
House; 18th, reached Centreville ; arrived on Bull 
Eun battle-field at 11 a.m. on the 21st, and entered 
action supported by Second Ehode Island Battery and 
Seventy-first Infantry; fired 232 .shots (shrapnel and 
canister) ; drew out of the conflict on order at 3 p.m. 
with the loss of one man killed, private Samuel 0. 
Bond ; two wounded, James C. Taggart and John W. 
E. Mould, the latter taken prisoner. At 5 p.m. ordered 
to leave the field; reached Centreville at 10 p.m., and 
marched thence for Washington. Left Washington 
for New York July 24th, with rifles ; arrived at New- 
burgh 27th, and mustered out on the 30th. The offi- 
cers of the company on this service were : 

A. Van Home Ellis, captain ; George W. Hawkins, 
second lieutenant; Wm. H. Garrison, second sergeant; 
John McMeekin, third sergeant ; James D. Hamilton, 
fourth sergeant ; Charles Decker, first corporal ; Mar- 
shal M. Van Zile, second corporal ; Henry F. Travis, 
third sergeant; Thomas Eiley, fourth sergeant. 

May 28, 1862, the company was again recruited, only 
seven hours being required for the purpose. Its period 
of service was again three months, spent on guard duty 
in and around Washington. The officers were : 

A. Van Home Ellis, captain; Wm. H. Garrison, 
first lieutenant ; James C. Taggart, second lieutenant ; 
John W. Forsyth, first sergeant; Henry F. Travis, 
second sergeant; John McMeekin, third sergeant; 
Jas. B. Montgomery, fourth sergeant; Thos. Eiley, 
fifth sergeant; Eobert Acheson, David M. DeWitt, 
Win. M. Verplanck, Edward J. Hall, corporals. 

Capt. Ellis resigned, and came home to organize a 
regiment in 1862, when Garrison was promoted cap- 
tain ; Taggart, first lieutenant ; Acheson, second lieu- 
tenant, and Edwin J. Marsh, corporal. 

One of the most remarkable features in the history 
of the company was the large number of officers and 
privates who went from it to more extended terms of 
service. Capt. Ellis became colonel of One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth; Travis, captain One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth; Eichard M. and Frank Hines, 
captains in Fifty -sixth ; Chas. B. Wood, captain One 
Hundred and Twenty- fourth ; James A. Grier, lieu- 
tenant One Hundred and Twenty- fourth ; B. F. Cham- 
berlain, major First Virginia Cavalry ; Van Zile, cap- 
tain One Hundred and Sixty-eighth ; Geo. C. Morton, 
captain Ira Harris Cavalry. But the list is too long 
for further repetition. The enthusiasm of its mem- 
bers continued from May, 1861, to the close of the 
war, quenched only in many by an honored death on 
the field of battle. 


On the 26th May, 1862, Col. William E. Brown, 
commanding the Nineteenth Eegiment Militia, te. 
ceived orders to march with his regiment to Washing- 
ton, D. C. Many of the members having previoni^ 
enlisted in volunteer regiments, it was found neceniii 
to recruit the ranks of the regiment,, which was done, 
and the regiment left Newburgh for the seat of wb 
on the 4th of June, by way of Jersey City, Philadel- 
phia, and Baltimore. On its arrival in Baltimote 
(June 6th) the regiment was ordered to Mount Claw. 
The next day orders were received to proceed to Stu- 
art's Hill, and to establish a camp at that place on 
the grounds previously occupied by the Seventh N, 
G. S. N. Y. The regiment remained here until the 
2d of July, when orders were received from Maj.-Gea. 
Wool for two companies to proceed to Fort McHeniy, 
and the remainder to go to Fort Marshall. On the 
14th of July four companies were ordered from Fort 
Marshall to Fort Delaware, where they remained 
until the 10th of August, when they returned to Fort 
Marshall. Orders were then received for the compi- 
nies at Fort Marshall to proceed to Havre de Grace, 
Md., for the purpose of guarding the railroad from 
that place to Baltimore. On the 28th of Augusttie 
companies at Fort McHenry were ordered to report to 
Col. Brown, when the whole regiment proceeded Id 
Newburgh, where it arrived on the 30th of Augmii 
and was mustered out of the service of the United 
States on the 6th of September. The officers were: 

Field and Staff. — William E. Brown, colonel ; Jama 
Low, lieutenant-colonel ; David Jagger, major ; George 
Waller, quartermaster ; Wm. M. Hathaway, adjutant 

While in the field the officers of the regimentlealg|| 
that the quota of the county under the July call hid 
not been filled, and that nine months' men would be 
accepted. On the 14th of August Col. Brown left 
Havre de Grace and proceeded to Albany, and there 
tendered to Governor Morgan the services of the regi- 
ment for nine months. It was not accepted. On the 
arrival of the regiment at Newburgh (August 30th) 
the tender was renewed and again refused. On the 
17th of September Col. Brown made a third tender, 
which was formally accepted on the 18th. In the 
mean time Governor Morgan gave an acceptance and 
an authorization to Isaac Wood, Jr., of Newburgh, to 
raise a regiment — to be known as the One Hundred 
and Sixty-sixth — for three years' service. ThuaW- 
thorizations were given for the raising of two regimenli 
in the same district,^-one under Col. Wood for thw 
years, and one under Col. Brown for nine months. Qp^ 
Wood and his friends thinking that he could;>fl|| 
with better success if the term of his regiment *■ 
reduced to nine months, made application to theQJS 
ernor and received an order to that effect, whichrf» 
further complicated the situation and made the rivsl'J 



more complete. It soon became evident that both 
could not succeed, and Col. Wood, after recruiting two 
hundred and seventy-two men, abandoned the field, 
and his volunteers were consolidated with the " Iron- 
sides," or One Hundred and Seventy-sixth Regiment, 
and mustered into the service of the United States at 
New York City, Nov. 20, 1862. 

Recruiting for the One Hundred and Sixty-eighth 
began Sept. 18, 1862, and ended Feb. 11, 1863. In 
December, 1862, it barely escaped consolidation with 
some other regiment, and but for a change in the 
State administration would never iave taken the field. 
The regiment left Camp Sprague, at Newburgh, Feb. 
2, 1863, with seven hundred and fifty men, and left 
|Park Barracks, New York, Feb. 13, 1863, with eight 
hundred and thirty-five men. It reached Yorktown, 
Va., February 18th, where it was assigned to the 
Fourth Army Corps, M'aj.-Gen. Keyes ; Gen. Richard 
Busteed's brigade; Second Division, Gen. Rufus 
King. It remained at Yorktown on garrison and 
provost duty during nearly the full term of its ser- 
vice. In June one hundred and forty men under 
'Capt. Daniel Torbush, in company with detach- 
ments from other regiments, proceeded on a gun- 
'boat up the York River to West Point, and from 
thence to the Mattapony River, and landed at Walker- 
'town, where the detachment from the One Hundred 
"and Sixty-eighth was ordered to a position on the 
Richmond road and ordered to hold it under any 
circumstances, while the remainder of the force went 
in another direction. As anticipated, the detach- 
ment was attacked by a company of cavalry and 
infantry, who were repulsed with a loss of fourteen 
killed. The detachment lost one killed (William 
S. Avery, of Co. A), five wounded, and two taken 
prisoners. The other portion of the expedition did not 
meet the enemy, but having accomplished the object 
in view, the whole party returned to Yorktown. 

On the 26th September as part of the Second Bri- 
gade, Second Division, Eleventh Army Corps, the 
regiment was placed en route for Chattanooga ; reached 
Bridgeport, Ala., where it remained on picket and 
guard duty until October 14th, when it left Bridge- 
port en route for Newburgh, where it arrived on the 
i20th, and was mustered out on the 31st. The casual- 
ties of the regiment were as follows : 

1 Killed in battle 1 

Died of eickneea 18 

DiBcharged for diaability 16 

" by oivil authority 2 

" " courtrmartial 1 

I £«signed 1 

Taken prisonerB 13 

I Deeerters 184 

, Mustered out 600 

Total 835 

The large number of deserters was accounted for by 
(the fact that many claimed that their period of enlist- 
(ment had expired. Many of the men were in camp 
(and field duties nearly or quite one year, and some 
for a longer time. 

, Following ia the roll of commissioned officers, from 

the adjutant-general's report of 1868, the date of com- 
mission being first given, followed by the date of rank : 

Wm. R. Brown, March 17, 1863 ; Feb. 11, 1863 ; mnatered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

James Low, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Nov. 26, 1862; resigned Aug. 27, 1863. 
James G. Beunison, Nov. 3, 1863 ; Aug. 27, 1863 ; not must, as lieut.<coI. 

George Waller, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 12, 1S63 ; dismissed June 9, 1863. 
James C. Bennison, Nov. 3, 1863 ; June 9, 1863 ; not mustered as mi^or. 
Daniel TorbuBh, Kot. 3, 1863 ; Aug. 27, 1863 ; not mustered as mtgor. 

Wm. M. Hathway, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Sept. 29, 1862 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 


Jas. H. ADderson, July 1, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment Oct. 31, 1863. 
George G. Spencer, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Sept. 27, 1862 ; mustered out at expi- 
ration of term of service July 1, 1863. 

Jacob M. Leigbton, mustered out with regimeut Oct. 31, 1863. 

Atsietxmt Surgeon. 
Edward B. Root, April 30, 1863 ; April 17, 1863 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 


R. Howard Wallace, March 17, 1863 ; Feb. 11, 1863 ; mustered out with 
regiment Oct. 31, 1863. 


William H. Terwilliger, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 9, 1863 j mustered out with 
regiment Oct. 31, 1863. 

Daniel Torbush, Feb. 2, 1863; Dec. 2, 1862; mustered out with regiment 
Oct. 31,1863. 

James H. Anderson, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 20, 1863 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

Isaac Jenkinson, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 20, 1863 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

Bennett Gilbert, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Nov. 14, 1862 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

George McClcary, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Dec. 22, 1862 ; mustered out with regi- 
■ ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

Samuel Hunter, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 12, 1862 ; mustered out with regiment 
Oct. 31, 1863. 

John D. Wood, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 21, 1862 ; mustered out with regiment 
Oct. 31, 1863 (brevet major N.Y.V.). 

James 0. Rennison, Feb, 2, 1863; Not. 26,1862; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

Myron A. Tappan, April 27, 1863 ; Feb. 11, 1863 ; resigned June 3, 1863. 

Marshal Van Zile, Sept. 14, 1863 ; July 1, 1863; must, out with regiment 

Oct. 31, 1863. 

First Lieut£nante. 

Nathan Hubbard, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 9, 1863; mustered out with regiment 

Oct. 31, 1863. . 
Oliver Taylor, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Oct. 25, 1862 ; mustered out with regiment 
Oct. 31, 1863. 
I Jacob K. R. Oakley, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Nov. 25, 1862 ; mustered out with reg- 
I iment Oct. 31, 1863. 

I Archibald Ferguson, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Nov. 25, 1862 ; mustered out with 

regiment Oct. 31, 1863. 
I James H. Searles, Feb. 2, 1863; NoV. 14, 1862; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct 31, 1863. 
Lawrence Brennan, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Nov. 3, 1862 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 
James T. Chase, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 12, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment 

Oct. 31, 1863. 
DeWitt C. Wilkin, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 21, 1863 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 
Wm. D. Dickey, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Nov. 26, 1862 ; mustered out with regi- 
I ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

; Marshal Van Tile, April 27,1863; Feb. 11, 1863; promoted to captain 
I Sept. 14, 1863. ' 

I George B. Brainsted, Sept. 14, 1863 ; July 1, 1863 ; mustered out with 
I regiment Oct. 31, 1863. 



Second Lieutenants. 

Thomas P. Terwilligor, Feb. 2, 1863; Jan. 9, 1863; must out with ragl- 
meiitOct31, 1863. 

Isaac N. Morehouse, Feb. 2,1863 ; Nov. 17, 1862 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

James H. Anderson, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 20, 1863; promoted to quarter- 
master July 1,1863. 

George C. Marvin, Feb. 2, 1863; Jan. 20, 1863; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

Andrew J. Gilbert, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Nov. 14, 1862 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Got. 31, 1863. 

Samuel C. Wilson, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Nov. 20, 1862 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

Peter Terwilliger, Feb. 2, 1863 ; Jan. 12, 1863 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment Oct. 31, 1863. 

George W. Hennion, Feb. 2, 1863 : Jan. 21, 1863; died Sept. 21, 1863, at 
Manassas Junction, Ya. 

Daniel Low, Jr., Feb. 2, 1863 ; Nov. 26, 1862; mustered out with regiment 
Oct. 31, 1863. 

George K. Brainsted, April 27, 1863 ; Feb. 11, 1863 ; promoted to first lieu- 
tenant Sept. 14, 1863. 

Bartley Brown, Sept. 14, 1863 ; July 1, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment 
Oct. 31, 1863. 

Lester Genang, ; July 1, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment Oct. 31, 


The records of the three regiments (One Hundred 
and Sixty-sixth, One Hundred and Sixty-eighth, and 
One Hundred and Seventy-sixth) are made more com- 
plete by adding that the One Hundred and Seventy- 
sixth was sent to the Department of the Gulf as part 
of the Nineteenth Corps, and participated in the Red 
River campaign in 1864 ; subsequently in Gen. Sheri- 
dan's campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, Va., in 
the summer and fall of the same year, and in Georgia 
and North Carolina in the winter and spring of 1865. 
Its nine months' men were mustered out in Novem- 
ber, 1863, and the regiment finally April 27, 1866, 
having been kept in the field by its three years' men 
and drafted men and substitutes. A considerable 
percentage of the Orange County men were for three 
years. T. Henry Edsall, of Goshen, adjutant, was 
mustered out in November, 1863, but, with his com- 
rades from the county, had some rough experiences in 
Louisiana. A letter of June 26, 1863, states that 
after remaining at Brashear City for a month, the 
regiment was sent to Thibodeaux, where it was at- 
tacked by a force of cavalry, and lost ten killed and 
twenty wounded. They had the satisfaction of rout- 
ing the enemy {the Second Texas) and capturing 
thirty prisoners. The day succeeding this action 
(June 23d), learning of the approach of a vastly supe- 
rior force of the .enemy, the regiment fell back to 
Brashear City, retreated from that place, and barely 
escaped to New Orleans Without annihilation, one 
hundred and forty men only reaching the point of 
safety, the remainder having been taken prisoners. 
The casualties in Company D at Thibodeaux were 
Nelson Smith, corporal, of Chester, mortally wounded 
and taken prisoner; J. E. Redner, private, of Chester, 
wounded through the wrist ; William H. H. Hall, of 
Chester, wounded and taken prisoner ; George Slau- 
son, of Monroe, wounded and taken prisoner; S. K. 
Wood, sergeant, of Newburgh, accidentally wounded 
in jaw. 

As in other cases, the names of the volunteers In 
the regiments named will be found in the town liiti, 
In the official roster we recognize the names of the 
following officers : 

T. Henry Edsall, adjutant, ITflc. 18, 1862; mustered out by expiratiuii of 

term Nov. 16, 1863. 
Sprague K. Wood, sergeant ; promoted second lieutenant 'Dec ?1, 188J- 

flrat lieutenant, April 13, 1865 ; captain. May 29, 1865 ; miuteral 

out with regiment April 27, 1866. 
Joseph Goodsell, second lieutenant, Dec. 19, 1862 ; first lienteaan^ 8ai 

29, 1863; captain, Feb. 23, 1864; dismissed June 22, 1864; diaild% 

removed Jan. 17, 1865 ; resigned. 


This company, known locally as the "Middletown 
Cavalry," was recruited by Morris I. McComal, at 
Middletown, as part of Col. Van Wyck's "Tenth 
Legion," in the autumn of 1861. It was detached from 
the Legion and mustered as Oo. C,. First Moanttd 
Rifles, with ninety-five men. The officers were : Morris 
I. McComal, captain ; Charles F. Allen, first lieu- 
tenant; Arthur Hagen, second lieutenant; Ardioe 
Robbins, orderly sergeant ; C. R. Smith, quartermastei 
sergeant. The company served its term of three years, 
and quite a number of its men re-enlisted. Lienii 
Allen and Smith resigned, and died in civil life since 
the war. Quartermaster-Sergeant Smith was promoted 
lieutenant, as were Sergts. James Eaton, Frank Mills, 
and Fred. Penney. Capt. McComal resigned in 1862, 
and re-entered service in Fifteenth Cavalry in 1863. 


This regiment was organized at New York City to 
serve three years. The companies of which it wns 
composed were raised in the counties of New York, 
Queens, Rensselaer, Washington, and Orange, in tWi 
State, and the regiment also included two companies 
from Connecticut and two from Indiana. The vol- 
unteers from Orange were mainly in Company B, of 
which Charles E. Morton, of New Windsor, was first 

It was mustered into the United States service from 
Aug. 9, 1861, to Oct. 8, 1861. The original memben 
were mustered out Sept. 10, 1864, and the veterans 
and recruits organized into four companies. During 
the months of September and October, 1864, eight 
new companies were raised in the central part of the 
State to serve one year. The regiment was musteied 
out June 5, 1865. 

The regiment was first known as the Seventh 
(Harris Light) New York State Volunteers, and wu 
changed to Second Regiment (Harris Light) Cavalry, 
New York Volunteers, Dec. 81, 1862. Alanson M. 
Randall, U.S.A., was colonel of the regiment frooi 
November, 1864, to muster out in 1865. He wm'» 
native of Newburgh. 

The names of those from Orange County who 1* 
longed to this regiment may be found to some extuf 
in the soldiers' lists at the close of the chapters upon 
the several towns. 




This regiment received some of its members from 
Orange County, but was largely from other parts of 
the State, the list of counties represented comprising 
Onondaga, Ontario, Orange, Oneida, Chatauqua, Cat- 
taraugus, Genesee, Tompkins, and Erie. It was mus- 
tered into the service of the United States from Aug. 
8, 1863, to Jan. 14, 1864. It was consolidated with 
the Sixth New York Cavalry June 17, 1866, and the 
consolidated force was designated the Second New 
York Provisional Cavalry. 

Recruits were obtained for the regiment in the fall 
and winter of 1863-64 by Capt. Morris I. McComal, 
of Middletown, who had recruited the Middletown 
Cavalry, in 1861, for the Tenth Legion, and which 
was made a company of the First Mounted Rifles ; 
and also by Lieut. Charles H. Lyon, of Newburgh. 
McComal was first lieutenant, Jan. 6, 1864 ; captain, 
Nov. 9, 1864; discharged by consolidation, June 17, 
1865. Lyon was first lieutenant, Jan. 6, 1864 ; pro- 
moted adjutant, June 7, 1865, but not mustered ; dis- 
charged by consolidation, June 17, 1865. For names 
of volunteers see town lists. 


This company was recruited in the winter of 1863 
-64. mainly in Orange County. It was mustered into 
service at Fort Lyon, Va., Feb. 3, 1864, with the fol- 
lowing officers: William D. Dickey, of Newburgh, 
captain ; Alfred Newbatt and Julius Niebergall, first 
lieutenants ; John Ritchie and Robert B. Keeler, of 
Newburgh, second lieutenants. It remained in Fort 
Lyon until March 27th, when it was ordered to Brandy 
Station, reported to the commanding officer of the 
Army of the Potomac, and was assigned to duty in 
the Artillery Reserve. The regiment was brigaded 
with the Sixth Heavy Artillery. They moved with 
the army on the 4th of May, acting as guard for the 
am munition train until May 5th,— just one day, — when 
the regiment volunteered to " go in," and accordingly 
on the 6th it "went in," and participated in the 
battles of the 6th and 7th. 

At this time the brigade was made a flying column, 
for the purpose of reinforcing any part of the 
line needing^ assistance. In this capacity it passed 
through the sanguinary battles around Spottsylvania, 
at Laurel Hill, Todd's Tavern, and Haines' Tavern, 
and for its gallant conduct in this last engagement 
was complimented by Gen. Meade in a general order. 
At the crossing of the North Anna River the regi- 
ment, though not actually engaged, yet sustained 
a very heavy fire, and lost severely in killed and 
wounded. At Bethesda Church and Tolopotomy 
Creek it was engaged, and its numbers were here 
again greatly reduced. 

While near Cold Harbor the brigade was perma- 
nently attached to the Fifth Corps, and led the ad- 
vance of the army until the Chickahominy was 
crossed, and then acted as rear-guard from that river 

until the James River was reached. On June 17th it 
arrived in front of Petersburg, and took part in the 
numerous engagements which occurred near that city. 
On the 15th of August Capt. Dickey was placed in 
command of the Third Battalion, its commanding 
officer being incapacitated by sickness, and the com- 
mand of Company M fell upon Lieut. Ritchie, who 
led it through the bloody engagements that took place 
in the struggle for the possession of the Weldon 
Railroad, in one of which the company lost one-third 
of its men in killed and wounded. The regiment 
was again complimented by Gen. Meade for gallant 
conduct. The following are some of the engagements 
in which Company M specially participated : Peebles' 
Farm, or. Poplar Spring, Chapel House, Hatcher's 
Run, the famous raid down the Weldon Railroad, 
Dabney's Mill, etc. The loss of the company in 
killed, wounded, and prisoners in their year of service 
was three officers and ninety-five men, — over half 
their number. It was mustered out in July, 1865. 

The following promotions of members of Company 
M were made, viz. . Capt. William D. Dickey, to be 
major ; Second Lieuts. Keeler and Ritchie, to be first 
lieutenants ; Sergts. Joseph M. Dickey and Riemann, 
to be second lieutenants. 


The Seventh Independent Battery was recruited by 
Capt. Peter C. Regan as a part of the " Tenth Legion." 
It left Newburgh with the Legion on the 7th of No- 
vember, 1861 ; arrived in Washington on the 11th ; 
was organized as an iiidependent battery Jan. 10, 
1862, and assigned to Casey's division, subsequently 
Peck's division, and afterwards to the Seventh Corps. 
When the Eighteenth Corps was organized the bat- 
tery was included in it as part of the Second Division. 
It served also a short time in the Tenth Corps at Ber- 
muda Hundred. When mustered out it formed part 
of the artillery brigade of the Twenty-fourth Corps. 

The battery participated in the siege of Yorktown, 
battles of Williamsburg, Savage's Station, Fair Oaks, 
and Malvern Hill ; sustained the fire of a rebel bat- 
tery at Harrison's Landing ; was engaged in the siege 
of Suffolk, at Bermuda Hundred, and in action at 
Petersburg, Dutch Gap, Fort Harrison, Hatcher's 
Run, and Port Walthal. It was on garrison duty at 
Norfolk eighteen months ; also at Fort Drewry, Man- 
chester, and Suffolk, and in the investment of Peters- 
burg and Richmond. Its first active service was on 
the 24th of May, 1862, near Seven Pines, where it was 
engaged with the batteries of the Washington (New 
Orleans) Artillery, and lost one man wounded, and 
one horse killed. The enemy were exposed, and lost 
a considerable number in killed and wounded. At 
Fair Oaks, May 31st, after Casey's division had been 
engaged and driven back, and after Battery A, First 
N. Y. Artillery, had lost all its guns, and another bat- 
tery two guns, the Seventh was brought up and held 
the road for more than an hour without support. 



Here it had ten men killed and wounded, and thirty- 
seven horses killed, and lost a battery-wagon, forge, 
and one caisson, but recovered them the next day. 

The battery was three times recruited by transfers 
from other organizations, veteran re-enlistrnents, and 
new recruits, and maintained an honorable record 
until the war closed. It was mustered out July 22, 
1865. Its members from Or.inge County will be found 
in the town lists. The official roll of its commissioned 
officers is as follows, the first date given being that 
of commission, followed by the date of rank : 

Peter C. Began, Jan. 10, 1862 ; Oct. 1, 1881 ; mastered out with battery 
July 22, 1866. 

First Lieutenants. 

Eugene Sheibner, Jan. 10, 1862 ; Nov. 15, 1861 ; resigned June 25, 1862. 

Abram Kniffin, Dec. 30, 18G2 ; Nov. 1, 1862 ; mustered out on expiration 
of service Oct. 26, 1864. 

Martin V. Mclntyre, June 14, 1862 ; Feb. 14, 1862 ; mustered out with 
battery July 22, 1865. 

John S. Bennett, enlisted Aug, 15, 1861 ; served two yeara ; re-enlisted 
Oct. 23, 1863 ; promoted to first sergeant May 1, 1864 ; first lieu- 
tenant, Jan. 9, 1865 ; mustered out with battery July 22, 1865. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Abram Kniffin, Jan. 10, 1862 ; Oct. 1, 1861 ; promoted to firet lieutenant 
Dec. 30, 1862. 

Charles S. Harvell, Dec. 30, 1862 ; Nov. 1, 1862 ; mustered out on the ex- 
pinition of his term of service Jan. 19, 1865. 

Abram Smith, March 14, 1865 ; Feb. 25, 1865 ; mustered out with battery 
July 22, 1866. 

William H. Lee, Jan. 10, 1862 ; Oct. 2, 1861 ; resigned May 14, 1862. 

Edward Kelly, June 20, 1863 ; March 1, 1863 ; dismissed April 18, 1865. 

John B. Broseu, Jr., Dec. 29, 1864; Dec. 1, 1864 ; mustered out with bat- 
tery July 22, 1865. 


This regiment, known as Serrell's, was organized in 
New York City to serve three years. It was mus- 
tered into the service of the United States from Sept. 
10, 1861, to Feb. 12, 1862. The original members, 
except veterans, were mustered out by detachments 
on the expiration of their terms of service, and the 
regiment, composed of veterans and recruits, retained 
in service until June 30, 1865, when it was mustered 
out in accordance with the orders of the War Depart- 

This was a large and important regiment in a neces- 
sary department of the service. It is said to have 
had from three hundred to four hundred men from 
Orange County. Some of their names may be found 
in the lists accompanying the chapters upon the 
several towns. 

Company C, Ninety-eighth Regiment of infantry, 
was recruited mainly in Newburgh, in the winter of 
1863-64, by Capt. James H. Anderson and Lieut. J. 
K. E. Oakley, then recently returned from a term of 
service in the One Hundred and Sixty-eighth Regi- 
ment. Lieut.-Col. Wead, then commanding the 
Ninety-eighth, proposed that a person should be se- 
lected for second lieutenant and a full company raised. 
Joseph A. Sneed, formerly of Company B, Third New 
York Infantry, was accordingly selected for second 

lieutenant, and early in February, 1864, over eightr 
men reported for duty at Riker's Island. 

On arriving at the rendezvous of the regiment, 
however, a difficulty arose. Col. Wead had intended 
to consolidate his smaller companies to make room 
for the new ones. To do this it was necessary to pro. 
cure an order from department headqaartets. Thjj 
order he was unable to obtain in time to take the field, 
and hence sixty of the Orange County recruits wen 
assigned to Company C, making, with the thirty-five 
already in the company, ninety- five men, under com- 
mand of Capt. Anderson and Lieuts. Oakley and 
Sneed, and twenty-four men were assigned to Com- 
pany I, Capt. E. M. Allen. 

The subsequent history of the company is, of course, 
blended with that of the regiment. At Drury's Bluff 
the regiment saved, by its coolness and firmness, the 
right wing of Gen. Butler's army from a very dan- 
gerous flank attack, which had already demoralized 
one brigade; at Cold Harbor, from June 1st to 12th, 
it was constantly under fire, and in the charge.s of the 
1st and 3d lost over one hundred men in killed and 
wounded. At Petersburg, June 15th, it charged and 
captured the outer line of works defending that city, 
and from that time until August was almost constantly 
under fire. The colors of the regiment were the first 
to be planted on Fort Harrison, September 29th, and 
it was the first regiment to enter Richmond after the 
evacuation by Lee's army, April 3, 1865. After the 
surrender it was on post and garrison duty at Rich- 
mond, Manchester, Burkesville, Danville, and other 
points in Virginia, until the 31st of August, when it 
was mustered out of service at Richmond. 

Out of the eighty-four men who went out with Capt 
Anderson, thirteen were killed or died of wounds fe- 
ceived in action, twenty-three were wounded, more 
or less severely, and five died of disease contracted in 
the service. Capt. Anderson resigned, and was hon- 
orably discharged in September, 1864, on account of 
physical disability. Lieut. Sneed, having sufiered some 
months from fever, resigned in January, 1865. From 
May 24th until November 19th the company was 
under command of Lieut. Oakley. He was then ap- 
pointed adjutant, and the command fell upon Orderly 
Sergt. Clark B. Colwell, who, on the 2d of December, 
received. a commission as first lieutenant, — a well- 
earned promotion, and one that gave the greatest satii- 
faction. Lieut. Oakley was commissioned captain at 
the same time, but, preferring the position of adjn- 
tant, did not muster. 

The personal record of a very large percentage of 
the officers and privates of the volunteers under C«pt 
Anderson will be found in the Newburgh list. 


The following is an abstract of reports from supe^ 
visors of towns and treasurer of county, showing 
amount of moneys received for bounties and war ex- 



penses, and from what sources received, in the years 
1862, 1863, 1864, and 1865. 

Blooming-Grove.— From town taxes 1864, $10,000 ; 
1865, $9900; from town loans 1863, $31,000; from 
State, through paymaster-general, $10,000; total, 

Chester.— From town taxe.s 1864, $7916.26; 1865, 
$9009.88; from town loans 1868, $4200; 1864, $21,200; 
from State (bonds), $11,866.53 ; total, $54,192.67. 

Cornwall.— From town taxes, 1864, $69,200 ; total, 

Crawford.— From town taxes 1864, $7901.75 ; 1865, 
$18,258.02 ; from town loans 1864, $27,812.62 ; 1865, 
$15,992.50; from State, cash $700, State bonds 
$13,000; interest on State bonds, $487.25; miscella- 
neous, $35 ; total, $84,187.12. 

Deerpark.— From town taxes 1864, $19,465.50; 
1865, at one time $24,092.39, at another $25,573.94; 
from town loans 1864, $146,950 ; from State, cash 
$26,900; total, $242,981.83. 

Goshen. — From town taxes 1865, at one time 
$111.12, at another $9923.43; from town loans 1864, 
$40,096 ; 1865, $2800 ; from State, cash $4450, State 
bonds $25,000, interest on State bonds $782.50, other 
sources $70 ; total, $83,233.05. 

Greenville.— From town taxes 1 864, $4010.89 ; 1865, 
$6822.45; from town loans 1864, $25,159; 1865, 
$8132.50; from State, cash $2650, bonds $8000, inter- 
est on bonds $231.67. 

Hamptonburgh. — From town taxes 1864, $21,000 ; 
total, $21,000. 

Minisink.— From town taxes 1864, $1234.26 ; 1865, 
$7071.12; from town loans 1863, $118.70; 1864, $23,- 
836.49; 1865, $12,288.94; from State, cash $4500, 
bonds $8000, interest on bonds $222.11 ; total, $57,- 

Monroe.— From town taxes 1864, $22,271.90 ; from 
town loans 1864, $66,420.84; 1865, $38,775.91; from 
State, cash $500, bonds $33,000 ; total, $160,968.65. 

Montgomery.— From town taxes 1862, $3000 ; 1864, 
$54,250 ; total, $57,250. 

Mount Hope.— From town taxes 1865, $11,034.68; 
from town loans 1864, $35,475 ; 1865, $4978.56 ; from 
State, cash $3400, bonds $8000; total, $62,888.24. 

Newburgh.— From town taxes 1862, $24,931 ; 1864, 
$25,368 ; 1865, $21,538 ; from town loans 1862, $29,950; 

1864, $180,550; 1865, $86,100; from State, bonds, 
$97,200; total, $465,637. 

New Windsor.— From town taxes 1864, $2956.39; 

1865, at one time $1650.45, at another $2221.84; from 
town loans 1864, $26,886.87 ; from State, cash $15,000; 
total, $48,715.55. 

Wallkill.— From town taxes 1862, $4000; 1864, 
$91,100 ; total, $95,100. 

Warwick.— From town taxes 1863, $2000; 1864, 
$11,960; 1865, $19,725; from town loans 1862, 
$2000; 1864, $71,575; 1865, $47,760; from State, 
cash $4300, bonds $40,000, interest on bonds $1750; 
total, $201,070. 

Wawayanda.— From town loans 1864, $26,800; 
1866, $12,450; from State, cash $4500, bonds $8000; 
total, $51,750. 

Total for all the towns. — From town taxes 1862, 
$31,931 ; 1863, $2000 ; 1864, $348,634.95 ; 1865, $166,- 
932.32; from town loans 1862, $81,950; 1863, $35,- 
318.70 ; 1864, $692,761.82 ; 1865, $229,278.41 ; from 
State, cash $76,900, bonds $252,066.53, interest on 
bonds 13473.51, other sources S105 ; total, $1,871,- 

By the County.— From taxes 1864, $1800; 1865, 
$90,649.50 ; from loans 1864, $421,000 ; total, $513,- 

Towns and County. — From taxes 1862, $31,931; 
1863, $2000; 1864, $350,434.95; 1865, $257,581.82; 
from loans 1862, $31,950; 1863, $35,318.70; 1864, 
$1,113,761.82; 1865, $229,278.41; from State, cash 
$76,000, bonds $252,000.53, interest on bonds $3473.51, 
other sources $105 ; final total for towns and county, 

All these sums were raised by official action. The 
donations of supplies and the cash subscriptions (the 
latter especially heavy the first year) are not included 
in the statement. , 

The draft exemption of three hundred dollars, paid 
by a large number, may also be taken into the ac- 
count, swelling the aggregate of the moneys expended 
for war purposes by the people of Orange to an im- 
mense sum. 




Fkom a very early period in its history the com- 
mercial business of the river towns of the county has 
been a feature of no small importance, although, 
viewed from the stand-point of a large commercial 
port, it would perhaps be regarded as scarcely worthy 
of notice. Introduced by the skippers of Holland, 
in the exchange of rum and trinkets for the beaver- 
skins of the Indians, it was subsequently prosecuted 
with advantage by the West India Company for half 
a century. From New York to Albany — New Am- 
sterdam to Fort Orange perhaps we should say — 
this company had but one trading-post, that at Wilt- 
wick or Kingston, although there were no doubt 
points along the Hudson at which their trading 
vessels stopped for traffic. At a later period, and 
especially during the early years of English colonial 
administration, individual ventures were made in 
trading posts, which were conducted in form and 
manner familiar to many in connection with the 
present Indian tribes of the West, and perhaps with 



quite as much fraud and debauchery. In 1686, David 
Toshack and his servant, Daniel Maskrig, from Scot- 
land, established one of these posts at the mouth of 
Murderer's Creek, and continued it until Toshack's 
death, ten years later. It is not improbable that this 
post became the foundation of the subsequent com- 
mercial business of the Ellisons at New Windsor. 
John Ellison, an immigrant from England in 1688, 
established himself as a merchant in New York, 
where, in 1703, he built a store and wharf at the foot 
of Little Queen Street. With sloops constructed for 
the purpose, he sent his goods up the Hudson for trade 
with the European settlers as well as with the In- 
dians, very much in the manner pursued by the Hol- 
land merchants who had preceded him. The old 
Murderer's Creek post was regularly visited, and at 
a later period the European settlers united in erecting, 
at what is now New Windsor village, a store- house 
for their mutual accommodation. Here they brought 
whatever they might have to sell or exchange and de- 
posited it until such time as the trading sloop should 
arrive, which may have been three or four times in 
a year or oftener. To a certain extent a banker as 
well as a merchant, Ellison loaned money to his cus- 
tomers, and among others to William Sutherland, in 
1718, and took a mortgage on Sutherland's land, and 
soon after came into its possession. On the property 
thus acquired his son, Thomas Ellison, built a dock 
and store-house as early as 1725, and established a 
regular sloop line from thence to his father's wharf 
at the foot of Little Queen Street. Similar ventures 
were made by others at different points in the limits 
of the present county, and especially at Newburgh, 
where a union store-house was erected in 1730, and a 
sloop line established by Alexander Colden. Pre- 
cisely what constituted the products of the people of 
the county at that time is a matter of conjecture. 
Butter, pork, and grain, so many years staples, were 
probably the principal part of the yield of the farmers. 
The great business of .the period, however, was lum- 
bering, for which avocation the dense woodlands in 
the vicinity of the river gave abundant opportunity 
for saw-mills and sturdy woodsmen, whose pathway 
is still marked by deserted mill privileges, and who 
found little diflBiculty in obtaining advances from the 
merchant traders. Very large for its times was the 
trade of Cadwalader Colden, Jr., of Coldenham, in 
this field of commercial enterprise. In 1767 it is 
written of the commerce of Newburgh that " many 
people from the back parts of the country bring their 
produce to send to New York, having at least three 
boats belonging to the place that constantly go from 
thence to New York and return back again with goods, 
which creates a very considerable trade."* 

From the small beginnings thus briefly referred to 
local traffic accumulated until Newburgh Bay was 
white with the sails of vessels bearing to the sea-board 
the products of farmers, not only of Orange County, 
but of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Western New 

York, who found through them the most direct route 
to a market. For over a hundred years New Windaor 
was a chief mart in this traffic ; foi* over one hundred 
and fifty years Newburgh was, and still is, largely en- 
gaged in the carrying trade, while Cornwall for a time 
was a successful competitor. And there were, other 
commercial ventures. Newburgh was a port of eonn 
importance in colonial days in the whaling trade, m 
coasting, and in traffic with the West Indies. All thit 
went down during the Revolution. After the war 
ships were built and manned for the Liverpool trade 
and cleared through the New York custom-house,— 
the " Liverpool Packet," the " William Penn," and 
the " Ontario," the latter of five hundred tons, and 
the largest ship cleared at New York at the time of 
her construction. Under the embargo and thewarof 
1812 these ventures were closed, and though whaling 
was renewed at a later period by the Newburgh 
Whaling Company (1831), and a lumber trade carried 
on with Liverpool and Australia as late as 1877, no 
ocean trade is now prosecuted. 

Adverting more particularly to those who haye 
been engaged in commercial undertakings, it may be 
remarked that although Col. Thomas Ellison, of New 
Windsor, was the first to establish himself there, he 
was not without early contemporaries. Joseph Sack- 
ett, Jr., had there a dock and store-house as early ai 
1742 ; Matthew DuBois was similarly located prior to 
1765, and in that year united with Ellison in resisting 
the order of the officers of customs requiring all sloops 
trading on the Hudson to enter and clear at Albany 
or New York, while the name of William Jackson 
stands associated with the era of the Revolution. The 
business of the Ellisons, however, was for many years 
far in excess of that of their contemporaries. After 
the Revolution, among those in the trade may be noted 
the names of Ellison, Isaac and Abraham Schultz, 
Gillespy & Scudder, Isaac Schultz & Son, Joseph Mor- 
rell, Samuel M. Logan, William Walsh, Reuben Eey- 
nolds, Samuel Floyd, and Daniel Borden. In 1832, 
Knapp, Dalson & Co. sailed the steamboat " Norfolk,'' 
Capt. Jacob Wandell, and the sloop "Spy," Capt 
George L. Sherwood. The barge "Experiment," 
built as a steamboat at New Windsor in 1828, for the 
Cornwall trade, subsequently sailed from New Wind- 
sor under command of Capt. Dyer Brewster. The 
latest advertised enterprise (1850) was that of Josejii 
Calrpenter, who sailed the "Norfolk," Capt. Lewis (i 
Carpenter. Though at one time the trade at that 
place was drawn from a large section of country, it 
steadily decreased under the influence of the superior 
roads leading to Newburgh, and was wholly destroyed 
by the construction of the Erie Railroad and the 
Newburgh branch. 

From Newburgh the first shippers were Alexi 
Colden, who came to be the owner of the old 
store-house and wharf as early as 1740. At a later 
Maj. Isaac Belknap, Capt. Donaghy, William Hard- 
ing, Nehemiah Denton, Richard Buckingham, Mii 



Lewis Clark were probably engaged in sailing sloops 
to New York. Belknap was the successor of Colden, 
and Nehemiah Denton sailed from a wharf near Balm- 
Tille, where he had a grist- and flour-mill. Their 
business was suspended during the Revolution, as 
well as that of Capt. Coleman, who was engaged in 
trade with Nantucket. From 1798 the record is more 
complete. From the Colden Wharf— George Gardner, 
1798 to 1809 ; George Gardner & Son, 1810-22 ; Henry 
Eobinson, 1823-26 ; T. Powell & Co., 1835-44 ; Reeve, 
Moore & Co., 1845; Powell, Eamsdell & Co., iall of 
1845-67 ; H. Eamsdell & Co., 1858-65. From Walsh's 
Wharf— Hugh Walsh, Derick Amerman, Crawford & 
Harris, and others, until 1808 ; F. Crawford and C. 
Belknap & Co., 1809-17 ; F. & D. Crawford, 1817-30; 
D. Crawford & Co., 1881-37 ; Crawford, Mailler & 
Co., 1838-54; W. K. Mailler & Co., 1865-57; W. K. 
Mailler & Son, 1868-69 ; W. 0. Mailler, 1860-69 ; W. 
O. Mailler & Co., 1870-73.* From Anderson's Dock, 
foot of Third Street— John Anderson, 1798 to 1803. 
From Ludlow's Dopkf (formerly John Anderson's) — 

1843-44.t From dock foot of Fourth Street— Farmers' 
Company ,g 1806-13; B. & I. Case, 1814-20; Abm. 
Stagg & Co., 1820-24 ; John Mount & Co., 1826-26 ; 
and by Oakley & Davis, 1827-39. From Carpenter's 
Dock, south of Second Street — Caleb Coffin, 1800; 
Jacob and Leonard Carpenter and B. Carpenter & Co., 
1802-64; Homer Eamsdell & Co., 1865-76. From 
Balmville — Daniel Smith and others until 1818 ; H. 
& J. Butterworth, 1819; Selah Tuttle & Son, 1820, 
who were the last occupants. In 1846 the firm of 
Wardrop, Smith & Co. was organized and commenced 
business from a dock and store-house erected by J. 
Beveridge & Co. at the foot of Fifth Street. This 
firm was continued until 1858, when C. C. Smith sold 
his interest to Hiram Falls. On the death of Mr. 
Wardrop the firm was dissolved, and Falls & John- 
ston became its successors. On the death of Mr. 
Falls, Johnston & Alsdorf continued the business un- 
til 1870, when it passed to Alsdorf & Skidmore, who 
sold to Homer Ramsdell in February, 1872, and re- 
tired from the trade. On the 1st of February, 1865, 


Alexander Falls and Jonathan Hedges sailed sloop 
"Favorite," Benjamin Case, Jr., master, in 1799. 
Their successors were Jacob & Thomas Powell, 1802- 
13; Selah Reeve and William H. Falls, 1814-24; Se- 
lah Reeve & Son, 1825-26; Christopher and George 
Reeve, 1827-29 ; C. Reeve, 1831, who sold to D. Craw- 
ford & Co. From DeWint's Dock, north of Third 
Street— George Gardner, 1815-21 ; Miller & Smith, 
1822-24; E. Case, 1835; Houston, Johnston & Co., 
1838 ; Christopher Reeve, 1842 ; Reeve, Moore & Co., 

• The barge "Newburgh," then owned by this firm, together with a 
fall cargo of freight, and also their store-honse, etc., were destroyed by 
fire in June, 1873, and at the close of the season the firm retired from 
the frelgbtlng bnslness. 

t Robert Ludlow, father of Charles, Robert C, and Augustus C. Lud- 
low, of the United States navy, and of Mm. Thomas Powell, bought the 
property from Water Street to the river in 1796, and built a store on 
Water Street and a new dock in the rear. During its ownerahip by the 
Powells it was called Powell's Dock, and subsequently Reeve's Dock, 
The old store-bouse was moved to Crawford's Dock and consolidated with 
that of D. Crawford ft Co., and was destroyed in the fire of 1872. 

Homer Ramsdell bought the dock property and barge 
of B. Carpenter & Co., and consolidated the business 
of that firm with the firm of. Homer Ramsdell & Co; 
During the season the large store-house of the firm was 
removed to a new foundation, and the store-house of 
Ramsdell & Co. removed and united with it, forming 
by far the largest and most complete structure on the 
Hudson. The firm of Homer Ramsdell & Co. is now 
the only freight line between Newburgh and New 
York ; their barges have a carrying capacity of five 
hundred tons each ; their daily fi'eights probably ex- 

X The DeWint store-house and the Oakley & Davis store-house acUoin- 
ing were destroyeil by fire Dec. 18, 1848. 

^ This company appears to have been a regularly organized association ; 
its busiuess was conducted by directors who were generally changed an- 
nually. After the dissolution of the company, a similar association was 
organized by an act of incorporation, passed by the Legislature, April* 
1825. This company originated, it is said, with Mr. Jonathan Haebrouck* 
who was its principal manager. The " Chancellor Livingston" was run 
for a few trips, in the name of the company, from the old red store-house* 
t and tlien the project was abandoned. 



ceed the weekly freights of twenty years ago, being 
greatly augmented by the trade of the entire eastern 
division of the Erie Railroad. 

The business was conducted entirely by sloops until 
1830. The introduction of steam vessels, however, 
was proposed in 1825, at a meeting of sloop-owners 
(June 6th), and a committee appointed for the pur- 
pose of making inquiry " relative to the building of a 
good and sufficient steamboat or boats, for the pur- 
pose of conveying freight or passengers from this vil- 
lage and landings adjoining."* This action was 
doubtless intended to allay the feeling against sloop 
navigation which had grown out of the disaster of 
the '• Neptune," in November of the previous year.f 
Here the matter rested until the winter of 1829-30, 

* " A meeting of sloop-ownera was held June 6, 1825, — Selah Reeve, 
chaimiHn, ftrid DHvId Crawford, secretHry, — to consider the expediency of 
placing a Rtfambnat on the Kewhurgh line. After di8CUHsi<in« it was 
* Rwoloed, That a committee, conKisting of Jamps Wiltsie, John P. De- 
Wint, Uriah Lockwond, John Wiltnie, Cliri&topher Rveve, and David 
Orawford, he authnrized to make the necessary inquiry and obtain all 
the infurniation iu their power relHtive to the building of a g<iocl and 
sufficient steaniliuat ur Ixiats, for the purpose of conveying frel^lit or 
pasHciigei-s fruni this village and landings adjuinlng.* " — Index, June 7. 

t " Lose OF THK Sloop Nepttinr. — On November 24th, about noon, the 
sloop * Neptune.^ on her way from New Tork to this village, a short dis- 
tance below PallopePs iHland.was upset, filled, and sunk. At the time of 
this melancholy event it is understood she had on board from fifty tu fifty- 
five passengers, a mujurity of whom were drowned. It appears that the 
vessel left New Turk under command of lier fiist hand, Mr. John Decker 
(Captain Halutead being detained iu the city), Mith from forty to fifty 
tons uf plaster and Rume eight or ten tons of mercliandise un board. 
About half of the plaster was put in the hold and the remainder piled 
on the deck. In the Highlands the wind was high, which induced the 
commander, when below West Point, to take a double reef in the main- 
sail and other measures of caution for the safe delivery of \m charge. 
When off Little Stony Point, with very little way on the vessel, a flaw 
struck her and huve her down. Tliis caused the plaster on deck to shift 
from windward to leeward. M.ust of the male passengers were on deck, 
and one or two uf the females, and some t^n or twelve women and rIx 
or seven children in the cabin. The shifting of the phister created the 
utmost confUBiun on board. The water rushed into the scuttle of the 
forecastle, which was to leeward, then into the cabin, and consteinatiuur 
dismay, and death presented their appalling features to all on board. In 
a few minutes she filled and plunged headlong tu the bottom. All in the 
cabin perinhed. Tliose un deck were plunged into a cold and turbulent 
element or had been carried down with the vessel. The boat was afloat, 
and when the sloop was going down was occupied by Decker and Wool- 
aey, hut without nars, — they were supplied by Mr. Sturm, whose oyster- 
boat was just ahead of the sloop, and they made utmost exertions to 
save the unfoitunates. Seventeen pei-sons were rescued {)y th«m and 
the other iHiats which came to their assistance, but the rest perished. 

" The fuUuwing are the names of those who were saved * John Decker, 
Levi D. Woolsey, Mr. Thome, of Newburgh ; Joseph Mulluck, A. Carey, 
Jesse Green, of Minisink; Alfred Crawford, Alexander Crawford, John 
Rose, of Crawford; Mr. Sprague, Mrs. Bowers, Mr. Smiley, Mr. Ander- 
son, of SulUvun County; Lewis Broom, Patdck Kelley, of WallUill ; A. 
Plerson, of Montgomery; and a lad from Bluomiug-tirore. Total, 17. 

"The following persons were known to have been on hoard the sloop: 
Mrs. Couch and two children, J. Loveland, and J. Smiley, of Sullivan 
County; Mi«. Graham and two children, of Crawford ; John Leader, of 
BlooDiiug-Grove ; Samuel Carlisle, Jacob Polhemns, Mrs. McClanghery, 
of Newburgh; Mrs. Kuab.of Wallkill; Messrs. McCurdy, Weed, Hens- 
ler, Mrs Churchill and Cochrane, of Montgomery; John Oreenleaf, 
George Evertson, Matilda Helms, William Kelley and child, of Minl- 
sfok; Mi-s. Dean, trf Cornwall ; P. W. DaiJondres and Mrs. Trout, of New 
York. Total, 26. It ia supposed that a number of others were on board, 
which would make the whole equal tu the number stated, whose uamea 
and cunnectiona have nut yet been discovered. The sloop sunk In fifty 
or sixty feet of water. The owners, Messrs. Miller & Smith, succeeded 
in raising her." — Index, Nov. 1824. 

when Mr. Christopher Reeve purchased the steamer 
" Baltimore," which was placed on the Newburgh line 
in the spring of 1830,1 and ran from the wharf of the 
Messrs. Reeve and that of D. Crawford & Co. Rude in 
model as was this steamer, her appearance was hailed 
with every demonstration of popular regard; Uu 
newspapers recorded her advantages, and the brueb 
of the painter traced her outlines on many sign-boardt. 
But her triumph was short; her purchase had not 
been made when Mr. Benjamin Carpenter laid thft 
keel at the ship-yard of Cornelius Carman, Low Pointy 
of the steamer " William Young." This vessel wai 
launched July 17, 1830, and commenced running in 
September of the same year.? Though of nearly the 
same appearance as the " Baltimore," she was re- 
garded as of better model, and her owner claimed 
that she had " power sufficient to make her average 
trips in about six hours ;" but his anticipations were 
very far from being realized. 

Messrs. Reeve and Crawford continued the " Balti- 
more" one year, when, some dissatisfaction arising, 
Mr. Reeve sold his interest to Mr. Crawford, who ooa- 
tinued her on the line until 1835, when she was trans- 
ferred to the route between Newburgh and Albany. 
The Messrs. Reeve (1832) supplied the place of the 
"Baltimore" in their line with the steamer "L^- 
lator;" and dnring the same season Oakley & Davb 
put on their line the " Providence." || In the sum- 
mer of 1833, D. Crawford & Co. built the steamer 
"Washington," and commenced running her in No- 
vember of that year.1[ This boat was far superior to 
any in the trade, and the competition which she 
created aroused the energies of Mr. Carpenter, who 
built in 1835 the " James Madison," a boat superior 
in many respects to the " Washington ;" she was the 
first beam-engine steamer in the trade. Duringjw 
same season Oakley & Davis changed the "Provi- 
dence" for the "Superior;" and Mr. Powell, who for 
several years had been living in retirement, now again 
entered the list of competitors, and built the steamer 

X ** Hnlf of the excellent steamboat 'Baltimore* has heen purchased tv 
D. Cniwfonl & Co., and we underHtaud that she will start alteniiCdf 
from Reavers and fh>m Crawfurd's Docks, (owing a sloop and taking pii. 
sengers from each dock tvsice a week. We have already spokeo of i 
steamlHtnt in a state of forwardness, owned by Benjamin Gnrpentfr; tod 
probably the other sloop-owners will make similar arrangements."— (?•* 
ette, Feb. 7, 18S0. 

g Though not the first steamboat in the Newburgh trade, as hMbsM 
claimed, the -' William Young" was the firat built expressly fur tbit 
trade. She was more complete in her accommodations ^r pHBSfnpn 
than her preUecesxor, the *' Baltimore.'* and had more of thechsractv 
of what was then regarded as a firet^class steamer. 

I " Farmers and frei^^hters will be abundantly accommodated irfft 
steamboats this season. In addition tu the * N> illiam Young,* vbfck 
will continue to run from Carpenter's, and the * Baltimore,* vb|H 
will run this seoson from Orawford^s Dock, will be added the * Lcf* 
lator,* which will tow from Beeve*8 Duck, and the ' Pruvldeoca,' Ii%fti 
Oakley & Davi8*8. We understand vessels will depart from thisvUlip 
on Tu'Sdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays, and Saturdays. W 
enterprising spirit evinced by these arrnngemeuta deeerree, mA VI 
confidt^ntly hope will meet with, a corresponding liberality from tl* 
public.*'— &T36//6, Feb. 26, 1832. 

If " The " Baltimore" and the " Washington" were run by thlf i* 
during the season of 1834. 



"Highlander," which commenced running in Sep- 
tember. She was a boat of the first chiss in speed, 
her only rival being the " Rochester," then on the 
New York and Albany line. As their days of sailing 
from New York were the same, racing was always in 
order ; and the story is that in order to settle the point 
of speed a bet of one thousand dollars a side was 
made. The race came off, and the " Highlander" lost 
by half a minute on a straight run from New York to 
the Newburgh wharf. The " Osceola," a neat and 
swift craft, next attacked the "Highlander." Both 
boats ran on the morning line, — the former from 
Poughkeepsie, and the latter -from Newburgh and 
Fishkill ; but the " Highlander" was victorious. In 
1846, Powell, Ramsdell & Co. built the "Thomas 
Powell," and placed her on the morning line."* She 
was subsequently sold to Capt. Anderson and placed 
on the morning line between Rondout and New York, 
and was the last of the Newburgh steamers. 

The first barge — the "Minisink" — was placed on 
the line by Crawford, Mailler & Co. in 1841, in lieu of 
the " Washington," which was put on the New York 
and Albany line as an opposition boat, and subse- 
quently sold to the People's line. In 1842, Christo- 
pher Reeve re-entered trade with the barge " Union." 
In 1845, Wardrop, Smith & Co. put on the steam- 
barge " Caledonia," and in 1851 the barge " Wall- 
kill." Johnston & Falls took out the boilers and en- 
gine of the " Caledonia," and changed her name to 
" Union," and Alsdorf & Skidmore exchanged her for 
the propeller "Thomas McManus," and made three 
trips a week during the season of 1870-71. B. Car- 
penter & Co. sold the " James Madison" in 1846, and 
purchased the barge " Superior." In 1848, Powell, 
Ramsdell & Co. built the barge " Newburgh," and 
substituted her for the " Highlander;'' in 1851 they 
built the barge "Susquehanna," and ran her in con- 
nection \yith the "Newburgh." Subsequently the 
" Newburgh" was transferred to Wm. K. Mailler & Co., 
and the " Minisink" to B. Carpenter & Co. In 1870, 
Homer Ramsdell added the barge " Charles Spear" to 
the line of Homer Ramsdell & Co., who ran her in 
connection with the. barges "Susquehanna" and 
"Minisink," each boat making two trips a week, 
forming a daily line. The latter was withdrawn in 
1873, and daily trips made with the " Spear" and the 
" Susquehanna." 

The early steamboat captains were : " Baltimore," 
Robert Wardrop, 1830-32, Samuel Johnson, 1833; 
" William Young," Seth Belknap, 1830, Whitehead 
Halstead, 1831, Charles Halstead, 1833; "Provi- 
dence," Levi D. Woolsey, 1831-33, Samuel R. Logan, 
1884; '-Washington," Robert Wardrop, 1834; "Su- 
perior," James H. Leeds, 1835; "Madison," Eli Perry, 
1835; "Highlander," Robert Wardrop, 1835. In 
nearly all cases the persons named were previously in 
command of sloops. 

• On the luth July, 1846, the •' Thom»s PowpU" made the trip from 
New York to Newburgh ia two hours and forty minutes running time. 

Trade from Cornwall was probably early centred 
with the Ellisons of New Windsor, and with the 
Hazards at Orangeville (now Moodna). The latter 
was perhaps on the precise site which was occupied 
by Toshack in 1686. The land was subsequently 
patented to Mary Ingoldsby, from whom it was pur- 
chased (1728) by David Mandevill, who sold a por- 
tion of it to Samuel Hazard, who, in company with 
his brother Nathaniel, laid out a township plot under 
the name of Orangeville, erected a 'flouring-mill and 
store, and constructed a wharf at Sloop Hill (in Corn- 
wall), from which sloops were sailed. Large quanti- 
ties of grain, converted into flour at their mill, found 
its way to New York by their sloops. Indeed, flour 
was one of the staple products of the county for 
many years. The Hazard mill, Hasbrouck, Denton, 
and Belknap mills at Newburgh, and the Ellison, 
Schultz, and Trimble mills in New Windsor, were 
quite as celebrated in their day as some of the favor- 
ite Western brands of the present time. 

The freighting business at Cornwall proper began 
at about the commencement of the present century, 
when Capt. Daniel Tobias sailed a sloop and kept 
a store. His brother, Isaac S., continued the business 
after 1807, and constructed a dock and built the sloop 
" Hector." Capt. Nathaniel Ring was Tobias' con- 
temporary. In 1810, Capt. Reuben Reynolds, of New 
Windsor, removed to Cornwall, and built, in company 
with Tobias, the sloop "Hamlet." In 1812, Capt. 
Tobias sold out to Isaac Van Duzer, who sailed the 
sloop " Exchange," Capt. John Gifferth. In 1828, 
Mr. Van Duzer built the first steamboat for freighting 
purposes ever constructed on the river. She was 
built by Silas Corwin, of New Windsor, and her 
boiler and engine were furnished by Isaiah and John 
Townsend, of Albany. She was named the " Experi- 
ment," run for several years by Mr. Van Duzer, and 
then sold to Weeks & Griffin, who sold her to Henry 
Bertholf & Co., who ran her four or five years. She 
next became the property of Hudson McFarland, Mr. 
Mitchell, Dr. Morrison, and Captain Tobias. The 
latter ran her for a year, when her engine became 
broken, and she was dismantled of her machinery and 
converted into a barge, and was sailed as such from 
New Windsor by Capt. Dyer Brewster. The steam- 
boat " Wave" succeeded the " Experiment," and sub- 
sequently the " Union" was put on and officered by 
Capt. Tobias. Then came the " General Jackson," 
followed by the " Gazelle" and the " Caledonia," the 
two last named merely stopping at Cornwall for 
freight. About 1856, Henry Clark bought the pro- 
peller " Orange County," and put her on the line un- 
der Capt. Joseph Ketchum. Her trips were continued 
until 1864, when the commerce of Cornwall, except 
by river boats of other lines and by the branches of 
the Erie road, was numbered with that of New 

f Beaches Cornwall. 




The early carrying trade from New Windsor, New- 
burgh, and Cornwall was due to their positions as 
natural entrep6ts. They were the most accessible 
points through which New York could be reached by 
the people of the district, as well as by those residing 
in northeastern New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and 
in their direction all the early roads tended. These 
roads were, first, the king's highway or public road,* 
from Kingston to New Paltz, and from thence to 
Shawangunk " and the neighborhoods annexed to 
New Paltz," and from New Paltz to the Palatine 
parish' of Quassaick, and from thence through New 
Windsor, Cornwall, the Clove, and northeast New 
Jersey to Fort Lee ;t second, the old Goshen road, 
which intersected the road last described and ran 
from New Windsor to Goshen, and from thence west 
to the Peenpack settlements on the Delaware, where 
it intersected (third) the old Mine road from Kingston 
to the Minisink country of New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania ; fourth, the king's highway from Shawangunk 
through Montgomery to Goshen, and thence through 
Florida and Warwick to Sussex, N. J., intersecting 
the king's highway to Fort Lee; fifth, the Little 
Britain road, running almost directly west from New 
Windsor to the Wallkill, and intersecting the road 
from Shawangunk to Goshen, and with a branch on 
its eastern extremity, called the Wallkill road, to 
Newburgh. From four points of the compass, cov- 
ering an arc of not less than three hundred miles, 
these roads all came together at New Windsor on 
lines almost as direct as a bird would fly. Newburgh, 
lying north of this centre, shared only in the travel 
of the routes to the north and northwest, with a single 
road running west through Coldenham to Mont- 
gomery, which had been constructed by the Coldens. 
To these facts New Windsor was indebted for its early 
commercial supremacy. 

At what precise period the main lines described 
were opened it would be difficult to determine ; it is 
fair to presume, however, that they did not antedate 
settlement, and it is also fair to presume that they 
were substantially based on trails which had been 
followed by the Indians for ages, except, perhaps, the 
Little Britain road. A crude network of main and 
divergent paths through the forests these Indian trails 
were, but in the absence of better routes they were 
traveled by the first settlers until they became well 
known, and ultimately lost their original character 
by enlargement and improvement. The " old Mine 
road," to which reference has been made in another 

* A king^B highway wa^ simply a road opened and worked according 
to law as public roade now are. 

-f- A. branch &om this road ran from Fort Lee to Stony Point, where 
the Hudson was orossed by the king^s (public) ferry to Peekskill. The 
road then ran down through Westchester and crossed the king's (public) 
bridge at Harlem. Before the Eevolutiou it was a much-traveled route 
to Philadelphia from New England, and it was this fact that led to the 
fortifications at Yerplanck's and Stony Point 

chapter,! may be cited as an example. It was origi. 
nally the great trail from the Minisink country to 
Esopus, with thousands of intersecting paths. Whether 
the trail was known to the Dutch settlers of Eeopm 
at the time of the last Indian war (1664) is not a 
question which can aflfect its title to antiquity, nor 
the fact of its early travel, of which its " Yagh houae^* 
or resting-places, are sufficient evidence, and which 
were in existence in 1704. Between 1704 and 1734 
it became a king's highway under colonial law, and 
as such was the subject of petition to the General 
Assembly, of which it is said in the journal of pro- 
ceedings : " The petition of Jacobus Swartwout, Wil- 
liam Provost, William Cool, and others, freeholden 
and inhabitants residing and living in Minisink, in 
the county of Orange and Ulster, was presented, 
setting forth that several persons in West New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania having no other way to transport 
their produce than through the Minisink road, and 
there being about forty miles more to repair before 
they came to Esopus, that they (the persons referred 
to) be compelled to work on said road and assist in re- 
pairing it to the house of Egbert DeWitt, in the town 
of Rochester, in the county of Ulster." In other 
words, the petitioners intended no doubt to have it 
understood that as they had made the road; it was 
but just that those who used it should help to main- 
tain it. It was an important road, and the link which 
was made to intersect it from Goshen was also as 
important one, as it shortened by many miles the 
route to tide-water. That the king's highway from 
Kingston to New Paltz and Newburgh, and thence to 
Fort Lee, was substantially on an original Indian 
trail is presumed from the fact that it was a line of 
travel by the Indians. Throughout the entire dis- 
trict all the trails ran to the Dans Karamer, the 
temple in which the Indians worshiped their god 
Bachtamo. The branch from New Paltz to Goahen, 
or Shawangunk to Goshen,? was substantially the 
" Chawangon trail," which is met in some early deeis. 
The line from Sussex was as clearly one as any of the 
others, and also its intersecting line to Goshen. The 
known points in communication are the guidM to 
this conclusion, — the Wawayanda castles, and that of 
Maringoman on the Schunemunk. That Sarah Wells, 
the traditional first white woman on the Wawayanda 
Patent, passed over the bed of the old Goshen road, 
or substantially so, we have little doubt. 

Whatever may have been their connection with 
original trails, or whatever the date of their construe- 

X See Chapter II. 

\ This road was opened in \TAS by Zacharias Hofihian, Beujtiai> 
Smedes, and Johannes Decker, commissioners of highways "for thept^ 
cinct of Shawangunk and tlie neighborhood of Wallkill." It raa^faT 
or near" Goodwill churoh, and through Neelytown to the Goshea Uii% 
or " until it meets the road laid out by the inhaliitauts of Goshen to tkl 
south line of the said county of Ulster." It was laid out under vi acta 
the Assembly, entitled " An act for the continuing of an act eutitlBd la 
act for the better clearing, ascertaining, and further laying out poUk 
high roads in the county of Ulster." 



tion, they were famous old roads in their day. The 
militia moved over them in the French and Indian 
war, and they were traversed by them and by the 
" ragged Continentals" during the Revolution. Mrs. 
Washington, with her carriage, servants, and escort, 
en route for New Windsor and Newburgh, Morgan 
and his riflemen en route for Boston in 1774, congress- 
men from New England en route for the Continental 
Congress,* prisoners en route for Easton, passed over 
the line from New Windsor or Newburgh to Sussex 
Court-House, and from thence to their destination, 
while the first mail-routes through the district ran 
over the king's highway from Rhinebeck and Kings- 
ton to New Paltz, and from thence via Shawangunk, 
Goshen, and Warwick to Sussex. " The establishing 
of this post-road," wrote Cornelius C. Schoonmaker, 
who then (1792) represented the Orange and Ulster 
district in Congress, " will, I am in hopes, conduce 
much to the circulating of newspapers and other use- 
ful information through our State on the west side of 
the Hudson, the inconvenience attending which we 
have long experienced." Surrounded by the facili- 
ties of the present era, and educated to their con- 
veniences, it is diflBcult to realize that it was not 
always so, — that mail matter was first delivered to the 
people of Newburgh at Ward's Bridge, in the town 
of Montgomery, and continued to do so until some 
time in 17!*5.t From whatever point they may be 
viewed, these old roads are clothed in a halo of local 
historic interest, — even their roughest stones have ser- 
mons in them. Our reference to them here, however, 
has a definite purpose, and that accomplished, we 
may not wander into other fields. 

* The following, from the diary of William EUery, member of the Coii- 
tiuentHl OuDgresa from Maasacbusetta, who left Bightoii on horseback, 
Oct. '20, 1777, for York, Pa., is of interest in this connection : 

" Noo. 7(A.— Breakfasted at Adiiance's, and sat off for Finhkill where 
we arrived at noon. Cuald get no provender for our horses, but at the 
Ciintl (Cuntineutal, i.e., military) Stables. Waited upon Gen. Putnam 
who was paiiking up and just about setting off for White Plains. Chatted 
with him a white, and then put off for the Contl Ferry at the Ntirth 
Biver. (Fishkill is eleven miles from Adriance's, and the ferry six miles 
from Fishkill.) In our way tu the Ferry we met President Hancock in 
a lulkey, escorted by one of bis Secretaries and two or three other gen- 
tlemen, and one Light-horseman. This escort surprised us as it seemed 
inadequate to the purpose either of defence or parade. But our surprise 
was not of long continuance, for we had not rode far before w*e met six 
or eight Ligbt-horsenieu on the canter, and just as we reached tile Ferry 
a boat arrived with many more. These with the Light-horsemen and 
the gentlemen before mentioned made up the escort of Mr. President 
Hancock.— Who would not be a great man? I verily believe that tlie 
President, as he passed through the Country thus escorted, feels a more 
triumphaut satisfaction than the Col. of the Queen's Regiment of Ligbt 
Dragi'ons attended by his whole army and an escort of a thousand 
Militia. We had a pleasant time across tbe Ferry, and jogged on to 
Major Dubois a Tavei n about 9 or 11) miles from thence, where we put 
up for the night. We were well entertained, had a good disli of tea, and 
a good beef-steak. We had neither ate nor drank before since we break- 
&sted. Br. Cutter invited us to dine with bim at Fishkill ; but it was 
Dot then dinner-time and we were anxious to pass Hudson and get on." 

" Travels in North America," by M. de Chastelinx, may also be re- 
ferred to. 

t The date of the establishment of the post-olEce at Ward's Briilge 
has nut been ascertained. From an advertised list of letters It appears 
that John McKinstry was postmaster in 1793. 


With the opening of the present century came a 
new era in roads, — the construction of turnpikes, of 
which the Orange turnpike was the first (1800). The 
incorporators to the company were William Wickham, 
John Steward, James Everett, James Carpenter, 
Thomas Waters, James W. Wilkin, David M. West- 
cott, Anthony Dobbin, Jonathan Sweezy, John Wood, 
Solomon Smith, and John Gale, Jr. Its capital stock 
was $6250, and its line ran " from the house of Moses 
Cunningham; in the town of Cheescocks (Monroe), 
to the intersection of the roads leading from Stirling 
Iron- Works, near the house of Stephen Sloots," run- 
ning in the bed of the old road as far as circumstances 
permitted. By act of 1806 the capital was increased 
$46,750, and permission granted to the company to 
extend the road " southerly to the line of the State 
of New Jersey, on the route to the city of New 
York, and also to construct a new road from the 
northerly part of said turnpike-road to the intersec- 
tion of the Warwick road, near the village of Chester, 
on the route to the city of Albany," the entire two 
taking the name of the Orange turnpike. 

An undertaking of greater magnitude followed in 
1801, — ^the Newburgh and Cochecton turnpike. In 
reciting the history of this enterprise some traditional 
errors may be repeated, but in the main our glean- 
ings will be found substantially correct. At the time 
of its incorporation there had grown up in Newburgh 
a body of active and enterprising men, who, finding 
themselves in the possession of advantages which New 
Windsor did not enjoy, determined to make the best 
possible use of their opportunities. In this they were 
favored by circumstances in a remarkable degree. 
The ancient rivals of their town — Kingston and New 
Windsor — had gijbwn fat in trade, and became slug- 
gish and indifierent, while they were fresh and ready 
for venture. In the western part of Ulster were large 
unoccupied sections of the Minisink and Harden- 
burgh Patents. In these lands John DeWitt, of Du- 
chess, became interested, and, after examining them 
with a view to their sale, resolved uprfh the expedient 
I of opening them to market by meaipPof a turnpike- 
road to tide-water. Failing to enlist the people of 
Kingston in his plans he came to Newburgh, Where 
he met with that encouragement which induced him 
to remove his family thithef and to emWark in the 
undertaking, in which he was especially joined* by 
Johannes Miller, of Montgomery, who was also a, 
large holder of lands in the new district. Under their 
efforts a company was organized and application 
made to the Legislature for a charter, which was 
granted March 20, 1801, constituting Robert Bowne, 
John DeWitt, William Seymour, Levi Dodge, Johan- 
nes Miller, Hugh Walsh, George Clinton, Jr., Wil- 
liam W. Sackett, Jacob Powell, John McAuley, 
Charles Clinton, Samuel McCoun, George Gardner, 
and all such others as should associate for that pur- 
pose, a body corporate and politic by the name of 



" The President, Directors, aud Company of the New- 
burgh and Cochecton Turnpike Road," with a capital 
limited to $80,000, and authority to construct a turn- 
pike-road "in the nearest, most convenient, and di- 
rect route from the village of Newburgh, on Hudson's 
River, to Cochecton, on the Delaware River.'' The 
stock was soon taken and the road constructed, run- 
ning a line of sixty miles, with substantial bridges, and 
all the appointments of a good road. Though for a 
time unprofitable to the holders of its stock, who were 
ready to sell at a loss of fifty per cent., though De- 
Witt lost his life in the work, and Miller became 
financially crippled, the road ultimately resulted in 
immense advantages to Newburgh and to the district 
which it opened. It may have been the outgrowth 
of a land speculation, butitgave population and legal 
being to the county of Sullivan (1809), as well as 
birth to other undertakings of a similar character, 
which as justly deserve the title of internal improve- 
ments as the most substantial of modern railroad 

The Cochecton turnpike was followed, in 1805, by an 
act incorporating " The President and Directors of the 
Newburgh and Chenango Turnpike Road Company." 
Its incorporators were Richard B. Church, Asa Sto- 
wel, Nathaniel Locke, David Cooper, Anson Carey, 
Elijah Stowel, and all such others as should be asso- 
ciated with them, who were authorized to issue stock 
to the amount of $162,000, and to construct a turnpike- 
road " from the village of Oxford, in the county of 
Chenango, and run by the most direct, practicable 
route to the Susquehanna River, at the place desig- 
nated by law for the Jerico toll-bridge; thence across 
the same to the road leading to the court-house ; 
thence to the west branch of Delaware River, at or 
near the house of Coenrad Edict, and from the oppo- 
site side of 'the said branch to the east branch of said 
river, and from the opposite side thereof by the most 
direct practicable route to intersect the Newburgh 
and Cochecton turnpike-road." The object of the 
projectors of this road, who were residents of Che- 
nango County, was to open to settlement the military 
tracts, and especially the " twenty township" tract, 
purchased for the State from the Indians in 1788. 
We include it in this review as a part of the con- 
necting road of the Cochecton. 

And it may be noted here that the opening of the 
military tract to settlement was a matter in which 
there were many interested parties. As a reward for 
services in the Revolution, these lands had been given 
to oflScers and soldiers, to many of whom they were 
practically worthless, and who sold their locations for 
merely nominal sums. Gen. James Clinton, of New 
Windsor, was a large original holder, as well as a 
subsequent purchaser, as well also his nephew, Sur- 
veyor-General Simeon DeWitt, and there were not a 
few Newburgh capitalists who had made similar in- 
vestments. Clinton had had large experience in bring- 
ing lands into market in Orange and Ulster, and from 

that experience he had, long previous to the Chjt 
nango extension, advocated a similar project. When' 
the Cochecton road was nearly completed, he ob- 
tained a hearing from his Newburgh neighbors. Hii 
proposition embraced a road crossing Sullivan County 
to Oxford, Chenango Co., and thence westward, to be 
known as the "National Appian Way." In' 1807 
Newburgh sent John DeWitt, Francis Crawford 
Samuel Sackett, and Daniel Stringham to explore 
the route, at least in part, and report upon its feagi- 
bility. After performing their tasks, the committee 
submitted a favorable report;* but it was deemed 
that the county was then too weak to engage in a 
work of such magnitude, and its further prosecution 
was dropped, although by the Cochecton and its sub- 
sequent connections it was partially accomplished. 

Aroused from their indifierence to progress, parties 
in Kingston determined if possible to counteract the 
enterprise of Newburgh, and to that end obtained in- 
corporation for the " First Southwestern Turnpike' 
Company." But scarcely was their undertaking under 
way when the " Ulster and Orange Branch Turnpike 
Company" was chartered (April 11, 1808), the act for 
the incorporation of which authorized Walter Bur- 
ling, Elnathan Sears, Henry Patmore, Jr., David Mil- 
liken, Elias Miller, Charles Johnston, John Crosby, 
Alexander Thompson, Jr., and their associates to 
build a turnpike-road from the Newburgh and Co- 
checton, in the town of Montgomery, to the " Great 
Southwestern," in Liberty, by the way of Newkirk'i 
Mills, on the Shawangunk River, Roosa's Pass, and 
the falls of the Neversink. The capital was fixed at 
$30,000. With the " Great Southwestern" as the ob- 
jective-point, the " Newburgh and Sullivan Turnpike 
Company" followed in 1810, with a capital of $35,000. 
James Rumsey, Cornelius Bruyn7 Abraham Jansen, 
John D. Lawson, John McAuley, Moses Rosenkrame, 
Nicholas Hardenburgh, and Johannes T. Jansen, its 
incorporators, and their associates, were authorized to 
construct a turnpike " from the northern part of the vil- 
lage of Newburgh," on the most direct and convenient 
route, " through Rocky Forest and New Hurley, ctosfr 
ing the Wallkill at or near Bryan's bridge, thence flB" 
either the southerly or northerly bounds of lot No. i, 
granted to Gerardus Beekman, where the ground will 
admit, to the Hoag-bergh road ; thence to the Sha- 
wangunk Kill, crossing the same at or near NicolM 

* " Ex^enaea of Appian Way. 
" HaoH Walsh, chairman of the meeting of the Inhabitants of New- 
burgh. in account with John DeWitt, Francis Orawford, Samael Backet, 
and Daniel Stringham : 

*' 1807. June 24, to am't of our expfinscs for 

ourselves aud hureee £16 16«. 84 

To cash paid shoeing Sacket's horse 7 6 ^^, 

To cash paid eetUng shoes, Ur. Crawford's < . 

horse 2 L 

To one State map 14 ''^& 

To cash paid Uiram Weller for the use of hia ^r^ 

horsa per J. D. W. 15 days 6 *fe 

To cash paid Sacket a 9 10 [jj:: 

1807. Jane 10, By cash received by Jacob ^ti£t. 

Powell orrs) £30 0" %■ 



Janaen's saw-mill ; thence on to Shawangunk Moun- 
tains, crossing the same at or near Sam's Point, or 
pass thence through Wawarsink, to a point at or near 
Neversink Falls." The expressed object of the com- I 
pany was "to open a communication through the | 
western country," but its true purpose was to tap the \ 
" Great Southwestern," which had been extended to ' 
Chenango Point, where a bridge was to be constructed. 

In 1809 an important connection with the New- 
burgh and Cochecton turnpike was chartered under 
the name of "The President, Directors, and Com- 
pany of the Minisink and Montgomery Turnpike 
Road." Its incorporators were James Finch, Jr., 
Reuben Neely, Benjamin B. Newkirk, Benjamin 
Woodward, David G. Finch, Jacob Mills, Alsop Vail, 
Jr., Jacob Cuddeback, Richard Shinser, and their 
associates, and its capital $35,000. The line of the 
road began "'at the New Jersey State line, near the 
house of Benjamin Carpenter, in the town of Mini- 
sink," and from thence ran " across the Shawangunk 
Mountains to the house of David G. Finch, in the 
town of Deerpark ; from thence to or near the house 
of Benjamin Woodward, in the town of Wallkill, and 
thence on the most direct and eligible route to inter- 
sect the Newburgh and Cochecton turnpike-road west 
of the eastern line of Union Street, in the village of 

A northwestern branch or connection with this 
read was chartered in 1812, under the name of the 
" Mount Hope and Lumberland Turnpike Company." 
The capital of this company was $35,000, and its in- 
corporators were James Finch, Jr., Elisha Reeve, 
William A. Cuddeback, William Young, Jr., Rich- 
ard Penny, Charles Murray, Thomas Everson, and 
Lebius Godfrey. The line of the road began " on the 
Minisink and Montgomer}' turnpike, between the 
dwelling-house of Dr. Benjamin B. Newkirk and the 
store occupied by Benj. Dodge, in the town of Wall- 
kill," and ran thence across the " Shawangunk 
Mountains at the pass near Jonathan Sares', in the 
town of Deerpark ; thence to the Bush Kill landing 
on the Neversink River, in the county of Sullivan ; 
and thence to the Big Eddy, or Narrows, on the 
Delaware River, or to intersect the contemplated 
road from Big Eddy to Snooks' bridge over the Nev- 
ersink River." Mr. Quinlan states that George D. 
Wickham, of Goshen, who owned three-fourths of the 
land in the present town of Tusten, was the father of 
this road, and himself and John Duer, of Goshen, 
Benjamin Woodward, Benjamin Dodge, and Benja- 
min B. Newkirk, of Mount Hope, and William A. 
Cuddeback and Abraham Cuddeback, of Deerpark, 
were its directors. Work was not commenced until 
after the war of 1812 had closed, when the road was 
completed as far as Narrowsburgh, and under an act 
of the Legislature of Pennsylvania was extended to 
Honesdale. Two years previous to its charter (1810) 
a charter was granted to the " Narrowsburgh Bridge 
Company," — Jeremiah Lillie, Jonathan Dexter, 

Chauncey Belknap, Thomas Belknap, Samuel F. 
Jones, William A. Thompson, William W. Sackett, 
Samuel Preston, and Francis Crawford, directors. 
The company was authorized to build a substantial 
bridge, twenty-five feet wide, "across the Delaware 
River at the Narrows, in the Big Eddy, in the county 
of Sullivan," and to collect tolls. It was the con- 
necting link between the Mount Hope and Honesdale 
roads, and although both have ceased to be turnpikes 
the bridge company and its bridge remain, the pres- 
ent structure having been erected in 1847. " These 
improvements," Mr. Quinlan adds, " were for the 
double purpose of providing an outlet for a territory 
of Sullivan rich in valuable timber, and to bring 
towards the Hudson the agricultural products of the 
county between the Delaware and the Susquehanna, 
to be exchanged for merchandise." 

The construction of turnpikes was by no means 
confined to the Sullivan County lines. "The New 
Windsor and Blooming-Grove Company" was char- 
tered April 3, 1801, — capital $7500. Its incorporators 
were John Chandler, Richard Goldsmith, William 
Adams, James Carpenter, William A. Thompson, 
Abraham Schultz, Hezekiah Howell, Johannes 
Decker, Jonathan Brooks, Jr., Thomas A. Thompson, 
Isaac Schultz, and John Gale, Jr. The line of the 
road was " from the village of New Windsor to the 
intersection of the Goshen and Warwick road." In 
1809 the "Goshen and Minisink Turnpike Company" 
was chartered, — capital $20,000. Incorporators, Wil- 
liam Thompson, William Wickham, Reuben Hop- 
kins, George D. Wickham, Peter Gale, James Eldred, 
Increase B. Stoddard, and Benjamin Sawyer. The 
line of the road " began at the Delaware River, near 
the house of Benjamin Carpenter, in the town of 
Minisink, and ran from thence to or near the house 
of Increase B. Stoddard, and from thence on the most 
eligible route to the court-house in Goshen, intersect- 
ing the Wallkill River near the outlet bridge." June 
1, 1812, the company was authorized to extend the 
road from Goshen to the New Windsor and Bloom- 
ing-Grove turnpike. In 1816 the " Blooming-Grove 
and Gray Court Turnpike Company" was incorpo- 
rated, — capital $60,000. Incorporators, Hector Craig, 
Samuel MofFatt, Selah Strong, John Brooks, and 
their associates. The road ran from the Blooming- 
Grove and New Windsor turnpike, "near the dwell- 
ing-house of Samuel Moffatt; thence to or near the 
Blooming-Grove church," etc., "keeping the track 
of the present road as nearly as may be convenient," 
to the dwelling-house of Joseph Brewster; thence 
to the grist-mill of Hector Craig, and thence to 
the Warwick road. In 1810 " the Warwick and 
Minisink Turnpike Company" was chartered, — cap- 
ital $22,500. Incorporators, John Hathorn, John 
Wheeler, Jacobus Post, Robert Farrier, Cornelius 
Lezear, Jeffry Wisner, John Wisner, Jr., Increase B. 
Stoddard, David Christie, Richard Whitaker, and 
their associates. The line began " between the 



twenty-ninth and thirtieth mile-stone" on the bound- 
ary line of New York and New Jersey, and ran 
thence northwesterly through the village of Amity to 
the Pochuck bridge ; thence to the southerly margin 
of the Drowned Lands; and thence "on the most 
eligible and direct route to intersect the Goshen and 
Minisink turnpike-road on the east side of the Sha- 
wangunk Mountains, between the house of Increase 
B. Stoddard and the great bog-meadow, commonly 
called Green's bog-meadow." In 1812 the " Goshen 
and Westtown Turnpike Company" was incorporated, 
— capital $17,500. Incorporators, Reuben Hopkins, 
Freegift Tuthill, Benjamin Strong, Stephen Jackson, 
James Carpenter, David M. Westcott, John G. Hur- 
tin, and their associates. The line began " at the line 
which divides the States of New York and New Jer- 
sey, between the fortieth and forty-first mile-stone," 
and extended thence to the village of Westtown ; 
thence to Rutgers' Kill, near the mill of Jones & Van 
Cleft; thence to Pellet's round hill, near the edge of 
Wallkill; and thence on the most eligible route to 
intersect the Goshen and Minisink turnpike near the 
village of Goshen." It will readily be observed by 
those familiar with the lines described that the New 
Windsor and Blooming-Grove turnpike, through its 
connections, became a trunk line from Minisink to 
the Hudson, with intersecting branches traversing an 
extensive district in tfie western part of the county. 

The " Newburgh and New Windsor Turnpike Com- 
pany" was chartered April 2, 1806, — capital $5000. 
Charles Clinton, Daniel Stringham, John McAuley, 
George Monell, Hugh Walsh, Isaac Hasbrouck, Selah 
Reeve, Joseph Morrell, Abraham Shultz, Richard 
Trimble, Jonas Williams, John D. Nicoll, and Samuel 
Lockwood were its incorporators. The road ran from 
the south side of Renwick Street, in the village of 
Newburgh, "along the margin of Hudson's River," 
to the village of New Windsor, with a toll-bridge over 
Qaussaick Creek. In 1809 the " New Windsor and 
Cornwall Turnpike Company" was chartered, — cap- 
ital $30,000. Its incorporators were Michael Smith, 
William A. Clark, William Jackson, Nathaniel Sands, 
Joseph Morrell, Zebulon Townsend, John Coffey, and 
those who should be associated with them. Its line 
ran " from the south end of the Newburgh and New 
Windsor turnpike, in "the village of New Windsor; 
thence crossing the Murderer's Creek at or near where 
the toll-bridge now stands ; thence through the village 
of Canterbury, near the house of Stephen Crissey ; 
thence through the town of Monroe, passing near the 
mills of Zebulon ToWnsend, till it shall intersect the 
Orange turnpike-road at or near the house of Adam 
Belcher, in the said town of Monroe." For the con- 
nection which this road established reference can be 
made to the Orange turnpike, the Goshen and Mon- 
roe turnpike, and the Monroe and Haverstraw turn- 

In 1810 the "Newburgh and Plattekill Turnpike 
Company" was chartered, — capital $14,000. Jacob 

Powell, Daniel Smith, John Wells, Jonathan Bailey, 
Justus Cooley, and Henry Butterworth were its in- 
corporators. Its line ran north from Newburgh to 
Plattekill, in Ulster County, where it was connected 
with the New Paltz and Plattekill and the Marlbor- 
ough and Plattekill turnpikes, the main line through 
New Paltz extending to Kingston. 

In 1815 the "Snake Hill Turnpike Company" was 
chartered, — capital $14,000. Jonathan Hasbrouck, 
William Taylor, Hiram Wheeler, Nathaniel DuBois, 
and Jonathan Hedges were its incorporators. Its line 
ran from the Cochecton turnpike to DuBois' grist- 
mill at West Newburgh, and thence along the foot of 
Muchattoes Hill to the New Windsor and Blooming- 
Grove turnpike. In 1819 its line was extended by 
the "Clove Turnpike Road,"— capital $3000; incor- 
porators, Nathaniel DuBois, Jacob Carpenter, Jona- 
than Hedges, and Jonathan Hasbrouck, — ^which ran 
from the point where the Snake Hill turnpike-road 
intersected the New Windsor and Blooming-Grove 
turnpike-road, and thence to the New Windsor and 
Cornwall turnpike-road at the foot of the mountain, 
near the house of Samuel Seaman. The entire line 
crossed every road from the west to the village of New 
Windsor. Its special object was to develop the lands 
of Nathaniel DuBois and Jonathan Hasbrouck, who 
were incorporators in both companies. 

In 1809 the " Dunderberg and Clove Turnpike 
Company" was chartered, — capital $20,000. Incor- 
porators, Alexander McComb, William Bell, John 
Coffey, Thomas Donavan, Robert Lamoreui, and 
Zebulon Townsend. Its line began " at Joshua Cald- 
well's ferry, at the east point of the Dunderberg 
Mountains," and ran along the west side of Hudson's 
River to or near Doddletown ; from thence to 
Queensborough Furnace ; and from thence northwest- 
erly to the road running through Smith's Clove at or 
near the house of Robert Lamoreux, in the town of 
Monroe. By subsequent legislation the company was 
authorized to extend the road " from the northwest 
end thereof to the stage road leading from Albany to 
the city of New York, to intersect the said stage road 
at or near the dwelling-house of John Smith, in the 
town of Monroe." 

The " Fort Montgomery Turnpike Company" wi» 
chartered April 9, 1814. Its incorporators were 
Nathan Smith, Benjamin Roosa, Selah Smith, Robert 
Davenport, David Havens, and James Davis. Its 
capital was $10,000, and its road began " at or near 
Fort Montgomery, and near the landing" then "occu- 
pied by Nathan and Selah Smith," and ran from 
thence northwesterly "to the Forest of Dean mire- 
hole; thence southwesterly to the Dunderberg End 
Clove turnpike, near or at the house of Isaac HoUet, 
in the town of Monroe." 

In 1810 the " BeUvale and Monroe Turnpike Com- 
pany" was chartered, — capital $9000. Incorporates 
William Noble, Isaac Vander Zer, Joel WhediP 
Stephen Bartholf, and associates. The line of du 



road began ■" at or near Bellvale mills, in the town of 
Warwick, and from thence on the most eligible route 
to the Orange turnpike, to intersect the same at or 
near the dwelling-house of Benjamin Bennett, in the 
town of Monroe." 

In 1812 the "Merritt's Island Turnpike Company" 
was incorporated, — capital $10,000. Incorporators, 
John Wheeler, William Thompson, Joshua Sayre, 
George D. Wickham, Michael A. Jones, Eobert 
Ferrier, Moses Wisner, and those who should be asso- 
ciated with them. The line of the road began " on 
the east side of the Drowned Lands, ia the town of 
Warwick," and ran from thence to Pine Island; 
thence to Pochuck Creek, near the house of Moses 
Wisner; thence to Merritt's Island; and thence across 
the Wallkill to the mainland on the west side of the 
Drowned Lands, in lot No. 4 in the first division of 
the Drowned Lands. 

April 9, 1813, the "Great Island Turnpike Com- 
pany" was chartered. Its capital stock was $15,000. 
Incorporators, Keuben Hopkins, Gideon Jennings, 
Daniel Millspaugh, Archibald Owen, and Nathaniel 
Wheeler. The line of the road began " on the road 
leading from the Goshen court-house to Florida, at or 
near the place where the south line of the Goshen 
town-lots cross the same, and ran " from thence across 
the Little and Great Islands, and from thence to the 
line of the State of New Jersey, to intersect the same 
between the thirty-fourth and thirty-eighth mile- 

In 1818 the "White Oak Island Turnpike Com- 
pany" was chartered, — capital $5000. Its incorpo- 
ra,tors were Samuel S. Seward, Jesse Jayne, Thomas 
Sweezy, Samuel Tuthill, John Curtice, James Vail, 
John W. Vanderolf, Robert Carr, William A. Smith, 
and Horace Dibble. Its line began " at or near the 
church in the village of Florida," and ran from thence 
to the northwest point of Round Hill, and from thence 
to the Great and Merritt's Islands turnpike, on White 
Oak Island. The "Gardner's Island Turnpike Com- 
pany" was chartered the same year, — capital $15,000. 
Incorporators, William Thompson, John Bradner, 
Jesse Woods, Roger Howell, and George D. Wickham. 
The line of the road began " at or near the intersec- 
tion of the Merritt's Island and Great Island turn- 
pike on Pine Island," and ran from "thence across the 
Drowned Lands and Pochuck Kill to Gardner's 
Island, and from thence across the Drowned Lands, 
by or near the house of Jesse Woods, to the Jersey 

In 1823 and '24 two additional connections were 
made with the Orange turnpike. First, the " Goshen 
and Monroe Turnpike Company," chartered in 1823,— 
capital $7000. Its incorporators were Roger Par- 
mele, John Wallace, Thomas G. Evans, Lewis H.. 
Roe, Nathaniel Roe, Cornelius Board, and those who 
should associate with them. The line of the road 
began " at the court-house in Goshen,'' and ran thence 
to Chester; thence to the "Orange turnpike between 

the first and second mile-stones." The second, "The 
Monroe and Haverstraw Turnpike Company," was 
incorporated in 1824, capital not stated. Its incorpo- 
rators were Roger Parmele, Joseph Black well, Henry 
McFarland, George Kyle, Robert Parkinson, Samp- 
son Marks, Abraham Gurnee, Abraham Goetchius, 
George Wyant, Matthew Benson, Walter Brewster, 
Samuel Brewster, Samuel Goetchius, Samuel Smith, 
John Suffern, Edward D. Noyelles, Lawrence D. 
Noyelles, John F. Smith, Adam Dater, Jacob Marks, 
Elias Gurnee, John B. Secor, John Rose, Jacob Odell, 
Harman Felter, " and their heirs and assigns." The 
road ran from the Orange turnpike, " near Parmele's 
slitting-mill," to the " creek landing on Hudson's 
River, in the town of Haverstraw." 

The list of turnpikes is completed with the " Otis- 
ville Turnpike Company," which was chartered Feb. 
19, 1828. The capital of this company was $5000. 
Its incorporators were Stacey Beakes, Isaac Otis, Levi 
Westbrook, and Abner P. Gillet. The line of the road 
began " at or near the dwelling-house of Isaac Otis, 
in the town of Calhoun" (Mount Hope), and ran thence 
" along the centre of the old road to the dwelling of 
said Isaac Otis, and from thence to Westbrook's basin 
on the Hudson and Delaware Canal, in the county of 

From this enumeration it will be seen that during 
the first quarter of the present century, and principally 
within its first decade, the people of the county in- 
vested not less than half a million of dollars in the 
construction of turnpikes. Viewed from the stand- 
point of the present, the sum was not large ; but con- 
sidered in connection with the condition of the people 
and the value of money at the time when the expen- 
diture was made, when the population, ranging from 
thirty thousand to forty thousand, had scarcely 
emerged from the poverty entailed by the Revolu- 
tion, and when they were suffering from the embarass- 
ments of the embargo and the war of 1812, it assumes 
a different aspect, and clearly establishes the extent 
of the traffic which demanded the outlay and the 
energy with which it was undertaken and consum- 
mated. As already remarked, the results of the 
system were largely to the advantage of Newburgh, 
changing, as it did, the commercial centre from New 
Windsor, and establishing at Newburgh extensive 
connection with western New York. In 1819 the 
trade of Newburgh had reached Canandaigua by turn- 
pikes, over which passed stage-coaches conveying 
passengers, and freight wagons laden with goods. 
During the summer of that year a company was or- 
ganized for the construction of a steamer on Cayuga 
Lake, with a view to extend the route southward to 
Ithaca. The first meeting of the stockholders of this 
company was held at Ithaca, December 20th, when 
David Woodcock, Oliver Phelps, James Pompelly, Jo- 
seph Benjamin, and Lewis Tooker were chosen direc- 
tors, who appointed David Woodcock, president, 
Charles W. Conner, treasurer, Charles Humphrey, sec- 



retary, and Oliver Phelps, agent. The people of New- 
burgh were asked to contribute thesiim of one thousand 
dollars to the enterprise. Nineteen hundred dollars, 
however, were immediately subscribed and paid ; and 
in 1820 the first steamer on Cayuga Lake plied in 
connection with stage lines from Newburgh, "per- 
forming the route to Ithaca in two days." In 1834 
the line was extended to Geneva and Buffalo, and the 
entire route from New York via Newburgh to Buf- 
falo was performed in sixty-five hours, "the shortest 
and most expeditious route from the Hudson River to 
the western country,"* 

This western commerce was materially impaired by 
the construction of the Erie Canal in 1825, while that 
which was less remote was similarly afiected by the 
Delaware and Hudson Canal in 1828. The latter, 
extending from Bondout to Port Jervis, and from 
thence to Honesdale, crossed the track of all the turn- 
pike connections with Sullivan County west of the 
Shawangunk Mountains, and was fatal to several of 
them. The statement made by Mr. Quinlan — "the 
territory that this road would have accommodated 
would have supported the turnpike had it not been 
for the construction of the Delaware and Hudson 
Canal" — has a more general application than to the 
Mount Hope and Lumberland road. In common with 
other residents in the southern tier of counties, the 
people of Orange felt that injustice had been done to 
them in the construction of the Erie Canal, and were 
ready to ask the State for aid to counteract the in- 
jurious results of that enterprise which they were ex- 
periencing. At this juncture McAdam had satisfac- 
torily demonstrated to many that a stone road was 
superior to all others, and it was urged that the State 
should build one from Buffalo to the Hudson. The 
proposition was favorably considered by the Legis- 
lature, and commissioners were appointed to survey 
the different routes. Perhaps the road would have 
been built could there have been a satisfactory termi- 
nus on the Hudson selected, but Catskill, Pough- 
keepsie, and Newburgh labored to secure it.t The 
commissioners reported in favor of Catskill, and the 
remainder of the story is soon told: the bill author- 
izing the building of the road was defeated in the 
Legislature in March, 1826. But the seed planted 

* The folluwing items are from " Williams' Annual Register" for 

"Stage Lines. — Newburgh and Geneva mail stage, ria BInghamton, 
Owego, and lthaca,'leaves Newburgh daily at 2 o'clock a.m. (after ar* 
rival of night boats fnim New York and Albany). Newburgh and 
Goeben stage daily at 9 a.m. 

" DUtanceifrmn Newburgh to lUixica, Geneva^ and Buffalo. 

MontiYiee 20 110 

Ni-w Turk Slate Line 23 l:)3 

Montgomery 12 

Blooiningburgh 12 24 

Borne 3 27 

Moiiticello W 40 

Oichi-ctou 20 60 

Mount Pli'asant 2.i SS 

Tuncliaunuck 7 90 

Owpgo 8 141 

Itllata k ... 2!) I7U 

G.ueva 46 195 

Buflalii JOB 301 

Portland on Lake Krie SO 351 

f David Bugfcles. Selah Reeve, Jonathan Fisk, Ward M. Gazlay, and 
Thomas Phillips, Jr., were appointed a committee to take charge ol the 
interests of Newburgh In the matter, at a public meeting In January, 

by Gen. Clinton in his grand " Appian Way," and 
partially brought to fruit in the Newburgh and Co. 
checton turnpike and its western connections, had 
not been seconded by McAdam with utterly barren 
results, — it made the construction of the Erie Railroad 

But while commercial relations with the west were 
impaired by the Erie and Delaware Canals, the terri- 
tory unaffected by those avenues had received in- 
creased development through the turnpikes which 
had been constructed, and poured its abundant har- 
vests upon the Hudson River entrepdts. The trade of 
Cornwall and New WindsorJ was large, while that of 
Newburgh was unprecedented in its previous history. 
The years 1835, 1836, and 1837 were especially 
marked by substantial business activity, as well as by 
that which formed a part of the unsubstantial ven- 
tures of the times. Speaking of this period, the Rev, 
James R. Willson, in an address delivered before the 
Newburgh Literary Association, remarked, "The 
average arrivals and departures daily, estimated to- 
gether, cannot fall much short of three hundred, or 
eighty-four thousand in one season. The sections of 
country in the interior, occupied by these travelen, 
are generally connected with this village by some 
commercial ligament. Great numbers of these trans- 
act much business here. From late estimates of the 
daily amount of exports from Newburgh, it would 
seem that in one season they cannot fall much below 
four and one-half millions of dollars." But this 
flood-tide of fortune was practically the close of the 
old era of trade and commerce, an era which now 
lives only in traditions of turnpike travel, and of long 
caravans of farmers' wagons — the Jersey wagoru, 
the Pennsylvania wagons, the county wagons, and 
the Ulster and Sullivan County wagons — laden with 
produce for market, or returning with merchandise^ 
many of which stopped short at Goshen when the 
Erie road reached that village in 1841, and gave to it 
a temporary activity, and which, as a peculiar feature 
of that era, few persons now living remember as a re- 
ality with which they were familiar, but which many 
do as the source of the wealth which they have in- 


It is not our purpose to discuss the question of the 
origin of the system of internal improvements in the 
State, or to attach to any one person the honor due to 
many in their development. They were eminently 
the outgrowth of what may be termed natural causee. 

X Practiaally the commerce of New Windsor entered upon its decay tt 
the opening of the century, and continued with decreasing volume until 
it closed. The cpusue gives the following comparative figures : 


Population, 1782 1,487 

1790 2,366 

" 180(1 8,268 

" 1810 4.027 

" 1820 5,812 

" 1855 1A773 

" 1(«7B (city) 17,322 

" 1876 (town) 3,538 

A'ew Windsor, 

Population, 1782 — VSL 

" 179U 

" 1800 

" 1810 

» 1820 

" I860 

" 1875 




Going back to the colonial era, we find the province 
peculiarly fortunate in its natural system of water- 
communication. Then, to the north, at the head of 
boat-navigation, the Hudson was connected by an 
easy portage with Lakes George and Cbamplain, and 
through them with the St. Lawrence, the great river 
of the Canadaa; whilst to the west the Mohawk, 
the principal affluent of the Hudson, gave easy access, 
scarcely interrupted by a few short portages, to the 
basin of the great lakes and to the magnificent river 
system of the Mississippi. Like many of our old 
roads, these water-routes had been followed by the 
Indians in their canoes for ages. Important beyond 
present appreciation for the purposes of either com- 
merce or of war during the colonial era, their improve- 
ment became a matter of earnest thought before the 
war of the Revolution came on, nor was it lost sight 
of during that eventful period, for we find Governor 
Clinton, in 1780, inviting Washington to a survey, and 
the latter accompanying him to Albany and Saratoga, 
that he might, from personal inspection, be able to j 
contribute practical suggestions. In 1792 we have 
the report of a committee appointed by the directors 
of the " Western Inland Lock-Navigation Company" 
to examine the Mohawk River from Schenectady to 
Fort Schuyler, who found that the uninterrupted lock- 
navigation could be secured by an expenditure of one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. In 1800, Gover- 
neur Morris suggested a direct canal from Lake Erie 
to the Hudson, through the centre of the State. His 
plan was to tap the lakes and have a continuous slope 
therefrom to the highlands bordering the Hudson, and 
a series of locks thence to the river. The subject was 
discussed until in 1808, James Geddes was appointed 
to survey a canal route. His report excited general 
attention, and secured the ready approval of DeWitt 
Clinton, who, through his connection with his uncle, 
Governor George Clinton, and his conversations with 
his father, James Clinton, was already thoroughly in- 
doctrinated with tlie object the accomplishment of 
which was sought. In 1810 commissioners, of whom 
DeWitt Clinton was the head, were appointed to ex- 
plore a canal route through, the centre of the State. 
The commissioners reported in 1811, and presented 
the importance of the improvement so forcibly that 
they were continued and authorized to borrow and 
deposit money and take cessions of land. During the 
war of 181-2 the project was held in abeyance, but in 
1816 a definite survey was authorized, and on the 4th 
of July, 1817, the work of construction was begun at 
Rome. On the 26th of October, 1825, DeWitt Clin- 
ton, then Governor, and who for fifteen years had de- 
voted the best efforts of his life to the accomplishment 
of the work, entered the canal on his packet-boat at 
Buffalo, and arrived at New York on the 4th of No- 
vember, his coming heralded by signal cannon and 
blazing beacon-fires. But great as was the work which 
had then been accomplished, it was found crude and 
imperfect, and improvement after improvement has 

been added to it, until, with its connections, its orig- 
inal cost has been multiplied many times, but can 
never exceed the great fund of wealth and develop- 
ment which it has given to the State. 

No doubt there were many men who regarded the 
construction of the Erie Canal as a visionary project; 
and we are not sure that had we been living at that 
time we might not have been one of the number, and 
still less are we sure that we might not have regarded 
the project of Maurice Wurtz — who proposed to tap 
the coal-fields of Pennsylvania with railroad and canal 
and place a hundred thousand tons of anthracite coal 
on the New York market annually, at a time when 
six thousand tons would glut all the cities on the 
Atlantic coast — as a monomaniac; yet Maurice Wurtz, 
with the aid of his brother William, and some people 
who are now regarded as eminently sensible and far- 
seeing, accomplished the task whereunto he was called. 
Directly touching the county of Orange, the Dela- 
ware and Hudson Canal was the first of the system 
of improvements which now intersect and bisect it in 
almost all directions — the trunk lines of railroads and 
their connecting branches, which have revolutionized 
its commercial avenues and placed it in the first rank 
of wealth and development. After many fruitless 
surveys to find a practical route to the Hudson, being 
debarred from Newburgh by the Shawangunk Moun- 
tains, the old Indian trail (the Mine road route) was 
adopted. The company was incorporated April 23, 
1823, with a capital of $1,500,000, with the right to 
use $50,000 in banking until 1844, and the credit of 
the State was loaned for $800,000 in stock. The canal 
was begun in July, 1825, and opened for use in Octo- 
ber, 1828. Its length from Rondout to Port Jervis is 
fifty-nine miles ; from Port Jervis to the Lakawaxen, 
twenty-four miles; from Lakawaxen to Honesdale, 
twenty-six miles ; thence by sixteen miles of railroads 
to the coal-fields. The original cost of the New York 
section was $1,424,994, and of the Pennsylvania sec- 
tion (under charter from Pennsylvania), $612,123. 
The first locomotive engine in America was imported 
from England, and used on the road from Honesdale. 
The canal runs through the town of Deerpark, from 
Port Jervis at the south, on the Delaware, to Cudde- 
backville, and on to the line of the town on the north, 
and adds $300,000 to its real estate valuation. 

With a view to counteract the detrimental effect of 
the opening of the Delaware Canal, the people of 
Newburgh, in 1829, united in the organization of a 
company for the construction of a railroad to connect 
with the coal-fields of Pennsylvania, and on the 30th 
of April, 1830, the Legislature passed an act consti- 
tuting and appointing David Crawford, Christopher 
Reeve, John P. DeWint, Thomas Powell, Joshua 
Conger, Charles Borland, William Walsh, John 
Forsyth, and their associates, " a body corporate and 
politic by the name of the Hudson and Delaware 
Railroad Company," for the purpose of constructing 
a single or double railroad or way from any part of 



the villageofNewburgh, through thecounty of Orange, 
to the Delaware River. The capital of the company 
was fixed at $500,000, with power to increase the same 
to $1,000,000, if necessary; and David Crawford, 
Charles Borland, Peter Cuddeback, Thomas Powell, 
J. P. DeWint, Joseph Kernochan, Peter H. Schenck, 
and John W. Knevels were appointed commissioners 
to open subscriptions. This act, however, became 
void, no effort having been made to build the road 
" within three years" after the time of its passage. 

Meanwhile, the present New York, Lake Erie and 
Western Railroad was struggling into being. As 
already intimated, this project was the outgrowth of 
Gen. Clinton's " Appian Way" and McAdam's stone 
road ; but it may be added that the Baltimore experi- 
ment of 1829, of cars furnished with masts and sails 
and propelled by wind, had not a little to do in finally 
cradling it. Aroused by a pamphlet issued at that 
time, in which the writer, advocating an " Atlantic 
and Mississippi Railway," running at least partially 
on the present line of the Erie, a convention of dele- 
gates from all the southern counties of the State, ex- 
cept Orange and Rockland, was held at Owego, on the 
20th of December, 1831, at which it was resolved to 
apply to the Legislature for a charter for a railroad 
from Lake Erie to the Hudson. We say a railroad, 
but not in the sense that the term is now understood, 
for the proposition was to make a road suitable for the 
use of horses, so that tlie inhabitants who lived along 
the route could employ their own cars and motive- 
power. " Animal power," said the manager, " may 
be considered the natural power of the country ; and 
on long routes, where great inequalities in the amount 
of transport and travel will occur, where the com- 
modities to be conveyed, instead of presenting a reg- 
ular supply, will probably amount to many times as 
much some months as others, the use of horses max 
be expected, for a time at least, to be practically 
cheaper than steam." A road for locomotives, it was 
agreed, would cost from twelve thousand to fourteen 
thousand dollars per mile, while one for animals could 
be made for five thousand or six thousand dollars, and 
on the latter the company would be at no expense for 
engines, carriages, etc. To carry out this magnificent 
plan one million of dollars was all that was asked. 
Books of subscription were opened July 9, 1833, and 
the amount subscribed. Unfortunately, however, a 
large part of the stock was taken by one William G. 
Buckner, who, on the last day and at the last moment, 
took all that was not secured by others. A year 
passed, during which the company did not receive 
enough from its stockholders and others to make ne- 
cessary surveys. In 1834 the Legislature was ap- 
pealed to to grant fifteen thousand dollars to enable 
Benjamin Wright and his subordinates to examine 
the route. The amount asked was granted, and the 
survey made, but it failed to give vitality to the pro- 
ject. In 1835 the Legislature was petitioned to ena- 
ble the State to become a stockholder. 

It was at this point in the history of the road that, 
on the 30th of November, 1835, a meeting of the citi- 
zens of Newburgh was held at the Orange Hotel (pur- 
suant to a call signed by David Ruggles, John For- 
syth, Nathaniel DuBois, Charles H. Bellows, Olivet 
Davis, and David Crawford), of which Gilbert 0. 
Fowler was chosen president, Nathaniel DuBois, vice- 
president, and John W. Knevels, secretary. The sub- 
jects discussed at this meeting were mainly these 
two, viz. : What course should be puroued in refer- 
ence to an application to the Legislature for a sub- 
scription on the part of the State to the New York 
and Erie Railroad Company; and, the feasibility of 
uniting the Hudson and Delaware road with that of 
the New York and Erie. The meeting 

" BeaoXved, That we will unite in the application to the Legislature for 
a 8ul)Scription on the part of the State to the stock of the New Tork tod 
Erie Railroad Company. That we will nleu join in a petition to the Leg- 
islatnre for the grant of a charter upon liberal terms incorporating t 
company to construct a railway from this Tillage to the Delaware Birar, 
and that we will bear our proportion according to oui several meanill 
subscription to the stuck. 

" Reaolvedt That a committee of five persons be appointed to conui. 
nicate witti the directors of the New York and Erie Railroad Compaqr, 
and present to them a proposition (as detailed to the meeting) forunitlDg 
the efforts of the inhabitants of this vicinity with that company in thfl 
successful prosecution of the project for constructing a railroad from Lake 
Erie to the Hudson Elver." 

On this committee the following persons were 
placed, viz. : John W. Knevels, Nathaniel DuBois, 
Oliver Davis, and G. O. Fowler. The following reso- 
lution was unanimously concurred in, viz. : 

" Reaolved, That a committee be appointed whose duty it shall be to 
give the required legal notice iu the piipUc newspapers of our liiteutioD 
to apply for an act of incorporation for the coustrnction of a railwij 
from the village of Newburgh to the Delaware River; to prepare snd 
circulate petitions to the Legislature in liehalf of this application; to 
draft the act of incorporation, and report their proceedings to the lOMt- 
ing at the time to which it shall stand adjourned.'* 

The following persons were appointed upon the last- 
mentioned committee, viz. : John W. Knevels, Abra- 
ham M. Smith, John Forsyth, John Thayer, Benja- 
min H. Mace. 

Now began the struggle to secure the eastern ter- 
minus of the Erie at Newburgh ; and the interests of 
the Delaware road, as a distinct project, awaited the 
issue. We cannot now intelligently review, perhaps, 
the discussions involved in the proposition ; nor is it 
necessary in view of the experiences of the Erie, 
which soon demonstrated that neither Newburgh aff" 
Piermont was the proper outlet for the road, and that 
the line over the Oxford grade should never have 
been adopted. Practically, the discussion assumed 
this phase, viz.: the route to Newburgh cut off Goshen 
from the main line ; to run through Goshen made the 
Piermont outlet a necessity. The adoption of the 
Piermont outlet settled the controversy, and was at 
that time, perhaps, the wisest course that could have 
been pursued, as it at least gave the nearest connec- 
tion with New York City without passing out of the 
State, and made the present connections through Wp 
Jersey more immediately possible. In the course oT 



time, the line through Goshen, the Oxford grade, and 
the Shawangunk Mountains will share the fate of 

When it became known that those who were most 
active in the Erie Company had decided in favor of 
the Piermont route, the citizens of Newburgh again 
took up the Delaware project, and on the 21gt of April, 
1836, the Legislature passed an act "to renew and 
amend" the original charter. By this act " David 
Crawford, Christopher Eeeve, Oliver Davis, John For- 
syth, Thomas Powell, Joshua Conger, David Ruggles, 
Benjamin Carpenter, and their associates" were consti- 
tuted abodypoliticandcorporate,bythe nameof "The 
Hudson and Delaware Railroad Company," for the 
purpose of constructing a road " commencing in the 
north part of the village of Newburgh, and running 
from thence along the Hudson River in front of said 
village as far as the trustees of the said village" 
should determine, and thence to the Delaware River. 
The capital stock of the company was fixed at 
$500,000, and Gilbert O. Fowler, Charles Borland, 
John Forsyth, Thomas Powell, Benjamin H. Mace, 
John P. DeWiht, Abraham M. Smith, James G. Clin- 
ton, and John W. Knevels were appointed commis- 
sioners to open subscriptions. 

On the 15th of June, 1836, the first election for di- 
rectors under the amended act was held at the Or- 
ange Hotel, when Thomas Powell, John Forsyth, Da- 
vid Crawford, Benjamin Carpenter, John P. DeWint, 
John Ledyard, Christopher Reeve, Gilbert 0. Fowler, 
James G. Clinton, Nathaniel DuBois, Samuel G. Sne- 
den, David W. Bate, and Oliver Davis were chosen. 
At a subsequent meeting of the directors Thomas 
Powell was elected president; David W. Bate, vice- 
president; John Ledyard, tresKurer; and James G. 
Clinton, secretary. 

A survey of the route was made soon after by John 
B. Sargeant, who reported the length of the proposed 
road as thirty-eight miles, and the cost as ten thou- 
sand dollars per mile. Stock to a sufficient amount 
having been subscribed, steps were taken to grade the 
section between Washingtonville and the Quassaick 
Creek. Ground was broken on the 3d of November, 
1836, with appropriate ceremonies, and the auspicious 
event was celebrated by a general illumination of the 
village. In response to a petition on the part of the 
citizens interested in the road, the Legislature, in the 
early part of the session of 1837, passed an act ena- 
bling the trustees of the village to purchase at par 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars worth of the 
stock. The subscription was made in accordance 
with the provisions of the act ; and on the 10th of 
January, 1888, the trustees paid their first and last 
installment of ten thousand dollars. 

The financial reverses of 1837 prostrated the enter- 
prise; and although a considerable portion of the 
section placed under contract in August, 1836, was 
graded, the work was not continued. However, in 
1840, the Erie Company having asked the aid of the 

State, the whole influence of the citizens of Newburgh 
was exerted to compel that company, as a condition 
of aid, to construct a branch road to Newburgh.* 
The effort was unsuccessful; the Erie Company re- 
ceived a loan of the credit of the State to the amount 
of three million dollars. The embarrassment of the 
Erie Company culminated in 1842, and its affairs 
were placed in the hands of assignees. In 1845, the 
company having again applied to the Legislature for 
aid, the citizens of Newburgh again, and this time 
with success, pressed the proposition for a branch 
road. Their efforts led to a conference with the Erie 
Company, which resulted in the submission of bills to 
the Legislature, — the first releasing the company from 
the payment of the three million dollars loan, on con- 
dition that a bona-fide subscription to that amount 
should be secured within eighteen months ; the second, 
requiring the company to construct a branch to New- 
burgh within six years after the passage of the act. 
To more certainly secure the latter, a written agree- 
ment was made, on the 19th of March, between the 
directors of the Hudson and Delaware Company and 
the directors of the Erie Company, by which the for- 
mer conveyed to the latter " all the grants, lands, im- 
munities, franchises, improvements, rights, privileges, 
maps and charts, and all of the real and personal es- 
tate of every kind whatsoever belonging" to that com- 
pany under and by virtue of its charter, in consid- 
eration of the sum of not less than forty thousand 
dollars; the Erie Company agreeing as a further 
consideration that on the passage of the bill, then 
before the Legislature, authorizing the company 
to construct a Branch Road to Newburgh, and also the 
bill releasing the company from the payment of the 
three millions loaned to it by the State, that then, 
upon the bonix-fide subscription of the Hudson and 
Delaware Company of one hundred thousand dollars 
to the capital stock of the Erie Company, the latter 
would construct the branch to Newburgh and issue to 
the Hudson and Delaware Company stock to the 
amount of one hundred and forty thousand dollars. 
On the payment of twenty-five per cent, of the sub- 
scription of one hundred thousand dollars, " the same, 
together with a sum equal to twice that amount," to be 
furnished by the Erie Company, was to be " actually 
expended" upon the branch " simultaneously with 
and as rapidly" as that company should progress 

* At a meeting of the citizens of Newburgh, held March 4, 1840, — 
Moses H. Belknap, president, and Solomon TuthiU, clerk, — it was 

" Remlved, That if the Lef;islatnre shall grant further aid to the New 
York and Erie Railroad Company by any former or future law, to be 
passed for that purpose, in such case the expenditure thereof shall be 
made under the more immediate superrision of the State ; and upon the 
middle and western sections of said road, where the same would connect 
with works already constructed, such as the Delaware and Hudson, the 
Chenango and Chemung Canals, and the Ithaca and Owego Kailroad, 
and yield an immediate profit, which cannot be effected by conbtructing 
the eastern end of said road in the first place, as is now being done. 

" Reaolvedy That no such further aid be granted, unless it be accompa- 
nied by legislative provision for the construction of a branch of said 
road terminating at Newburgh." 



with its main line ; and this ratio of payments and 
expenditures was to continue until three hundred 
thousand dollars was expended. In case that sum 
did not complete the branch, then further subscrip- 
tions, by the Hudson and Delaware Company, if 
made, should " be immediately applied to the con- 
struction of said branch and the putting of the same 
in operation." The interests of the roads being thus 
harmonized, the bills referred to were passed by the 
Legislature on the 14th of May following. The stock 
subscription required from the Hudson and Delaware 
Company under the agreement was soon raised, and 
fifteen thousand dollars in addition, — in all, one hun- 
dred and fifteen thousand dollars. The following are 
the names of the subscribers, and the number of 
shares taken by each, as nearly as can be ascertained : 


Atwood, William 1 

Agiiew, William 25 

Bsrclny, David H 6 

Brlkimp, A. & M. H 5 

Brtts, Fre<lerii:k J 20 

Belknap, Aunm 10 

Beveridgp, J. ft Co 100 

BreiiDan, Patriclc 5 

Bennett, Hiram 10 

Brown, .lohn W 5 

Bnckinghani, B. F 2 

Bncliauau, H. P 2 

Buntun, Lewis S 5 

Barker, John 3 

Chaml>ere, James 15 

Chanilteis, Jolin 5 

Calyer, Daniel K 2 

CrawriinJ, David 50 

Crawford, Mailler ft Co 60 

Cleary, William 3 

Cornwell, George 5 

Corwiu, Halsey A Co 8 

Clu^ton, Jithn 3 

DeWiiit, John P 100 

DeOrolf, James 3 

BuBoia, NHtl]»niel 20 

Falld, Hiram 3 

Fan-iuKton, Daniel 20 

Felter, Thepon 2 

Fo«ler, Jacob V. B 6 

Fowler, M. V. B 5 

Gardner, Silas D 2 

Gerwrd. Franklin 3 

Gowtley, James 1 

Gorliam, John R. 3 

Hasbronck, Wm. C 5 

Harris, John 10 

Halsey, Walter 10 


Haabrouck, Eli 5 

Halstead ft Co .'i 

Hathaway, Odell S 10 

Hawkins, Wm. H 1 

Horton ft McCanily 10 

Johnes, Edward R 10 

Kemp, Robert D 3 

Kernochan, Joseph 6U 

Lander, Tobaa D 2 

Little, John 2 

Little. Thomas 2 

Mecklem, George 5 

Miller, C. B 15 

Monell, John J 5 

Moflat, D. H 5 

Niveu, T. M 10 

Nicoll, Wm. C 1 

Oakley, Ltaac K 4 

Powell, Thos. ft Co 250 

Purdy, Henry L 2 

Robinson, C'apt. Henry 50 

Stanton ft Clark 3 

Sneed. Georj:e 3 

^pie^ ft Wilson 2 

Smith, Corns. C 10 

Smith, Wm. P. C 5 

Smith ft Booth 5 

Smith, Oi-ville M 3 

Storm, GaiTet 50 

Tvler, Benjamin 10 

Van Nort, Benj. W 10 

Weed, Harvey 60 

Williams, Saiiiuel 3 

Walsh, Henry 5 

Zaiiriskie, A. G 3 

Wiley, John - 5 

Wauffli, James S 2 

Whited, J. J. ft Co S 

On the fulfillment of this stock subscription by the 
citizens of Newburgh, it was their prerogative to be 
represented in the board of the Erie Company by a 
local director, and Homer Bamsdell was accordingly 
nominated by the subscribers, and elected as ^uch di- 
rector in the summer of 1845. The first contracts 
made by the Erie Company upon its reorganization 
under the amended act of 1845 were those for con- 
structing the Newburgh branch and that part of the 
main line between Middletown and Otisville. The 
work was carried forward under the agreement until 
in 1847, when, by reason of enormous expenditures 
upon the main line between Otisville and Bingham- 
ton, and when only about one hundred and fifteen 
thousand dollars (the amount subscribed at New- 
burgh) had been expended upon the branch, the Erie 
Company was so pressed for money that a suspension 
of the work upon the branch was deemed imperative. 
To prevent this and to bridge over the necessities of 
the hour, the Newburgh director agreed to negotiate 

the acceptances of the company for each successive 
monthly estimate until January, 1849, at which time 
all were to mature. During this time the further gam 
of one hundred and thirty thousand dollars was ex- 
pended upon the branch. 

The opening of the main line of the Erie to Bing. 
hamton, on the 27th of December, 1848, was attended 
by a cost far exceeding the estimates, and the finance) 
of the company were correspondingly embarrassed. 
Added to this were heavy drains for work then being 
vigorously pushed upon the Susquehanna divigioD,8o 
that the directory, in January, 1849, deemed them- 
selves forced to discontinue the expenditures upoa 
the branch. At this juncture the Newburgh director 
proposed to raise the sura of one hundred and forty- 
five thousand dollars upon the acceptances of the com- 
pany, to mature May, 1851, and to pay the same to 
the company, provided responsible parties in New- 
burgh would indorse the acceptances, and also pro- 
vided the company would execute a mortgage upon 
the branch as security for the amount. In view of 
the compulsory clause in the act of 1845, releasing 
the company from the payment of the three milliob 
dollar loan, conditioned upon finishing the road to 
Dunkirk and also the Newburgh branch, in May, 
1861, and as a financial measure, the board of direc- 
tors accepted the proposition and adopted the fol- 
lowing preamble and resolution : 

" At a meeting of the directors of the New York and Erie Bailrai 
Company, the foUowing preamble and resolution were unanimoul; 
adopted(Jan. 10, 18491: 

*' Wher&Uf There has already been expended upon the Newburgb 
branch, in conformity to agreement, about the sum of two hnndndaii 
forty-live thousand dollars, which, together with the sums Decesau; to 
complete the pi esent contracts, say twenty thousand dullarB, will DfO^ 
make up the amount required to be advanced by this company towud 
the construction of said branch road, as per agreement of 19th of Marah, 
1S46 ; and whereas, the inhabitants of Newburgh, in order to secare the 
conipletiim of the said mail by the first day of Septemtier next, propw 
to advance upon the Hcceptancee of this company one hundred and Ibr^- 
five thousand d< liars for that purpose; and whereas, upon the extenrioa 
of the main line of our road to Elmira, if not earlier, said branch nal 
will be of great value if completed ; therefore 

^HeKolved, That the supeiinteuding engineer upon the Newburgh biuofc 
is hereby authorized to draw upon the treasurer of this company in nnl 
not less than five hundred dollars to an amount in the aggregate of okk 
hundred and forty-five thousand dollars, which drafts shall be paysUt 
in May, 1861 (the time prescribed by the law of tbia State for thsot^- 
pletion of saiil branch road), and bear interest at seven per cent per 
annum payable half-yearly; and that Homer Bamsdell be authoriud to 
procure the money upon said acceptances and deposit it with the tress, 
urer to be applied toward the purchase of iron rails and completioD of 
said branch road as aforesaid; and that the president is her«liy sutbw^ 
ized to issue such orders as shall be necessary to carry out the intsDtloi 
of the foregoing preamble and resolution. 

** A true copy, Nathaniel Habsb, Secy.** 

" In consideration of and in conformity to" thii 
preamble and resolution, the following persons made 
written agreement, on the 15th of January, 1849, tt 
indorse the acceptances of the Erie Company for the 
sums set opposite their names : 

T. Powell ft Co J45.000 

J. Beverldge ft Co 25,000 

John P DeWint 26,0(10 

B. Carpenter ft Co 10,010 

Adam Lilbnm » 1,000 

Crawford, Mailler ft Co. f|^ 

J. V. B. Fowler ft Co. !*• 

F. Gerard and Jaa. DaOluff. 1 A* 

Wm. C. Haabrouck 1;*5 

N. Beeve l,l» 



George Mecklem tSOO 

Spitr&WjIaon 50O 

Euoch Carter 500 

Udell S. Hathnway 3,0<i0 

Chriatopher B. Miller 2,0(Vl 

Aaron B. Belknap 1,0(10 

k>nu. 0. Smith (1,000 

tauton, Clark ft Co 1,000 

lenj. Tyler 1,000 

>anlt'l Farrington 1,000 

L&H. H.Belknap 1,000 

'no. J. Honell 1,000 

Darwin. HalMV ft Co 1,000 

MchardC. Smith 1,000 $14ij,500 

These acceptances were also all indorsed by Thomas 
Powell & Co. On the 23d of February following, 
Messrs. Powell, Bamsdell & Co. and J. Beveridge & 
Do. purchased two thousand tons of railroad iron, 
then in the hands of Davis, Brooks & Co., at forty 
dollars per ton and duties thereon, for which the notes 
of Powell & Co. were given for fifty-five thousand 
dollars, and the notes of Beveridge & Co. for twenty- 
three thousand dollars. In addition to the iron. 
Homer Eamsdell purchased the depot-grounds, — em- 
bracing the river-front between the Whaling Com- 
pany's dock and the north line of Western Avenjie, 
and also a lot south of the dock of John W. Wells, ' 
fronting one hundred and sixty-five feet on Water 
Street and the river, — paying for the same twenty 
thousand dollars. The property of John W. Wells, 
ninety-one feet on the river, with a quit-claim to one- 
half of Western Avenue, was condemned and taken 
on the award of commissioners at forty thousand dol- 
lars. On settlement in June, it was found that Powell 
& Co. were at that time, through indorsements, ac- 
ceptances, and advances, responsible for two hundred 
and two thousand two hundred and nineteen dollars. 
The capital thus furnished completed the branch, and 
on the 9th of January, 1850, its opening was cele- 
brated with appropriate festivities. 

The old Delaware and Hudson Company left be- 
hind, as memorials of its existence, a partly-graded 
track and the stock subscription of the village of 
Newburgh (110,000), upon the debt for which the 
interest was annually paid until the village became a 
city. The details of its history, as well as those of 
the construction of the branch, now serve as monu- 
ments to the memory of those who were their projec- 
tors and supporters. The efibrt of 1837 is now an 
accomplished fact : the coal-mines of Pennsylvania 
are in connection with Newburgh by rail ; but the ad- 
vantages of the earlier enterprise passed away, to a 
very large extent, with its opportunity. 

The time may not be distant, however, when more 
direct connection with the coal-fields than by the 
main line of the Erie and the Newburgh branch will 
be effected through the Warwick Valley Railroad and 
the Wawayanda Railroad and its connections in New 
Jersey. The Warwick Valley Railroad was the out- 
growth of a proposition, made soon after the comple- 
tion of the Newburgh branch, to extend its line to 
the Delaware River, for which a survey and maps 
were made and there rested. In 1859, Mr. Grinnell 
Burt and other residents of Warwick practically re- 
vived the project by organizing the " Warwick Valley 
Railroad Company," under the following board of 
directors: Grinnell Burt, John Rutherford, Thomas 
B. DeKay, Ezra Sanford, James B. Wheeler, Milton 

McEwen, James Burt, John H. Brown, John L. Wel- 
ling, William Herrick, James P. Houston, and Nathan 
R. Wheeler. On organization, the directors elected 
Grinnell Burt, president; Milton McEwen, vice- 
president; James B. Wheeler, treasurer; William 
Herrick, secretary. The capital stock was $100,000, 
of which Newburgh furnished $10,500. When the 
road was completed, the bonded and floating debt 
amounted to a little over one hundred thousand dol- 
lars, forty per cent, of which has since been paid out 
of the earnings of the road, and a surplus of an equal 
amount has been expended to extend the road to the 
New Jersey State line. In consideration of these 
payments and to create a surplus fdnd, a stock divi- 
dend of one hundred per cent, was declared to the 
stockholders in 1867. Regular annual dividends of 
seven per cent, have been paid from the earnings of 
the road, showing that, aside from the advantages 
which it has conferred upon the district which it tra- 
verses, it has been a pecuniary success. The company 
was consolidated, in the fall of 1879, with the Wa- 
wayanda Railroad of New Jersey, by which its line 
is extended to McAfee, N. J., on the Sussex Rail- 

The Newburgh and New York Railroad Company 
was organized in the city of New York, Dec. 20, 1864, 
— Samuel Marsh, Daniel Drew, John Arnot, Isaac N. 
Phelps, Robert H. Burdell, Dudley S. Gregory, Am- 
brose S. Murray, J. C. Bancroft Davis, H. L. Pierson, 
Alexander S. Diven, Thomas W. Gale, John J. Mo- 
nell, Thomas H. Bate, directors; J. C. Bancroft 
Davis, president; Horatio N. Otis, secretary. The 
capital stock was fixed at $500,000, of which over 
one thousand dollars per mile was immediately sub- 
scribed and paid up. The project was based on a 
proposition for a west shore road from New York to 
Albany, which, by its construction, would only lack 
sixty miles of completion. Aside from the directors 
named, who subscribed ten shares (one hundred dol- 
lars) each, George Clarke and Enoch Carter, of New- 
burgh, subscribed one share each ; F. A. DeWint, of 
Fishkill, one ; and John Hilton, H. N. Otis, Charles 
Minot, L. E. Tillotson, J. W. Guppy, William R. 
Barr, N. Finch, E. W. Brown, and J. D. White, of 
New York, each one. The road being less than fif- 
teen miles in length, the number of directors was re- 
duced to seven, in conformity with the general rail- 
road law, in December, 1867, when John S. Eldridge, 
Jay Gould, John C. B. Davis, Daniel Drew, A. S. 
Diven, Henry Thompson, and Homer Ramsdell were 
elected. On the 1st of August, 1868, Mr. Ramsdell 
was elected president. He resigned July 7, 1869, and 
James Fisk, Jr., was elected. The line was surveyed 
by John W. Houston, engineer ; the contract for con- 
struction was awarded to Peter Ward and William 
Leary, of Newburgh, Aug. 1, 1868, and the work com- 
pleted Sept. 1, 1869. The road was subsequently 
leased to the Erie Company, that company supplying 
the capital required for its construction. 



The understood willingness of the company to 
second any eflfbrt to extend the connections of the 
road gave rise to what have been called " the New- 
burgh paper railroads," the first of which, the New- 
burgh and Wallkill Valley Railroad, took the form 
of a company to construct a road from Newburgh to 
Walden, connecting at Vail's Gate with the Erie 
branch and with the Newburgh and New York road. 
The company was organized in the winter of 1867- 
68 by the election of directors and officers. In May 
following {May 9th) the Legislature passed an act 
making it lawful " for the Common Council of the 
city of Newburgh to borrow, on the faith and credit 
of said city, the sum of three hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars," to aid in the construction of the road, 
and to issue the bonds of the city therefor, — on con- 
dition that the consent should first be obtained, in 
writing of a majority of the tax-payers of the city, 
who should also own or represent more than one- 
half of the taxable real and personal property of the 
city. At the time the project was undertaken, the 
disposition of the Newburgh and New York Com- 
pany to second the enterprise was not generally un- 
derstood as a tangible agreement, and this fact, 
coupled with an expressed opposition to the Vail's 
Gate route on the part of several leading citizens, 
led to a failure in obtaining the consent required to 
bond the city, and necessarily to a suspension of the 
further prosecution of the undertaking. 

The second of the series, the Newburgh and Mid- 
H^d Railroad, advanced several steps beyond the 
point reached by the Newburgh and Wallkill Valley 
road. The proposition was to construct a road from 
the vicinity of West Newburgh to Walden and 
thence to Fair Oaks, there to connect with the New 
York and Oswego Midland, and took definite form in 
the organization of the " Newburgh and Midland 
Railway Company," — George Clark, president; Odell 
8. Hathaway, vice-president ; Alfred Post, treasurer ; 
John Dales, secretary ; George Clark, Abram S. Cas- 
aedy, A. T. Rand, Bradbury C. Bartlett, Odell S. 
Hathaway, Seth M. Capron, David Moore, James W. 
Taylor, Alfred Post, William R. Brown, William J. 
Roe, Jr., Lewis M. Smith, William O. Mailler, di- 
rectors. To build this road effort was made to bond 
the city of Newburgh for five hundred thousand dol- 
lars, under the general act authorizing municipal 
corporations to aid in the construction of railroads. 
What was presumed to be the consent of a majority 
of the tax-payers, and also of a majority of the tax- 
able property of the city, was obtained. On exami- 
nation of the list before Hon. Thomas George, county 
judge, it was held by him that while the petition for 
consent to bond was signed by a majority of the tax- 
payers, the signatures did not represent a majority of 
the taxable property of the city, — $555,099 of the 
amount being held by executors, administrators, etc., 
whose right to thus represent the frusts which tiiey 
held was denied. An appeal was taken to the Su- 

preme Court, which, at general term, January, ]87« 
affirmed the decision of Judge George, — Justica 
Tappen and Gilbert concurring. Justice Barnard dii. 
senting. This decision ended the undertaking. 

After two or three years spent in discufisions and 
surveys the New York and Oswego Midland Railroad 
Company was formally organized at a convention of 
delegates from Oswego, Onondaga, Madison, Cort. 
land, Chenango, Delaware, Sullivan, Orange, Otsego, 
and Ulster Counties, and New York City, held at 
Delhi, Oct. 4, 1865. At this convention D. C. Little- 
John, of Oswego, reported articles of association or- 
ganizing the company with a cjipital of $10,000,000; 
DeWitt C. tiittlejohn, John Crouse, Elisha C. Litch- 
field, Joseph W. Merchant, Edward I. Hayes, John 
A. Randall, A. C. Edgerton, Samuel Gordon, Hen^ 
A. Low, Edward Palen, Homer Ramsdell, Nathan 
Randall, and G. P. Kenyon were named as directors. 
The location of the route, whether by way of Pine 
Hill to Rondout or Newburgh, or through Sullivan 
County to Middletowu and thence through New 
.Jersey to New York, was subsequently deterniiDcd 
in favor of the Middletown and Sullivan line, and, 
under authority of an act of the Legislature, the 
towns of Wallkill and Minisink, in common with 
other towns along the rou'e, issued town bonds in aid 
of construction, — Minisink seventy-five thousand dol- 
lars, and Wallkill three hundred thous^Hnd dollars. 
Sections of the road in Orange were put under con- 
tract,— Middletown to Centreville, Sept. 28, 1868; 
Ellenville Branch, Sept. 28, 1868; Centreville to 
Westfield Flats, Feb. 3, 1869. On the 9th of July, 
1873, near Westfield Flats, the last rail whs laid, aud 
the last spike driven by the late E. P. Wheeler, of 
Middletown, a iormcr vice-president of the company. 
After a stormy existence of six years the road was 
sold under foreclosure, Nov. 9, 1879, and its title 
changed to New York, Ontario and Western Kail- 

The construction of the Midland was the occasion 
of the building of the Middletown and Crawford and 
the Middletown, Unionville and Water Gap roads, 
and at least indirectly of the Monticello and Port 
Jervis branch of the Erie. The latter project origin- 
ated, we believe, in Monticello, where it was feared 
that the Midland would result in disaster to that 
village unless a road was opened to Port Jervis con- 
necting with the Erie. The project, however, w«» 
really much older than the Midland, having had il» 
origin in connection with tlie Erie Company's efforh 
to secure a State loan in 1835-36, the loan advocates 
then promising to construct a branch to Monticello. 
The company was organized in 186§, and tlie road 
opened in 1871. The town of Deerpark issued two 
hundred thousand dollars in bonds to aid the con- 
struction. The road was sold, and reorganized as the 
Port Jervis and Monticello in 1875. 

The Montgomery and Erie was the first link in the 
Wallkill Valley line. It was opened from Mont' 



■omery to Goshen in 1867, and constructed by stock 
ubscriptions and bonds of the first election district 
[f Montgomery for fifty-one tiiousand dollars. The 
ine was continued to Walden and Ulster County as 
[ part of the Wallkill Valley Road, and fifty-one 
housand dollars in bonds were issued by the second 
election district in its aid. It had its inception in a 
lesire on the part of the leading men of Montgomery 
» secure railroad connection, and after having sought 
n vain for that assistance from the capitalists of Nevv- 
jurgh which would have given to the line a different 
direction. This remark will iilso apply to the Mid- 
filetown and Crawford road,* for the construction of 
which the bonds of the town of Crawford were issued 
for eighty thousand dollars. More detailed informa- 
tion in regard to these and other roads has been 
Solicited without answer. The following abridged 
statement of the railroads in the county is from 
"Poor's Manual" for 1880: 

Am Y'rt, Ijilte Erie and Wrttivn.—lenify City to Dnnkirk, 4no.03 
niilili; liniliclli-M, l(Hi.8(> liiilw; total. 5*<)S1 liiilra. ItH lininchcs U'HWil 
'or iiwiiHil III OrHii;;*. C.iuiit.v »rtf tlie Ni<wbilt'f;li niid Kew York, l'J..Oa 
niilfs; NcwIinrFh Rntiicli, 1S.73 iiiilfs; IMoiitpiinery atiil Ki'u>. 1u.2'2 
niili^: fuMilM-ii iiii<l llu.-kertiiwii, II .(i.~i niilfH. (%>iiiift:liiiK rmule, Wiir* 
|irii;k Viillfy nl Cni.v Court, WiillUill VnHiy iit Gimlu-ii, ami P.irt .lervis 
ami Miiiitii-tllo Ht IN>i't .li'rvjM. ('oiiiicclioH fsul^t niiolewitli tlieStlrllii;; 
Moiiiitiilii anil SoHtlifiel I Hniiidi In Miiiiroc.and iit Ml<lilli'to\vii witli the 
Itfiililletowii ami Crawford, Miildli-towii hikI Uliioiivillt;, and Kew Yuik, 
Ontailo Hii'l Wh tprn. 

Tim iiiiiipiiiiy was cliarleri'd ApHI 24, IR^*. roiiHtniction was coni- 
menuml in IK:t(>. anil ttm Bitliio year tin. creillt of tin* SItiti> wa>i p'aiited to 
tlio rxtiMit of i^l.lllKI,)"'". I" ■"^i (SiptiMuIu'r) lllr fliEt miilioii, from 
irii'miont to GimIkmi, wan opuneil, the roiiiii'i tioii I>ft»'i>i>ii Pieritiont and 
Ki'w York ln-liiK li.v Ktwituiin* ami frci;ilit liiirp<ii. Tlii!Ltiinpiin,v Iifconilng 
enibaniii«i-d, tin* iiliili'i takint; wiin plact- d in tin* IniiidM of iiiiHifsnepH. nmlur 
wliofii' liiiiiiii^fllMMit till* mail wiiH o|ion"il to Mii)dli*town, .Tan. 3, IM'-i- 
Tho lost ti I'oli 1. 1844. hiiil lii'i'li Jl 7!li.94n. of wliicli S^,'i9l,ril4 had 
been dfrlvcd fmni tin- Srnto loan. In 1845 the State released the prop- 
erty of its ninit;;ii;:e, pioviiled the company Kliiinid coln|deti' the nind to 
Lake Eiie in six years, iiiid the old Mofklioldora snrrunderi-d oni'.half of 
their stiK-k. ConRtrni-tion was resunn-d. and the mad opened to Port 

Jervis, .Tan. «, I'4x: to liiiis-lnimtiin, Di-.;. ■i*. IM"; to Unl Oi:t. in, 

1840; toHornellsvllle. Sept. .3. 185": and lb Dnnk rk, Apiil'i-i, By 
fti't of Leiilslatiiru the uofnpnn.r w-iis also rei|uireil to construct a hriineh 
line to Ni'wl iirfch.-M'hich w im i pene'l in ls.'i0. The conipany was required 
to run its oii^inal line witliiu the limits of the Slate, and hence lis first 
outlet on the TI iiiTsoii at Pleviiiolit. This pai t of the line is now operated 
as a tiranch, while hy lc>iise of the Union IhiiltiHid, coiineeting the main 
line with Ihe Paterson iind llainiipo avnl the Piitei-aon and TIndbun liail- 
rnails (Sept. 10, lft'*J) .lersey City w-ns made the main terminus. In ud- 
dltion to Ihe ii«Mgitmi-nr of 1843, tlie property' went to the bundeof a 
receiver in I8fi0, mid aptlii In IhT.i. Hy Ihe bisl it whb sold under fore- 
cliwnre, and its iiitnin changed fniiii Kew York and Erie to ilB present 

Aeirb'irgh rmil Npin T.trfr, — Vjiil's Gate .Titnrtion to Oreenwood .Tiiiiclion, 
I2.'i9 niih s. Orpinlzed in ISfCS. ami i>|n-iieil in TSIiO. I,e> to Krie 
SailriHil ronipiiny. ('a|>itsl. S.'iUll.disi: fiimled dell, }25ll,iiOO. Coat uf 
ruail, S-o'^<NKi. TTu;r1t .1. .lewelt, preisldetit 

Wonifct l'.!fe/(.— Warwick to firay Cnnrt, 1 .10 miles, rhartered 
Slan-li 8, 1811(1, and reail oin'iieil Apiil 1 18li-i. Eariiiii<!S, year I'Uiling 
Sept. 311. iH-fl.-IsoB'njnMS.J."!.-! (I.'i4; fieiiilil. Ji8:iill.3l ; other, $:1I4I 27; 
Intnl. $ .7.11118.12. Ols-iiilllii; e.\ 91M»<1M. <'ii|iltill slock, iiUi,- 
(MKI; filniled delit. !ia),cinc). Cmuk.. Minted in fall of 18711 with the Wiiwa- 
jiimla Riilhiiiid ('.mii'iiny of Xew .li-i-sev. the new eoiiipnnv r"lHiiiiiiit 

* In the final ileteruilnnllMn -if Ihe ploji'cti.u uf llils iinni the pos-i- 
liility of nllltiiately l>'coiniii|; a part of the line, cm I'oiiglikeep ie and 
the l'oM|£hkee|»-ie hriilce, fli'm Hie coal tie d« to lliu Kiihteni Stiiles. was 
retluips an liii|«Mtnnt consideration hnt bad Ihe Newl.iir(tli and Wallkill 
Valley or the Nenlairith iilid MidlaJid l"-en coustruelid the Craw ni.d 
couneclioll would have been iniido with it ntllicr than at MiJdletowu. 

the same name. Under this organizntion, the new line extends from 
Gray Court to McAfee, N. J., on the Sussex Railroad, 22 miles, of which 
14.5 is in Orange County, and 7.5 in New Jersey, which was completed 
ill April, 188(1. Combined capital stock, {340,000 ; bonded debt, SilO.OOO. 
A hruncli from Warwick to the iron-mines will also be built. Directors, 
Deueinlier, 1870, Griiinell Burt, James Burt, John L. Welling, Riclnird 
Miner, C. H. Deniareet, S. C. Welling, and Ezra Sauford, Warwick : J. 
U. Brown, VVawayalida ; James C. Houston, Bell vale ; H. B. DeKay, Ver- 
non, N. J.; W. C. Sheldon and D. B. Halstead, New York City: Homer 
Kanisdull, Newburgh. Griniiell Burt, president and superintendent; 
James Burt, vice-iireeideut; Norman Burt, treasurer; G. H. Demai-est, 

M'nilgitmenj and Erie. — Montgomery to Goshen, 10.22 miles. Chartered 
.Ian. 2, 18(>li : opened in 1807. Leased to and operated by New York, Lake 
Eric and Western Railroad Conipany. Capital stock, $150,000; bonds, 
$1711/100. Cost of road, $288,930.83. J. M. Wilkin, president; C. J. Ev- 
erett, treasurer, Goshen; W. J. Mead, secretary, Montgomery. 

Uusheit ami Dechrtovm. — Goshen to Fiue Island, lt.65 miles. Organ- 
ized Feb. 22, 1807; opened April 10, 1809; leased to Erie Railroad Com- 
pany for fifty yeai-s. Capital stock, 8105,800; bonds, 9246,600— total, 
83o2,50fl. Construction, $291,700.75. James K. Houston, president, 
Kloriila, N. Y. ; George W. Murray, secretary and treasurer, Goshen. 

W'lllhiU FuHey.— Montgomery to Kingston, 33.46 miles. Organized 
April 2(t, l8(jC, aud opeued in 1872. Operated by Erie Railroad Company 
to June ft, 1877, when it was sold under foreclosure, and reorganized July 
2, 1877. Cost of roail, $970,091 .96 ; sold for $1 28,000 ; additional construc- 
tion, S17o,798..50 — total, $298,798.59 Stock and bonds it^sued on reor- 
gauizati..ii,$l>CO,0uO;suudryaS8ets,$ll,893.37— total, $970,691.96. Thomas 
Cornell, pi-esident, Rondout. 

Stirling Motmtain. — Stirling Junction to Lakeville, 7.6 miles. Organ- 
ized May IS, lSli4; opeued Nov. 1, 1866. Capital stock, $80,000; funded 
debt, $150,000. Cost of rood and'equipmeuts, $500,857.02. A. W. Hum- 
phreys, president, Now York City; George C. Clark, treasurer; J. 0. 
Midsiiner, Stirling Junction, superintendent. 

Soulhlield Crane*.— Soutlifleld to Southfleld Furnace, 1.5 miles. Built, 
owuol, and otficered by same parties as the Stirling Mountain Railroad. 
Connects witli the Erie. 

Pt»-t Jervia and Mimticello. — Port Jervis to Monticello, 23.75 miles. Or- 
ganized as Monticello and Port Jervis Railroad Company Sept. 3, 1868, 
and under existing title July 10, 1875. Road opened Jan. 23, 1871. 
Capital stock issued on reorganization, $724,276.93. Cost of road and 
eqiiipineiits,$l, 124,080.47. Frederick J. DePeyster, president. New York 
City ; Henry Bay, vice-president ; Gordon Morrie, treasurer ; J. W. Hay- 
waid, secretary, all of New York City. M. V. Heller, manager. Port 
Jcr\is. Earnings, year ending Sept. 30, 1879— passengers, $0440.24; 
freight, etc., $16,300.60. 

Hmo York, Oiidirio and IFestem.— Oswego to Middletown, 344 miles. 
Organized as New York and Oswego Midland Railroad, January, 1860. 
The New Jersey Midland and Middletown and Dnionville toads were 
originally leased to complete the line to New York. The road was sold 
under foreclosure Nov. 9, 1879, and reorganized under present name. 
The Crawford and Middletown and Middletown and Unionville connec- 
tions are maintained, lis well as that with the New Jersey Midland. A 
biaiicK of the road from Middletown to Ellenville is also in operation. 

MiMleUimi, Unionville imd Water Gap. — Middletown, N. Y., to Union- 
ville, N. J., Stale line, 13.3U miles. Organized May 25, 1866, and road 
opened June 10, 1868. Leased and operated by New Jersey Midland 
Kiiilroad Coinimiiy.t Capital stock, $123,850, aud funded debt, $400,000 ; 
total stock and bonds, $.i2:{,8o0 ; cost of road and appurtenances, $350,- 
476.47. Griunell Biirt, Warwick, president; W. H. Clark, Westtown, 
treasurer; Joseph N. Plonk, Middletown, secretary. 

MitldMoim and (>air.foid.— Craw ford Junction to Pine Bush, 10.22 
miles. Chaiteied Aug. 3, 1808, and road finished Dec. 14, 1871. Leased 
to Now York and Oswego Midland, and subsequently to New Jersey 
Midland, until March 18, 1875, but now operated on its own account. 
Caiiltal stock jmid in,$l22,300; funded debt, $79,300 ; bills payable, $787.- 
08; total. $2ir2,3»7;08. Cost of road, etc., $202,387.68; earnings, 1879, pas- 
sengeis, $:i604 0i; freight, $17,102.94; mail, express, etc., $689.7 1 ; total, 
$21,546.08. Diiertiirs, Aug. 12, 1S79, E. M. Madden. S. S. Conkliu, II. K. 
Wilcox, and Albeit Boll, Middletown; Harrison Bull, Circleville; Sam- 
nel RoliclDoii and Iluriice Bull, Bullville; Dauiel Tliompson, li. M. 
Tliiiiii]ison, K. M. Crosby, and Alexander Thompson, Thompson Ridge; 
I. J. Wliilten, H N. Van Keuren, and J. E. Jansen, Pino Bush. Daniel 

t Xew Jciwy Midland runs from West Bud, N. J., to Unionville (New 
York liiii); councclion with Jersey City; length of road from Unionville 
to Jersey City, 88 miles. 



Thompson, president and superintendent; E. M. Madden, vioe-preaident 
and general manager; G. A. Tliompeon, secretary; Isaac P. Madden, 


MiDifiuk, for Oswego Midland $75,000 

Wallkill, for Oswego Midland 300,000 

Deerpark, for Munticello and Port Jervls !J00,000 

Crawford, tor Middletowa and Crawford 80,000 

Montgomery, for Mont, and E. and Wal. Val 102,000 


Taxable valuation of real and personal railroad estate, and Delaware 

and Hudson Caual, in the county, $1,792,700. 


The New York and Ellen ville Plank-road Company 
waa organized March 24, 1850. The capital stock was 
$100,000, but only $79,770 was paid in. By special 
act of the Legislature $44,000 preferred stock was 
issued, and the whole capital fixed at $124,000. The 
road was completed to Ellenville Dec. 22, 1851. 
Charter extended to 1890. 

The Newburgh and Shawangunk Plank-road Com- 
pany was organized in March, 1850, and the road 
completed in December, 1851. The capital stock paid 
in was $30,000. 

The Middletown and Bloomingburgh Plank-road 
was constructed in 1858. Capital stock, $30,000. 

The Middletown and Unionville Plank-road was 
constructed in 1853. Capital stock, $80,000. 


The Bank of Newburgh — the first bank in this 
county — was incorporated by act of the Legislature, 
passed March 22, 1811, on the petition o^ Jacob Pow- 
ell, John McAulay, Chancy Belknap, and Jonathan 
Fisk. The capital named was $120,000, in shares of 
$50 each, and the State reserved the right to subscribe 
to the stock any amount not exceeding one thousand 
shares. The Branch Bank of Newburgh, at Ithaca, 
was organized 1820, and continued until 1830. 

The Bank of Orange County, at Goshen, was incor- 
porated April 6, 1818, on petition of Reuben Hopkins, 
George D. Wickham, and others. James W. Wilkin, 
George D. Wickham, David M. Westcott, John^t. 
Hurtin, James Wheeler, John Barber, and Jam^ 
Finch, Jr., commissioners to receive stock subscrip- 
tions. Capital $49,000, in shares of $50. 

The Highland Bank of Newburgh was incorpo- 
rated April 26, 1834. Capital $200,000. 

Under the general banking law of the State, passed 
April 18, 1888, the Powell Bank of Newburgh (18381, 
the Middletown Bank (1839), the Wallkill Bank of 
Middletown (1857), the Quassaick Bank of Newburgh 
(1851), the Bank of Port Jervis, the Bank of Chester, 
and the Goshen Bank were organized. All the banks 
of the county, by conversion or reorganization, are 
now under the national banking law, in the following 
order : 

First National Bank of Port Jerris, No. 94 tloiuni 

First National Bank of Warwick, No. Mi ,. imm 

NaUoiial Bank of Newburgh, No. 468 „ jjojjj 

First National Bank of Middletown, No. 523 ; loo'oJJ 

Highland National Bank of Newburgh, No. 1106 iSum 

Quassaick National Bank of Newburgh, No. 1213 SOOjOOO 

Middletown National Bank, No. 1276 goojjgjj 

Chester National Bank, No. 1349 126jQ00 

National Bank of Port Jervis, No. 1363 13011X10 

National Bank of Orange County, Qoshen, No, 1399 110^ 

Goslien National Bank, No. 14U8 IIO.U1O 

Walden National Bank, No. 2348 „ jojOM 

Total capital .- 92,676^ 

The individual deposits in the several banks, at 
shown in the annual report of the comptroller of 
the currency, December, 1879, was $2,364,148.35; the 
loans and discounts, $3,111,789.73; and the aggregate 
of liabilities and resources, $7,871,445.90. 

The following are the savings banks of the county; 

Cornwall Savings Bank, GornwallK)n -the- Hudson ; incor- 
porated 1871; due depositors S21,18U1 

Goshen Savings Bank, Goshen ; incorporated 1871 ; due de- 
positors 181,510Jt 

Middletown Savings Bank, Middletown ; incorporated 1866 ; 

due depositors 466,906.09 

Newburgh Savings Bank, Newburgh; incorporated 1852; 

due depositors 2,867,611.11 

Port Jervis Savings Bank, Port Jerris; incorporated 1869; 

due depositors 60,583.43 

Walden Savings Bank, Walden; incorporated 1862; due 

depositors 111,710.90 

Warwick Savings Bank, Warwick ; incorporated 1875 ; due 

depositora 141,I9«.« 

Total due depositors (3,8J0,6SSiS 


In population the county ranks the eleventh in the 
State. In the value of its farms it is the ninth ; in 
farm buildings it is third ; in average yield of hay it 
is second ; in buckwheat, third ; in corn, second ; in 
winter wheat, third ; in potatoes, third ; in milch 
cows it is first, and first in average yield per cow ; in 
wool it is fourth ; and it has twenty-three butter and 
cheese factories, which, in 1874, converted 8,688,49! 
pounds of milk into 222,548 pounds of butter and 
751,515 pounds of skimmed-milk cheese, — if the 
latter fact may be worthy of special notice. In iti 
product of old-fashioned " Orange County butter," 
made in families, it has fallen from 3,285,587 poundi 
in 1865 to 1,225,598 pounds in 1874, and in anothei 
decade that item may disappear entirely from the 
enumerator's list, thanks to the railroads, which hare 
brought in the increasing traffic in milk. Value ol 
dwellings, $32,200,519; of farms, $31,130,188 ; offam 
buildings other than dwellings, $4,631,345 ; of fam 
stock, tools, etc., $4,730,929; total, $72,693,981. ft 
banking capital is $2,575,000 ; valuation of railroad 
property other than capital, $1,792,700 ; capital ii 
manufacturing and mechanical industries, $5,418,620 
making a total of $82,475,301, although the board 
supervisors say that the whole value of real and per 
sonal estate is only $38,531,382. The following table 
.are from the State census of 1875 : 











Hamptonburgh ... 





Mount Hope 


Newhnrgh City... 

New Windsor. 





' Value Dwell- 
j ings other than 
Farm Buildings. 


























Aerea, 1 

3,673 I 








1,646 ' 









{32,200,619 , 321,411 90,354 60,564 $31,130,188 






















Value of 







Value Farm 
Buildings other 
than Dwellings. 






Aggregate value of farms, buildings, stock, and tools $40,494,462 

" " 1865 25,599,331 

Increase $14,896,131 


Value of 

Value of 

154,876 I 

204.346 : 

82,472 I 
278,160 1 
130,760 I 
178,0;W I 


i $.3,918,978 $811,961 




Number of 
of all Sizes. 

Under Three 


Five and under | Ten and i Twenty and Fifty and under 
Ten Acres. |under Twenty.j under Fifty. Oue Hundred. 

One Hundred Five Hundred 

and under I and under 
Five Hundred. One Thousand, 


One Thousand 
and over. 




Blooming-Grove. . 







Hamptonburgh ... 





Mount Hope 


Newburgh City 

New Windsor 


Warwick , 


Total 44,287 








o a 















111 ,-20 





_ ._ 











I^dt. Gattons. I 



, 488,670| 

; 1,153.7861 

3,900 , 686,7lOf 

1 681,2781 


■ 912 













6,825 ' 











13,530,709 2,160,698 









Pounds of 

Milk used in 

Butter, Skim 


g Pounds of 
« Bolter 
2 made. 

Pounds of 

Skim Milk 

















Hamptonburgh . . 





Mount Hope 


Newburgh City- 
New Windsor 



WawHViiiiUa , 























11,838 i 

t 4,069 I 

' 8,790 1 



I 13,064 

' 18,650 

, 8,482 









Tu^il 137,694,26,417 

Bush. { Bvah. 

12,223 4,758 

6,561 889 

7,164 1,030 

30,419 11,006 

7,976 1,412 

16,914 4,663 

13,392 , 2,682 

14,981 6,263 


14,479 I 3,436 
16,579 3,276 




19,896 1 3,383 
36,471 13,339 
49,976 ,16,748 
15,943 5,105 

fe ,0' 













































The gross sales of farm products in 1874 were 

The census is, unfortunately, almost entirely silent in 
regard to the mechanical industries of the State, as 
well as in regard to mercantile pursuits and the capi- 
tal invested therein, and many other branches of in- 
quiry falling properly within its line. Whether the 
apology offered by its superintendent for this omission 



is sufBcient is not a matter for discussion here. The 
United States census for 1870 is much more complete, 
but in its preparation many details were omitted, 
while in others classification by counties was evidently 
rendered impracticable from the magnitude of the 
labor involved. From its "selected statistics" of the 
mechanical industries of the county at the time it was 
taken (1870) the following table is copied : 





Boots Hiid sillies 

Bread and bakery prodtiets 



Cttl'lietB — rag 

CarliHges and wagons 



Cliitbing — men's 


Coffee- and spice-mill 



Cotton goods 



Files : l| 8;i 

Fluunng-mitls' products 25j 7:' 

Food in-epamlions — iiuinial ! 1 2 

Fnrnitiiii- I4] 98 

11 41 
3' 15 
1: 22 
3 270 
2 U7 
1 4i 
i 175 
6 2U2 



^ s* 



1 2!" 

1 3 

2 14 

9 31 


11 4.n 

5 in 

48 207 

11 Si 

9 M 


8, 28 

ll 4 

4 il 

9 33 

2 386 




Gloves and mittens. 

Gas : 


Hats and caiiB... 


Iron — nails, etc 



Stores, heaters, etc j 2 2i 

Leatlifr — tanned 11 1 97 

Onrried M' 57 

Lime I 6 47 

Liqiiore— distilled '14 4" 

Malt 1 47 

Lumber— planed 1 3 

Sawed 5 79 

Machinery — general 4 67 

Railroad repairs 1 

Engines and Iwilera 6 307 

Marble — gpnelal 1 22 

Tomlifltones R Si 

Masonry 7 91 

Meat— packed i 4 

Mining — iron ore 6 268 

Stoue 2 15 

Oil fliioi'-ciotbs... 


Paper — printing. 


Plaster — gnmnd. 

Printing antl publishing j I 

Newspapers 6 

Btiofiug materials I 2 

Saddlery and harness '27 

Sash, doors, etc 



Sua|> and candles 

Steel— cast 

Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware.^ 
Tobacc4i and cigars. 



IVoolfn goods 

Wojsted goods 



S 109 

















47.1 lOOl 









123, WO 















33,(11 H> 




4.1,:i4 I 




i (iO,i<(JO 

61 1,000 












53,(» (I 





4 l,.5(IO 

2110.01 10 




123 llHI 



5.(J0 I 

















8,81 f 











ll 0.00(1 













4 ,2 








1,6.50 1 
































49,- 00 


















UK 1,000 












86,1 H 10 



:h7,( 00 
3",;* 10 


$5,413,620; wages paid, $2,125,870; materials used, 
$6,060,125; product, $10,409,348. 

The growth of the manufacturing interest of tbt 
county will more clearly appear from the following 
statement in Williams' " New York Register" for 
1834 : 

" Oranoh : Fraiiklm Company. This factory Is sitaated iu Wslileg, „ 
the Wallklll Hiver, near tile falls, for the nmimfHcture of flitimeli^ laj 
is the mnet extensive in the State (18:i4] ; ca|>ital, $100,1100, which in all 
invested. Tlie establishment consumes 65,000 to 70,000 pon lids of vixil 
per annum, and uisuufactures about 240,000 yards of white and colotsd 

" Watlkili Ormipany^ at Walden. This factory consumes about 120/KO 
pounds of cotton, aud makes about 300,000 yards of sheeting |ier aiidiidi. 

*' Orange OimpaHi/, also at Walden. They manufacture about SOyOOO 
yflrils of low-priced broadcloths per annum. 

"A woolen mannfactiry at Warwick. 

** Paimele £ Co.'s iron-works, for the manufacture of nails, etc. ; u 
extensive establishment. 

*• A nnmlier of works for making iron from ore, iit Monroe. 

'* Craig's paper manufactory, and Oakley's paper manufactory tt 

*'Townsend's cottou manufactory, aud Townsend's paper manufactory, 
at Cornwall. 

" Walsh's paper manufactory, and Rogers' powder factory, at New- 

"Two woolen manufactories at Wallklll, one of which is owned by 
Messrs. I'hillips. 

" The village of Wablen is situated at the falls of the Wallklll, eleven 
miles west of Nowburgh, and is surrounded by romantic scenery. Here 
is extensive water-jiower fur nianufactorie» ; a jmrt of the sites o Ij ure 
occiipinl. A company was incorporated by the Legislature in 1832, 
called the Walilen (Ximpany, with a ca[iital of $500,000, for the pnrpoia 
of puri-hasing, holding, and iin|>roving the water-power aud mill-sites of 
the village, and for manufacturing purposes." 

Number mechanical and manufacturing establish- 
ments, 574; engines 68, horse-power 2265; water-wheels 
85, horse-power 2185; hands employed, 5234; capital, 



The early settlers of the district now embraced in 
the county were mainly Christians, and brought with 
them their Bibles, and in some instances their relig- 
ious and secular teachers. In other cases itinerant 
ministers passed through the forest-paths in visitation 
of the scattered settlers, who were led, as their num- 
bers increased, to form societies, composed perhaps of 
those who held different denominational views, and 
who subsequently separated into societies in accord 
with fheir faiths; but in one way or the other, wher- 
ever population centred, the foundations of moral in- 
fluence through religious worship were laid, and in 
no county has this influence been more fiiUy sustained, 
the census of 1865 returning one hundred and fifteen 
churches, with a seating capacity of forty-seven thou- 
sand five hundred and eighty-four, to a population of 
seventy thousand, a ratio higher than that of the city 
of New York. In the order of their introduction, the 
first denomination in the field was the German Lu- 
theran ; the second, the Presbyterian ; the third, the 
High Dutch ; and the fourth, the Church of England. 
Numerically, there were ten churches in the district 
prior to 1750, viz. : two Lutheran, three Presbyterian, 



two High Dutch, and three Episcopal or Church of 
England. In 1764 the Baptist Church came in 
through settlers from New England, but with this ex- 
ception the denominations stated were without rivals. 
Receiving strong and influential accessions from Scot- 
land and Ireland, the Presbyterian Churches became 
the most numerous at the outbreak of the Revolution, 
and gave to that movement a support which has never 
been challenged. Reserving more especially to the 
towns in which they were located detailed histories of 
present church organizations, we notice the earlier 
steps in the introduction of the leading denomina- 


Lutheranism was brought to Newburgh by the 
Palatine immigrants of 1709, who were granted, in 
addition to farm-lots, a glebe of five hundred acres 
for " the sole and only proper use, benefit, and behoof 
of a Lutheran minister to serve and have the care of 
the inhabitants and their successors forever." Joshua 
Kockertlial, who accompanied the nine families of 
immigrants as their minister, did not locate per- 
manently with them, but removed to Columbia 
County. Justus Falconier, minister of the Lutheran 
congregation of New York, served the people by an 
annual visit, and, it is written, administered the rite 
of baptism " in the house of one of the trustees, the 
19th April, 1710." This is the first baptism of record 
in the county. Falconier died in 1723, and in 1725 
William Christopher Berkenmeyer became his suc- 
cessor in visiting the settlement, it being agreed, in 
1730, that he should receive as compensation "thirty 
shepels of wheat." His successor was Michael Chris- 
tian Knoll, who served similar congregations at Hack- 
ensack and Wappinger's Creek until 1749, at which 
time it is stated that " there lived" as tenants upon 
the glebe and thereabout, on both sides of the river, 
" more than thirty families" of that " Protestant Con- 
fession." Their house of worship was erected be- 
tween the years 1726 and 1731, and was adorned by a 
bell vvhich had been given to them by the govern- 
ment, but which, in the early years of their parish 
history, they had loaned to the Lutheran Church in 
New York. In the course of the forty yeara which 
had passed since their settlement many changes had 
taken place among them, and in 1749 they were largely 
outnumbered by those who had been added to the set- 
tlement, and who were termed " Dutch and English 
new inhabitants of other Confessions." Availing 
themselves of the provisions of the charter of the 
glebe providing for an annual election of trustees, 
the latter class, at the election in 1747, elected those 
who were not Lutherans, and closed the doors of the 
church to a minister of that denomination except by 
consent. The last recorded services were held July 
3 and Oct. 2, 1748. The record closes : " This year, 
1749, our minister has not been there on the shore, 
and the church being locked up." The Lutherans 
appealed to the Governor and Council to restore to 

them the franchise, and the new trustees made peti- 
tion to vacate the charter. The latter were success- 
ful, and in 1751 a new charter was issued confirming 
the income of the glebe to the support of a " minister 
of the Church of England as by law established, and 
of a schoolmaster to teach and instruct the children 
of the inhabitants" of the parish, the name of which 
was then changed from the " Palatine Parish of Quas- 
saick" to the " Parish of Newburgh." 

The second Lutheran Church was in the present 
town of Montgomery. Among the patented lands in 
the old precinct of Wallkill was one to Francis Har- 
rison, Oliver Schuyler, and Allen Jarrat (known as 
the Harrison Patent), issued July 7, 1720. Soon alter 
its issue it was divided in farm-lota and an effort made 
to obtain settlers. What were known as Palatines 
supplied the materials. 'These immigrants were of 
three classes : first, those who found their way to 
England in 1708 and were sent to Quassaick ; second, 
those who had formed part of the "Swiss contingent" 
in the allied army under the Prince of Orange, ten 
thousand of whom were sent to America by England 
and mainly located in Columbia and Ulster Counties ; 
and, third, those who were induced by the represen- 
tations of emigrant agents to accept of homes in the 
New World. From one of the two last classes a col- 
ony was obtained for the Harrison Patent, for whose 
encouragement a village was laid out under the name 
of Germantown and a log church erected, which was 
long known as the " Harrison Meeting-House." The 
first colony was located in or about 1722, and was 
composed of Hans Newkirk, Hendrick Newkirk, 

Mattias Slimmer, Peter Kysler, Krans, 

Brandos, to each of whom a deed for a farm tract was 
given. The church building, it is said, was blown 
down after the war of the Revolution, and the Lu- 
theran element in the settlement and adjoining not 
being suflSciently numerous to erect another, the con- 
gregation became absorbed in other denominations. 
The ancient graveyard is the only remaining witness 
of the site, and in it but a single monumental inscrip- 
tion: " Born 1686, died 1759. A. M. M." The records 
of the church, if any there ever were, perished with 
its early members, some of whom are still represented 
by descendants residing in the town in which the an- 
cient church was located. 

As being among the earliest pioneers in civilization, 
and certainly the earliest in introducing the ordi- 
nances of religion, the Palatines, or Lutherans, of 
Quassaick and Germantown deserve recognition in 
the annals of the county. 

There are now two German Lutheran Churches in 
the county, viz. : 

St. PeterV Purt Jenls. Kev. B. Kilhn. 

St. Paul's. Newburgh Rev. W. 11. Bueliler. 


From the deeds on record the fact is clearly estab- 
lished that the Presbyterian Church at Goshen was 
the first of that denomination in the present county. 



By the terms of the agreement under which the town- 
ship of Goshen was founded, the proprietors of the 
Wawayanda Patent agreed to give a farm-lot of two 
hundred acres to such minister as the purchasers of 
the township lots should elect, while the purchasers 
were taxed ten acres on every hundred held by them 
for highways and for a parsonage, a burying-ground, 
and other public uses. The latter stipulation was 
complied with on the 17th of July, 1721, and deeds 
for three parcels given (one parcel containing seventy 
acres, one sixty-one acres, and one nine acres) to John 
Yelverton, in trust, who certified that a minister, the 
Rev. John Bradner, had been settled, that a parson- 
age-house was then being erected, and that it was in- 
tended to build a meeting-house. The deed from the 
proprietors was executed April 17, 1721, to Bradner 
and his heirs, as a consideration "over and above the 
salary and perquisites" which should be given to him, 
he being recognized as " the first minister of the pre- 
cinct of Groshen." Bradner died in 1732. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Silas Leonard, who served until his 
deatfi in 1754. Rev. Abner Brush served from 1758 to 
1766, when the Rev. Nathan Kerr was installed. He 
was not the " successor" of Mr. Bradner, as has been 
erroneously stated, although he may have been in the 
esteem of the people, in whose charge he remained 
until his death, in 1804.* The first church edifice 
stood on the site now occupied by the court-house, 
facing the Westcott house, which was the original 
parsonage. The first rude stone erected in the grave- 
yard had the inscription, "J. Finch, First Grave, 
1716," showing that interments had been made prior, 
to the formal deeds, the lot having been one of the 
three reserved in the survey. 

The second Presbyterian Church was that known as 
Goodwill, in the town of Montgomery. The precise 
date of its organization cannot be fixed, the earliest 
record evidence in relation to it being under date of 
Sept. 20, 1729, at which time John McNeal presented 
an application to the Synod of Philadelphia for sup- 
plies of preaching. The traditional evidence in re- 
gard to it is that it was originally composed of "about 
forty families that had emigrated from different parts 

* Mr. Kerr has beeu preserved ia several liistorical aspects, and espe- 
cially by Mr. Headley in his " Clergy of the Revolution." The follow- 
ing anecdote from Bivington's New York Gazette, June 21, 1780, shows 
that he could he facetious as well as patriotic ; 

" Nathan Kerr, the pastor of Goshen, iu New Tork, in a sermon de- 
livered the last shearing-time to his flock, previous to the sending his 
deacons among them to collect the fleece, used many curious and pathetic 
arguments to induce them to pay in their several subscriptions with a 
proper allowauce for the depreciation of the paper currency. He com- 
plained much of the injustice of a contrary conduct, and charged the neg- 
lect of the ministers in this respect upon them, as one of those crying 
sins which had called down eo many heavy judgments on their heads. 
That these might be removed, he strongly recommended to them to re- 
pent particularly of the heinous sin of defrauding the ministers. Then, 
with nplifted eyes and hands, and plaintive voice, addressed himself to the 
Almighty iu nearly the following words : ' Ood 1 our corn is blasted 1 
oar fruit is all cut oif 1 our flax is caught under the enow, so that we shall 
soon have neither shift nor shirt 1 And what, oA, God I dost thou in- 
tend to do with thy people next?*" 

of Ireland, but principally from the county of Lon- 
donderry," and who, in their new home, were called 
"the people of Wallkill." Its first church edifice 
was erected in 1735, and its first pastor, the Rev. Jo- 
seph Houston, was settled in 1735. The original 
meeting-house gave place to a new one in 1765, and 
the latter, after sheltering the congregation for over 
one hundred years, was converted into the present 
edifice in 1875. During its existence not less than 
five congregations have sprung from its loins,— the 
Neelytown Church, Hamptonburgh Church, Hope- 
well Church, Graham's Church, Berea Church, and 
Montgomery Village Church, and several other soci- 
eties have been recruited from its ranks. 

The third Presbyterian Church was the Bethlehem, 
of Cornwall, designated in some early church records 
by the name of Highlands, from the precinct which 
it immediately adjoined, and in which a large per- 
centage of its active members resided. The date of 
its organization is not certain, but it was probably 
some time about 1730,t in which year its three first 
elders, Thomas Smith, Sr., Charles Clinton, and James 
Given, located in the district. Its first pastor was the 
Rev. Mr. Chalker, in 1734, who appears to have ac- 
cepted the charge under an agreement by which he 
was also to serve Goodwill Church " as pastor of both 
congregations," but which agreement Goodwill sub- 
sequently declined to execute. Its first church edifice 
was probably erected in 1731 ; the deed for the land 
on which it was situated was given by Dr. John 
Nicoll in 1739, at which time Thomas Smith, Sr., 
Charles Clinton, and John Given were its elders. 
During the early years of its existence the church had 
a wide-spread congregation, embracing Cornwall, 
Blooming-Grove, New Windsor, and Newburgh. The 
First Presbyterian Church of Newburgh and the First 
Presbyterian Church of New Windsor were planted 
under its care. 

There are now thirty-three Presbyterian Churches 
in the county, viz. : 

Amity Eov. D. D. Timlow. 

Bethlehem " David J. Atwater, 

Centreville " Charles W. Cooper. 

Chester " Theodore A. Leggett. 

Circleville " Charles H. Park. 

Cornwall " George P. Noble, 

Canierbury " Lyman .\bhatt f^m 

Denton Vacant. 

Florida, First Rev. Asahel A. Clark. 

" Second " Henry A. Harlow. 

Goshen " William D. Snodgrass. 

Hamptonburgh " Slater C. Hepburn. 

Highland Falls " Ahijah Greene. 

Hopewell " Jithu Turner. 

Little Britain " R. Howard Wallace. '' 

Middlehope " Vacant. '•■ 

MiddletowD, Fii-st " Nathaniel Elmer. 

" Second " Charles Beatlie. .^] 

Monroe " Daniel A. Fi-eeland. 

Montgomery (Goodwill; " James M. Dickson. '''"J 

Montgomery (Village) " James C. Forsyth. 

f The date is not certain, some authoritlee holding that the OTgaDiu- 
tion was in 1726. In the records of the church, under date of 1827, B* 
written ; " According to the best information, it (the church edifice) mo^ 
have been erected about the year 1731," which would imply a prsTioM 
organization of the society, at least informally. Thomas Smith, Sr.,aiid 
Charles Clinton, who appear in the deed of 173B as elders of the sodetji 
were not in the district until 1730. 



UoimtHope Sev. Lnther Littell. 

Newburgta (Firat) " William K. Hall. 

** (Calvaiy) " Jeremiah Seaile. 

" (nnion) " Frederick B. Savage. 

New Windsor Vacant. 

OtiBville EuT. Eiibert H. Craig. 

Port Jerrii. „ " Alfred P. Botsford. 

Ridpebnry " Theodore BrittaiD. 

Scotchtown " David Beattie. 

Unionville " Henry F. Wadeworth. 

Waahiogtonville (First) " James B. Beaumont. 

^ (Second) " Nathan M. Sherwood. 

WesttowD " Laurens T. Shuler. 


In " a summary account of the state of the church," 
made by William Vesey, rector of Trinity, in 1704, 
it is written : " In Orange County there are about 
sixty families of several nations, who have no min- 
ister nor are able to raise a salary for one," — the refer- 
ence being to the county as originally constituted. In 
the annals of the London "Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts" it is written 
(1728) : "The Society have received many .fresh appli- 
cations from congregations of people in the Planta- 
tions to have missionaries sent to them ; particularly 
from the inhabitants of New Windsor, in Ulster 
County;'' and during the following year (1729), that 
" the Society have received a letter from the Rev. Mr. 
Vesey, at New York, inclosing one from Francis Har- 
rison, Esq., one of his majesty's council of that Prov- 
ince, wherein he acquaints that, pursuant to the de^ 
cree of the Society, he had inquired into the number, 
condition, and circumstances of the inhabitants of 
New Windsor and parts adjacent, and is informed this 
district is twenty miles from north to south and six- 
teen from east to west, and contains about four hun- 
dred inhabitants ; that the chief of them live in good 
credit and reputation ; but that there is no clergyman 
to oflSciate among this large body of people within 
eighty miles' distance." In response to this petition 
the society sent out the Rev. Richard Charlton, who 
entered upon his duties in 1731. He was soon after 
succeeded by the Rev. W. Kilpatrick, who served 
until 1734, from which time until 17 41 1 5, when the 
Rev. Hezekiah Watkins was appointed, the parish 
was vacant. The latter established three stations in 
the parish, — one at New Windsor; one on the Otter- 
kill, known as St. David's,* and one on the Wallkill, 
known as St. Andrew's. The New Windsor station 
was changed to Newburgh in 1747, where, soon after, 
the glebe which had been set apart for the support 
of a Lutheran minister passed into its possession, 
and where it became known (1751) as the Newburgh 
mission, and in 1770, by letters of incorporation, as 
St. George's. During the war of the Revolution it 
practically ceased to exist, but was revived in 1815, 
under the Rev. John Brown, who, during that year, 
administered " the Holy Communion for the first time 
in the parish since the Revolutionary war, to the 
small number of three.'' The mission station at St. 
David's was also incorporated in 1770, and erected, in 

* The graveyard at Buraeide, in which repose the remains of Rev. 
Hezekiah Watkins, marks the ancient site. 

1774,t a church edifice, but never completed it. The 
congregation was almost entirely dispersed during the 

t It i& inferred that a church edifice of some description M'as erected 
prior to the date here ^iven, and that the building of 1774 whs a second 
structure. When the Rev. John Sayre came into the field iis the succes. 
sor of Mr. Watkins, he found this old church, as well as the one in oc- 
cupation at Newburgh and that at St. Andrew^e. None of them seemed 
to conform to his st-ndard, and his first efforts, aftt-r securing for each 
division of the parish a royal charter, under the titles of St. David's, St. 
George's, and St. Andrew's, was to build aparisb church at New Windsor, 
where there had never been one, which should be what he called the 
''capitwl" of the parish. As has been sbited above, the parish had been 
known as the "Parish of New Windsor" from its founding until 1752, 
when, under the new charter of the Glebe, it was changed to the *' Par- 
ish of Newburgh." Mr. Sayre urged that New Windsor was entitled to 
the " Capitol" by reason of original dedication, and from the fact that it 
had not only " had all the burthen of the two first mitisiunaries," but 
was still known as the "parish of New Windsor" by the Society for 
Propagating the Gospel, to the records of which the title should conform. 
A part of bis plan was to obtain an amendment to the new Glebe charter 
changing the name to New Windsor, and ttpplying the revenues to the 
parish church. The ofBcifil members ot the parish of Newburgh consented 
to unite in building a church "near New Windsor," but when subse- 
quently asked to do so refused to agree to the proposed amendment of the 
Glebe charter, saying that they would not have given their assent to the 
building had they had"the most distant thought" that it would "have 
tended to affix the Glebe at Newburgh to a church at New Windsor," and 
" urged their fear of the people of Newburgh if they should consent to such 
a step, and it would be unsafe for them to ride the roads for feaV of assassi- 
nation." The matter of cbanging-tlie charter seemed to have been dropped, 
but a subscription for building a church was raised. This subscription 
was made payable to the " rector and members of St. David's Church, in 
the precinct of Cornwall," on the condition that the building should be 
erected " on a spot of ground to be agreed upon and procured" on the 
south side of Chambers' Creek, *' so that the same shall be out and inde- 
pendent of the jurisdiction of the trustees of the parish of Newburgh." 
Whether the buildiug was erected does not appear, nor where it was loca- 
ted if erected ; but as there is no tecord of any other structure than that 
known as St. David's, it is inferred, as stated, tlnit it is the one referred 
to in the text. The following were the subscriptions : 

£ s. d. , £ s. d. 

JohuSavre, Jr 5 00 

Thomas Ellison 100 

Wm. Kllieon 26 

John Ellison 26 

Saml. Whituiore 2 

1 10 
1 10 
16 U 
Gilbert Peet 16 

Franciti Mandevill.. 

John NicU 

John Barton 

William Williams.. 

Vincent Mattiiews 5 

Geor. Clinton 3 

LeonardNicoll 2 

Nathaniel Liscomb 10 

John Gollow 

Christopher Gollow 

Isaac Stonebouse 2 

Isaac Schultz 1 

Henry Ktlborn 

William Jackson y... 1 


Jerh. Clark 100 

Gilbard Barton 2 

Benjamin Case 80 

Sam. Arthur 1 10 

Andrew Sherwood 8 

Keuben Clark 10 

Patrick McCamriel 10 

David Sontbeiland, Sr 10 

John Celley 4 

David Mandevil 80 

Amos Mills 8 

David Sutten 8 

James Sutten 80 

Theophilus Curwin 1 10 

Johannah Kleek 4 

Bobert Newson 10 

Mark Car 4 

James Clinton 1 10 

i 10 I James Jackson, Jr 1 

00 * 



Samuel Logan 10 0, 

Benjamin Homan 8 0' 

Silas White 8 

David Halliday 8 

Judah Harlow 16 

Sylvanus Dusiuberry 1 

Samuel Thorn 50 

John Johnson 1 

Saml. Brewster 3 

Saml. Brewster, Jr 10 

Joseph Smith 8 

James Peeters 6 

Thomas Jackson 80 

Leonard Smith 3 

William Edmouston 100 

Stephen Peek 1 10 

Joseph Wood 10 

Joseph Drake 1-0 

In connection with this subject we give the following extract from the 
records of St. Andrew's Church, which has been kindly furnished by 
Rev. 0. Applegate. The statement bears evidence of having been written 
at a date comparatively recent and on tradition, but it is nevertheless not 
without value : 

" In 1732 or '3, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in For- 
eign Parts sent Rev. Richard Charlton to New Windsor, in Ulster Co. 
That part of tlie county was new and thinly settled, but some families 
of the church at New Windsor, viz. : the Alsops, Ellisons, Chambers, 
Lawrences ; in the interior part of the county, the Coldens, Matthews, 
Wilem^ns, MacKentosh, Bull, etc. The parish of New Windsor was then 
said to include all these. Mr. Charlton ofiiciated for some time in pri- 



Revolution, and the building occupied as a hospital 
by the army. It was subsequently partly blown over 
and permitted to decay. A church organization, how- 
ever, was maintained until a comparatively recent 
period, and possession of the location and burying- 
ground* is still retained. St. Andrew's has a some- 
what brighter record, having escaped dissolution 
during the Revolution, although greatly weakened. 
It is said to have been the first of the three stations to 
erect a of worship, — a log building with a fire- 
place, — which was located at the fork of the road now 
leading from St. Andrew's to Shawangunk and Wal- 
den. Soon after its incorporation in 1770, the con- 
gregation erected what was considered a very fine edi- 
fice, and also a parsonage-house, and was presented 
with ten acres of land by Peter DuBois, and by Rich- 
ard Bradley, attorney-general of the province, with a 
farm of two hundred and twenty acres. The Rev. 
John Sayre, who had been appointed to succeed the 
Rev. Hezekiah Watkins, and who had been instru- 
mental in obtaining the incorporation of the three 
parishes named, resigned his position in 1775, through 
attachment to the crown, and the rectorship remained 
vacant until 1790. The church is now known as St. 
Andrew's of Walden. 

vate houses, but ho soon got tired of the country, and being a young man 
furniKd an attaclmieiit iu New York, married and left. The Society for 
tlie Propagatiuu of the Gospel siuijp.ied liis phice hi removing thiMr mis- 
sionary, Kev. Mr. Kilpatriult, from C-ipe Fair, iu Newfoundland, to 
New Windsor; but he having a large family and being a corpulent man 
soon got tired of the country, as well as they of Iiini. The nii&»ion was 
vacant until 1744, when Dr. Juhusun, of Connecticut, recfimmended Mr. 
Hezekiah Watkins as u jiruper person to be sent home for Ordei-s. A 
small subscription was raised fur him, and lie went to England; wad oi- 
dained and appointed by the Society as nifssiouary with a salary of 
only J&50, to officiate at three divigitma of the miiision, viz : At New 
Windsor ou the Hudson River, at the Otterkill iu Orange Co , and at the 
Wallkill in Ulster Co. Watkins was a ttingle uuin of easy and Inoffensive 
disposition, so that he lived happily with bis people till the day of his 
death. During this time no place of worship was built except at the 
Wallkill division, where they put up a temporary log cabin with a fii'e- 
place in it. In 1750 the inliabitaiits of Newburgh applied for and ub- 
taiuod a grant of 5U0 acres, which had formerly been granted by Qceen 
Ann to a number of Lutherans, these Lutherans having all but one or 
two Bold their rights and removed out of the county. Thi se that re- 
mained surrendered their nglit iu the Glebe to the Crvwu (thin is an 
error — Ed.), and it was regrauted by charter. After obtaining the char- 
ter Mr. Watkins was put in possession of the lou acres set aside for the 
minister, and he after that officiated every third Sunday in a small church 
on the Glebe built by the Lutherans. Tliis church was befoi-e that kept 
at the town of New Windsor, and his moving to Newburgh gave offence 
to the heads of tlie church at New Windsor, and caused an unhappy rup- 
ture that was detrimental to the prosperity of the church thereafter. 
In 1768 or *9 the Kev. John Sayre was a[ipointed to this mis^imt, now 
by the name of Newburgh, aud parts acljaceut. He took possession of 
the Glebe, and brought matters which had been neglected into a little 
better regulation, lit preached alternately at Newburgh, the Ottei^ 
kill division, and Wallkill Division or log church. He was a popular 
preacher, and obtained a charter of incorporation for each church, viz, ; 
St. George's, St. Andrew's, and St. David's, all dated .July 30, 1770." 

* In this bur>'ing-grouud, now entirely neglected, and" from which it 
is said many Iieadstones have been removed and converted into door- 
stones, lie the remains of Rev. Hezekiah Watklus, and also of his 
mother, Joanna, widow of Ephraim Watkins, aud of several members 
of his father's family, — Abel, Joseph, .loseph (2d), Hezekiah, Jesse, aud 
Submit, wife of Samuel. The inscription ou the heaiUtone of Rev. Hez- 
ekiah is as follows: *' Sacred to the memory of the Kev. HezekiAh Wat- 
king, who departed this life on the 10th day of April, 1766, aged 67." 

Under the rectorship of Rev. Frederick Van Hnrn 
St. Andrew's made some progress after 1790, anj 
through his efforts established a congregation (now 
St. James') at Goshen, but it was not until after tlie 
settlement of Rev. John Brown at Newburgh, in 1815 
that the Episcopal Church — the successor of the 
Church of England — began to recover the grouod 
which it had lost during the Revolution. Although 
deprived of the income of the glebe, which, in tk 
absence of "a minister of the Church of England, u 
by law established," had been, by act of the L^'t- 
lature in 1804, permanently applied to the mainten- 
ance of a school, Mr. Brown succeeded in reviving 
St. George's Church under its old name, and subee- 
quently in organizing St. Thomas' at New WiDdsor. 
Missions under his care were also founded at Port 
Jervis (now Grace Church , and at Monticello, Sul- 
livan Co. (now St. John's Church), in which latter he 
performed divine service once in three months foi 
about ten years. In 1860, St. George's parish wai 
divided and St. Paul's Church established. 

The following are the Episcopal Churches and mis- 
sions in the county at the present time, with the date 
of their admission to the Diocesan Convention : 

1785.t St. George's, Newburgh; Rev. John Brown, B.D., Rvctur Emao 

itus; Rev. Ocluvins Applegate, Rector. 

17i«.5.t St. Andrew's. Waldeu Rev. Francis Washlami. 

178o.t St. David's, Wasbingtouville " G, Van Horn, liiiiwioniij, 

18U,<. St, Jamm', Giislien " Wm. H. DeL (irauiila, 

1«18, St, Thomas', New Winilsor " H. McKira, Jr. 

184.i, Grace, Middlettwn " G. D. Sillintan. 

185IJ. Holy Innocents, Highland Falls " W. li 1'liotnas. 

1854. Grace, Port Jervis " Alex. C'apntn. 

18:*i8, St. Joiin's, Canterbury " Wm. E. Snowden. 

1«6l). St. Paul's, Newburgh '* Kufus Knieiy, 

1806. Christ, Warwick, vacant at present; last rector. Rev, Alf. Gskl^ 


18G8. St, John's, Greenwood Rev, Samuel Moran. 

1S(i9, Giuce, Mouroe " H. A, Dows 

1871, St. George's Mission, Newbui-gh " A. C. Hoeliing. 

At an early date — one authority says August, 1716 
— the Rev. Petrus Vas, pastor of the Reformed Dutch 
Church in Kingston, visited the settlements which had 
been founded on the Delaware River, aud which were 
mainly composed of German, Dutch, and Huguenot 
immigrants, who had found their way thither from 
Kingston and New Paltz. How far his circuit ex- 
tended is not known ; but prior to 1737 at least four 
informal societies were in existence, and in that year 
were organized as the " united churches of Mini- 
sink." These churches were the Walpack Church, 
in the Walpack bend of the Delaware; the Shapenac 
Church, seven miles above ; the Minisink Church, 
twelve miles farther on ; and eight miles fartheruR 
in the forks of the Delaware and Neversiflk, the 
Maghaghkernek Church. Dominie Vas was succeeded 
by Rev. George Wilhelmus Mancius, in 1732, and 
continued the work which his predecessor had inaug- 
urated, having, prior to 1741, baptized over one hun- 
dred children in the Maghaghkemek Church. Th^ 
first settled pastor of the four churches was B8». 
Johannes Casparus Fryenmoek, in 1741. The fii^ 

t Organized 1782; chartered 1770. 



jhurch edifice of the Maghaghkemek congregation 
Was erected in 1743, — a log structure of perhaps thirty 
feet square. This building was burnt by Brant in his 
raid in 1779. Its successor was a building forty feet 
square, two storiea high, and stood on the site of the 
original edifice by the roadside, near what is now the 
junction of Main Street and Jersey Avenue in Port 
Jervis. This building served the purposes of the 
congregation until 1833, when it was taken down and 
a larger one erected, and formally dedicated as the 
"Relormed Dutch Church of Deerpark." The edi- 
fice now occupied was erected in 1868. 

All the ministers named in connection with the 
church at Maghaghkemek apparently performed no 
little itinerant work, not only on the Delaware River, 
but in the Wallkill Valley. It is at least presumable 
that Dominie Vas especially made the present town 
of Montgomery one of his stations, as his successor, 
Dominie Mancius, found there in 1732, if not a society, 
those who were ready to be organized as such, and gave 
them constitution under the name of the German 
Reformed Church of Wallkill, of which Johannes 
Yong Bloet (Youngblood) was the first elder, and 
Jacob Broch Slaber (Bookstaver) the first deacon. Its 
first church edifice was a log building, which is said 
to have been so " constructed that the upper story 
projected on all sides beyond the lower one, and 
served as a block-house for defense against attacks 
from the Indians, as well as a house of worship. The 
only way of entrance was by means of a ladder, and 
the hour of service was announced by blowing a tin 
horn."* This tradition may or may not be true ; if 
true, the probabilities are that the building was 
erected for a block-house during the French and In- 
dian war of 1756, when a number of such structures 
were made in Ulster and Orange, and that it was sub- 
sequently occupied by the society. Whatever may be 
the actual facto, it was known and recognized as a 
church in 1758,— Ballard Beekford, of New York, 
giving to the society, in that year, four acres of land 
described as being "on the west side of Wallkill 
iRiver, lying a little above the mill known as Mingus' 
milljt where the High Dutch church now stands," 
the land to be converted into a burying-ground. In 
[1760 the log church was taken down and a frame 
btructure erected, which was occupied until 1803, 
When it gave place to the present brick edifice. The 
^rst baptisms were in 1734, by Dominie Mancius. 
The first settled minister of the society was Rev. John 
kichael Kern in 1772. 

While the Dutch ministers at Esopus were itinera- 
ting in the Wallkill and Delaware Valleys, a society 
of the same faith had been founded at Orangetown, 
in the extreme southeastern portion of original 
Drange. It was organized Oct. 24, 1694. Its first 

•Jacob Frank Howe, "American Historical Records," Jannary, 1873. 

t Miii|;ua' mill wal erected in 1722-2S, Iiy Juhannes Itlingns, who, it 
s saiil In an old USS., " niiafortunately happened to he killed soon after." 
klattia Millzbaugb married his widow, and continued the mill. 

minister was the Rev. Guilliam Bartholf, and its first 
church edifice was erected in 1716. How early mem- 
bers of this society found their way to the Wawayanda 
Patent cannot be stated, but the iact is well a'lcertaiued 
that the families of Blauvelt, Demarest, Bartholf, 
Cooper, Van Houton, and DeHart, who were located 
in Warwick prior to 1760, were of the Orangetown 
stock ; and the conclusion is not improbable that they 
maintained the faith of their fathers, and received 
pastoral attention from the Orangetown Church. It 
is stated, however, that not being in sufficient number 
to maintain a society, and being desirous of living in 
harmony with their neighbors, they consented to unite 
with the Presbyterians in founding a churcli at War- 
wick in 1764 or '65. In 1770, John Morin Scott, 
whose career during the Revolution is not unfamiliar, 
and who was then interested in the Wawayanda 
Patentj gave land for the erection of a Presbyterian 
church and for a burial-ground, and William Wick- 
ham added one acre to the gift. In 1773 or '74 a 
building was erected and inclosed, but was not com- 
pleted until. 1792. Presbyterian service was main- 
tained until 1803, when, the Dutch element being the 
most numerous and influential, it was agreed that, as 
the deed of the property was in the Presbyterians, it 
should continue to be held by Presbyterian trus- 
tees, while the Reformed Dutch Consistory should 
have charge of all the spiritual interests of the church. 
It was also agreed that the name should be the " Pres- 
byterian and Reformed Dutch Church of Warwick." 
These preliminaries having been settled, application 
was made to the Classis of Paramus for constitution, 
in response to which that duty was performed by 
deputation from the Classis, Jau. 7, 1804. Andrew 
Ackerman and Cornelius Demarest were the first 
elders;, Aaron Taylor and' John G. Ackerson the 
first deacons; and Rev. Charles Hardenbergh the first 
settled pastor. Under its title of 1804 the church re- 
mains at the present time, although practically classed 
as one of the American Reformed (Dutch) Churches 
of the country. 

There are now in the county seven American 
(Dutch) Reformed Churches, viz. : 

Cnddeliackvilie, D(>erpark Bov. .lolm DiiBiiia. 

'DeiM-iiai-k, I'ort Jervis ** l-leiti-y M. Vuuihees. 

MuiitK*'niery " H S. Schenck. 

** Berea ** J. Milliken 

NHU-ltnrgh " J. lialntHit Tarroll. 

Waldfn " Marliii V. Scliutininaker. 

Warwick i " Vernun Oal*ul. 

Although never obtaining any considerable foot- 
hold in the county, Congregationalism has its rank 
among the early religious organizations, having been 
established in the Blooming-Grove Church in 1759, 
but whether as the result of agreement among settlers 
of different denominations who united in that form, 
or whether absolutely founded by Congregational ists 
of the New England type, cannot now, perhaps, be 
definitely ascertained, although it maintained the 
former character for many years and proved very sue- 



cessiiil in minding its own business. Its first house 
of worship was erected in 1759 ; that now occupied 
by the society was-erected in 1823. The following 
are the Congregational Churches in the county : 

Blooming-Grove „ Rev, Warren Hathaway. 

Hovreirs. " C. B. Wilkin. 

Middletown " F. K. Marvin. 


Members of both the Associate and the Associate 
Reformed Presbyterian Churches were among the early 
immigrants of New Windsor and Wallkill. Perhaps 
too weak in numbers to maintain societies of their 
own, they attached themselves to the Presbyterian 
Church of Goodwill, or to Bethlehem. In 1752 the 
Rev. John Cuthbertson, of the Associate Presbytery 
of Scotland, was sent to America by that body, and in 
1753, Revs. Galletly and Arnot, representing the As- 
sociate Reformed, followed Cuthbertson. Very soon 
after his arrival Cuthbertson visited the Wallkill 
country, and organized (1753) one of the "praying 
societies" then in vogue in the church which he rep- 
resented, and which, in 1795, became the " Reformed 
Presbyterian Church of Coldenham." At a later 
period immigrants of the same faith established a 
" praying society in Newburgh, which, in 1816 or '17, 
became the First Reformed Presbyterian Church of 
Newburgh," and from its loins sprang the " Second 
Reformed Presbyterian Church," in 1854. 

It is not of record that either Galletly or Arnot 
visited the district, although it is possible that one or 
the other of them may have done so and inaugurated 
a society of the Associate Reformed Church at Little 
Britain. Welltascertained facts, however, seem to 
indicate that that denomination had its introduction 
here through the missionary labors of Rev. Robert 
Annan, who carae over from Scotland in 1761, and 
who, before the expiration of ten years, established 
preaching stations throughout the Wallkill country 
from Little Britain to Bloomingburgh. In 1765 so- 
cieties had been formed at Little Britain and in Wall- 
kill of suflScient strength to erect houses of worship, 
and to warrant the calling, in 1767, of Mr. Annan to 
become their settled pastor, in which relation he was 
installed Oct. 2, 1772. The informal societies of 1765 
became the "Associate Reformed Church of Little 
Britain" and the "Associate Reformed Church of 
Neelytown." From the latter a colony organized what 
is known as "Graham's Church" of Crawford, in 
1809 ; but after that event it dwindled away, and in 
1831 what remained of it was incorporated in the 
Presbyterian Church of Hamptonburgh. Meanwhile 
a number of the members of the Little Britain Church 
who had removed to Newburgh took steps to organize 
a church at the latter place, which was accomplished 
in 1797, under the title of the " First Associate Re- 
formed Church of Newburgh," from which a colony 
organized, in 1837, the " Union Associate Reformed 
Church." The Little Britain Church and the Union 

Church are now attached to the Old School branch of 
the Presbyterian Church. The " First Associate Be- 
formed Church of Newburgh" alone maintains ih 
ancient faith, having refused to accept the union of 
the Associate and the Associate Reformed Churchv 
by which the United Presbyterian Church was formed 
in 1859, or to follow the lead of its associate charcha 
and attach itself to the Old School Presbytery. A 
number of its dissenting members, however, accepted 
the Associate and the Associate Reformed union, and 
organized, in 1859, the " First United PresbyteriM 
Church of Newburgh." 

The following are the churches of these several 
denominations at the present time : 

Reformed I^^ebyterian. 

Coldenbam Bev. J. W. Shaw. 

Newburgh (First) " Sauil. Carlisle. 

Newbargh (Second) " J. Benwlck Tbompflon. 

Vniud Preebyterian, 

Newburgh (First) Bev, J. G. D. Findley. 

Graham (Ciawfonl) " John EniklDe. 

Auociate Beformed. 
Newburgh (First) Bev. J. Macnaughton. 

Baptist missionaries were in the county, on both 
its northern and southern border, as early probably as 
1740. From 1740 to 1780 the Rev. Mr. Halstead, 
then pastor of the church at Fishkill, performed mis- 
sionary labors at different places in Duchess and 
Ulster Counties, and in 1782 succeeded in organi- 
zing a branch of the society in the precinct of New 
Marlborough, then recently a portion of the precinct 
of Newburgh. At a regular meeting of this branch 
church, held on the 24th of May, 1785, at the houM 
of Reuben Drake (Elder James Phillips presiding), 
a petition was presented by Nathan Ellet and Wil- 
liam Purdy, on behalf of themselves and others, ask- 
ing that " the society be constituted a separate church, 
and that Jonathan Atherton be ordained pastor." 
The application was granted. The ordination as well 
as the services constituting the church were held on 
the 27th of May. The minutes state that Elder 
Dakens preached the ordination sermon from Timo- 
thy iv. 8. After prayer by Elder Cole, Elder Dakens 
gave the charge to the pastor and to the church. 
" Elder Phillips gave Bro. Atherton the hand and 
said, in presence of the whole congregation, that he 
owned him as an elder ; and so Elder Phillips went 
to prayer. When done they sang a psalm, went oat, 
and now we are left to ourselves." The organization 
thus formed was called " The Baptist Church of 
Pleasant Valley." In 1789 a branch church was » 
tablished at Latingtown, and another at New P»te 
On the 24th of April, 1790, '' a number of meinben 
were set off by themselves," and on the 2d of JW 
following were constituted the " Church at New- 
burgh." In 1806 the society last named erected 
what was called the " Stone Meeting-house," neiir 
Luptoudale, in the town of Newburgh, and estab- 



lished a burial-ground. William Brundage served as 
its pastor from 1790 to 1795 ; Levi Hall, from 1796 to 
1799; Jethro Johnson, from 1796 to 1803; Luke 
Davis, from 1803 to 1811; William C Thompson, 
from 1812 to 1815 ; and John Ellis, from 1815 to 1817, 
— in which latter year the society united with the 
Pleasant Valley Church, under the title of the " Union 
Charch of Pleasant Valley and Newburgh,'' with al- 
ternate services, an arrangement which was continued 
until 1832, when the Newburgh branch ceased to 
exist, leaving as its only visible record at the present 
time the walls of its meeting-house and the burial- 
place of its dead. 

The introduction of the denomination at Warwick 
was through the early settlers who removed thither 
from Connecticut, who in 1764 organized what is 
now known as the Old-School Baptist Church of 
Warwick. Several of the members of the society 
having acquaintance with Rev. James Benedict, of 
Stratfield, Conn., a licentiate of the Baptist Church 
at that place, he was invited to accept the pastoral 
charge of the society. He visited Warwick under 
this invitation in November, 1764, and in March, 
1765, entered upon the pastorate, continuing in that 
relation until 1777, when he resigned and removed to 
Westmoreland, Pa. The church thus founded was 
the first of any denomination in Warwick, and its 
services, which were held for some years at private 
houses, were attended by all the church-going people 
of the neighborhood. In 1774 a house for public 
worship was erected on what is now the corner, at the 
junction of the road leading from the village of War- 
wick and the road leading from the Welling school- 
house to Bellvale. In 1809-10 the society purchased 
land in the village of Warwick, and erected the edi- 
fice which it now occupies. Pastor Benedict's suc- 
cessor was the Rev. Thomas B. Montague, 1788, who 
was succeeded by Thomas Stevens, who was suc- 
ceeded by Lebbius Lathrop, and continued in charge 
until 1819, during which period the church became 
substantially established in its new location. 

Although at one time comparatively numerous and 
influential, there are now but three organizations of 
the Old-School branch of the Baptist Church in the 
county, viz. : 

Middletown „ Elder Gilbert Beebe. 

New VerDOn (Muont Hope) ** Gilbbrt Beebe, 

Warwick " William Fullard. 

The New-School Baptist churches came into the 
county in 1817, through missionaries appointed by 
the Hudson River Baptist Association, who founded 
societies at Newburgh in 1821, and Cornwall in 1823. 
Of that branch of the denomination there are now six 
churches, viz. : 

Cornwall Rev. 

Mldilletown " W. B. Wright. 

Mewbui'Kh " Arthur Jones. 

Orange (UDionTille) " Ji«eph N. Adanui. 

Port Jervis " Win. McKiniiey. 

Warwick " D. U. LittleBeld. 


The history of the origin of Methodism, and that 
of its founders, John and Charles Wesley, and their 
associates, is too well known to require notice in these 
pages. A brief review of the progress of the society 
in this country, and of the system which was adopted 
to carry forward its missionary labors is, however, 
perhaps necessary to a proper understanding of the 
manner in which it was introduced in the county. 
In 1766 a company of ' Irish emigrants, of whom 
Philip Embury was one, organized a society in New 
York, and in 1768 they erected in that city the first 
Methodist church in America. About the same time 
Robert Strawbridge, who was also a native of Ireland, 
organized a society in Maryland, and built a log 
meeting-house near Pipe Creek, in that province. 
Other immigrants from the British Isles, who had 
settled in Philadelphia, laid the foundations of a so- 
ciety in that city, which soon rivaled, in point of 
numbers and active zeal, the one in New York. En- 
couraged by the progress of the sect in America, Mr. 
Wesley sent over two additional laborers in 1769, 
viz. : Richard Boardman and Joseph Pilmore, the 
former being stationed at New York, and the latter 
at Philadelphia. In 1771, Francis Asbury and Rich- 
ard Wright were added to the work ; and in 1773, 
Thomas Rankin and George Shadford. Rankin was 
appointed by Mr. Wesley " General Assistant of the 
Societies in America," and soon after his arrival he 
issued a call for " a conference of all the preachers in 
America," with a view to systematize the work. The 
meeting was held at Philadelphia, July 4, 1773, and 
was the first " conference" that ever assembled in this 
country. The society then embraced, eleven hundred 
and sixty members, of whom five hundred were in 

During the war of the Revolution the society grad- 
ually decreased in New York and Philadelphia, but 
continued to spread rapidly in the Southern States, so 
that while its total membership at the close of the war 
was thirteen thousand seven hundred and forty, only 
about eleven hundred were resident north of Phila- 
delphia. After the peace Wesley suggested to his 
followers in the United States that they should make 
an organization independent of the society in Eng- 
land. This was accordingly done in 1785, and the title 
of the " Methodist Episcopal Church" was adopted 
to designate the new denomination. Thomas Coke 
and Philip Asbury were appointed bishops, or super- 
intendents, and the society was divided into districts, 
over which "elders" were stationed, under whose 
charge two or more preachers were placed. The 
preachers were then styled " assistants," and the fields 
in which they labored were called " circuits." The 
itinerant principle, which is still one of the distinc- 
tive features of the Methodist Church, was adopted, 
and the preachers held their "circuits" only^for a 
year. In this way the work was zealously prosecuted, 
often amid extreme hardships, and the society re- 



gained the ground which it had for a time lost, and 
won new triumphs in the North as well as the South. 

In 1786, New York and New Jersey were divided 
into two " elder districts," one of which embraced the 
East Jersey, Newark, New York City, and Long 
Island " circuits," and formed the extreme northern 
limit of the society in the United States at that time. 
The East Jersey " circuit" bordered on Orange 
County, and had stationed on it as "assistants" John 
McClaskey and Ezekiel Cooper. While Mr. Cooper 
was on this circuit (1786), one of his public services was 
attended by Col. David McCamley, who invited him 
to preach at his residence in the town of Warwick. 
Mrs. Arthur Smith, a sister of Col. McCamley, was 
visiting her brother at the time of the service there, 
and at her solicitation Mr. Cooper accompanied her 
to lier residence in Middlehope, where he held the 
first Methodist service in the town of Newburgh. 
The date at which it was held cannot now be ascer- 
tained, but it was probably in October, 1786. Mr. 
Cooper, accompanied by Samuel Purdy, also visited 
at this time John Woolsey, near Milton, and having 
established here an outpost for missionary labor far 
beyond the bounds of his circuit, he returned to New 
Jer.iey. Six weeks later, John McClaskey and John 
Cooper passed over the same route, and extended the 
new circuit to the Paltz, where they held services at 
the residences of Hendrick Deyo and Andries DuBois. 
They also stopped in the village of Newburgh, and 
preached iu the house of EInathan Foster, where a 
" class" was soon alter formed. In January, Ezekiel 
Cooper again visited the district, and held service in 
the house of Samuel Fowler in Middlehope, which 
was henceforth a regular preaching station until 1813. 
From 1813 to 1822 the meetings were held in the 
summer in a barn owned by Daniel Holmes, and in 
the winter in Mr. Fowler's house. 

The success which had attended the efforts of Mr. 
Cooper and his associates led to the organization, in 
1788, of the Flanders (N. J.) circuit, which embraced 
this section of country. Of this circuit James 0. 
Cromwell was elder, and his assistants were Jesse 
Lee, Aaron Hutchinson, and John Lee. It had five 
hundred and forty-three members. In 1789 it was 
again divided and the Newburgh circuit established, 
its preachers being Nathaniel B. Mills and Andrew 
Harpending; James D. Cromwell, presiding elder. 
It embraced two hundred and sixty-one of the mem- 
bership of Flanders circuit, and was divided into the 
following "classes" or informal societies, viz.: 

Siiiiil. F.in1fi"8, Jli.IJluliope. 
KliiKtliaii K.»ifrV Ni-wliurgh. 
]tlll^^4lll Wmirh, K.wleituwu. 
Gfoigf StiiiilMU'c, Giiiiliifituwii. 
lliiiil.-l Iliilim-B', MiilillcliM|ic. 
Jiieolt liiivtiinV, iii'ur l.iitiiigtuwn. 
Iditititsliiwii. Laiiii;;'t<>vvii. 

S lel ".viiifis Ki-.vluwn. 

Si'liliUr.', Dilsniitiwii. 
Wiilc.w Alli-uliX Puclmck. 
WaiwRk, Will wick. 

John Klllmuy New Windsor. 

LuO Siuitli's, near Iklarlburougb. 

Dnviil OslrHiiilur'B, Pluttekill. 

Dn^iil Su*itlieii!>\ in the Cluve. 

Klcliun) Gitnistiit's, Mt tlie Clove. 

ShiuI. KetchumX ueai' Sugar Loaf. 



John McWhorter*8. 

Long Puud. 

These classes continued to be visited by the circuit 
preachers until they ripened into societies of sufficient 
strength to support located ministers, or until that 
end was attained by the union of two or more clawes. 
The following preachers appear on the record in coa. 
nection with what was then known as the Newburgh 
circuit : 

1790. — Benjamin Abbott, Joseph Lowell, Samuel 

1791. — Jethro Johnson, Joshua Taylor. 

1792. — Samuel Fowler, Lawrence McCombs. 

1793. — Lawrence McCombs, Smith Weeks. 

1794. — Samuel Fowler, Moses Crane, William 
Storm. This year Marbletown circuit was connected 
with Newburgh, and appointments for preaching made 
at Woodstock, Hurley, Shokan, Tongue (or Clove), 
Shandaken, and Beaverkill. 

1795. — Matthias Swain and David Buck. 

1796. — Jacob Egbert and John Finnegan. 

1797. — Samuel Fowler, Thomas Woolsey. 

1798-99.— Robert Green, William Storms. 

1800.— Samuel Fowler, Elijah Woolsey. 

1801. — Samuel Fowler, Matthias Swain, D. Buck. 

1802. — James Herron, Thomas Stratton. Ulster 
circuit was taken from Newburgh and reported sepa- 

1803.— Thomas Stratton, Mitchell E. Bull. 

1804. — Robert Dillon, Lsaac Candee. Haverstraw 
was added to the circuit appointments. 

1805.— Zenas Covel, Isaac Candee. Haverstraw 
withdrawn from the circuit and church organized. 
Rev. W. Vredenburgh appointed minister. 

1806. — Asa Cummings, William Keith. 

1807.— William Keith, John Crawford. 

1808. — John Robertson, J. Coleman, and William 
Jewett. The EInathan Foster class organized as the 
Methodist Episcopal Church of the parish of New- 
burgh, and steps taken to erect a church edifice, 
which was first occupied in 1810. Robertson planted 
Methodism at Florida, 1808. 

1809.— Seth Crowell, John Finnegan. The New- 
burgh circuit was divided, and New Windsor circuit 
formed, with Revs. Thomas Woolsey and James Cole- 
man, preachers ; Andrew Cunningham and Benjamin 
Westlake, local preachers ; Henry Still, James Ben- 
jamin, Thomas Collard, and Jonathan Stevens, ei- 
horters. The circuit embraced the following classes; 

Cltmea. Leaden, 

New Windsor (.Tohn Ellison) 

Snptr Lnar(Suniusl Ketchaui) Henry Wisner. 

Sniitirs Clove .Tncub Fn*ilfrlck. 

Lower Clove Francis Wjpint. 

Oxfiird Ziiplinr Ki'tchaui. 

Warwick Citrncliiis .Tones. 

Amity James Beigauiin. 

Butter mil Daniel Wood. 

Ketcimnitowa (now filountuluville*)... 

* Ketchamtown was settled about the time of the Kevolntlon, by *• 
grandfather of Benjamin Eetcham, who erected what were long kn"** 
as KetchamV mills. John On* bought and rebuilt the ni Its »oi wkM 
the Shortcut Railroad was opened, Bccnrnd a station, to which be ff^ 
the name of Mountainville. It will be seen tliat the society there iso** 
of the oldest in the county. 



ClatMfi. Lecuters. 

Pocl>n.k (WWow Allien) | SSwl" wnsberr,. 

„ , 1. J J Jonah Wright. 

Newfoundland t Charles Oldham. 

I)e<Tpnrk Benjnmin Bi-own. 

Nvw SliHwanpiuk (Bathel) TliuiM«.-> Cullard. 

HHnilitirgli Nathan Benjamin. 

Bi'llvale , Jiiniea Cunningham. 

Venion — 


The New Windsor class was supplied with a room 
over the store of John Ellison, at Vail's Gate, in 
1791, which was a regular preaching station until 
1807, when the old New Windsor church was erected, 
and the society organized as the Union Methodist 
Episcopal Church of New Windsor. This was the 
first regular Methodist Episcopal Church edifice in the 
county, if not the first on the west side of the Hudson. 
In 1819 the Sullivan circuit was formed from the 
Newhurgh and New Windsor circuits. Revs. Horace 
Weston and James Quinlan, preachers in charge. 

In 1820, Newburgh village was taken from the New- 
burgh circuit, and Rev. Samuel Fowler appointed 
minister. Arnold Schofield and Josiah Bowen, 
preachers on the circuit. 

In 1823 the Newburgh circuit was divided, and 
Bloomingburgh circuit formed, embracing the preach- 
ing stations on the east side of the mountain, viz. : 
Bethel, Bloomingburgh, Middletowu, Mount Johnson 
(now Crawford), Montgomery, Walden, ^^rlingham, 
Sam's Point, and Walker Valley. 

In 1825, New Paltz circuit was taken from the 
Newburgh circuit. The class at Bellvale, on the 
New Windsor circuit, was broken up, and the appoint- 
ment discontinued until 1833. 

In 1837, New Windsor circuit was divided, and 
Sugar Loaf circuit formed, embracing Sugar Loaf, 
Florida, Edenville, Bellvale, Chester, Monroe, Ox- 
ford, Satterlytown, Washingtonville, Blagg's Clove, 
Highland Mills, Little Long Pond, and Dutch Hol- 
low (Greenwood Lake), Revs. Seymour Landon and 
William Miller, circuit preachers, and Rev. Phineaa 
Bice, presiding elder. 

Although Methodism had its introduction in War- 
wick, it was not until 1839 that a regular appointment 
was made for Methodist preaching in the village of 
I Warwick. From a Methodist stand-point the people of 
I that village were thoroughly " joined to their idols," 
• — i.e., Baptists and Presbyterian-Reformed-Dutch. Its 
firmest foothold was gained in Newburgh and New 
[ Windsor, where many came to its ranks who had 
been connected with the Church of England, and 
who were then practically without church connection. 
> This was especially true of John Ellison, who liber- 
i ally encouraged the circuit preachers. In Newburgh, 
I on the contrary, the most socially prominent defender 
of the new faith was Elnathan Foster, a former Pres- 
byterian. Perhaps, however, the itinerant ministers 
f would have been equally successful without these ad- 
■i ventitious aids. They were earnest, strong men, and 
'' sustained their faith under the most annoying perse- 
" cutions and the most trying ostracisms. 

It is due to the denomination to say that the census 
of 1875 awards to it forty-four churches in the county. 
The number, however, evidently embraces circuit 
stations, which do not appear in the minutes of Con- 
ference, and also perhaps colored churches and all 
others claiming the name of Methodists, but which 
are not attached to the regular church organization. 
The following list is from Conference minutes: 

Crawford Bnllville. 

St. Paul's Midilletiiwn. 

Kidgebury Wawiiyainla. 

Trinity Newliurgli City. 

St. Julin'a ** *' 

Grace ** " 

Gardnei-town Newburgh tf>wn. 

Roasville " " 

Fostertown..'. " " 

North Newburgh (AsburyCliaiiel). " " 

Walden Walden. 

Montgomery Miiiitgomery. 

Goalien GiMlien. 

Chester (Iiester. 

Sugar Loaf. Sugar l.ioaf (rhepter). 

Florida Fimida (Warwiik). 

Warwick Wurwii-k Villajre. 

Edenville Kilenvilli- (Waruiik). 

New Milford New Milf.ird (Wiiiwlck). 

Belh-alo Bel Ivalo (Warwick). 

Monroe Monroe. 

Washingtonville Wash ngtonville. 

Salisiiury Mills 8aliKliur% Milts. 

Highland Mills Hiuhland Mills (Monroe). 

New Windsor Vail'M Gate. 

Ctirnwall Cariterlmry (Cornwall). 

High hind ville Cnniuall. 

Fort Montgomery Higlihtnils. 

We«t Point 

Little Britain New Windsor. 

Drew Port .lervii*. 

OtisTille .'....Mount Hope. 

Colored MethodistB. 

African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) Krwl urph. 

" " Micldli'tuwn. 

" " (Bethel) 

" " Port.Iervi8. 

" " Gnshen. 

Separate Methodists , GoKhen, 

In connection with this denomination, the following 
facts have been furnished by Rev. J. P. Hermance, 
P. E., in reference to the Newburgh District, which 
had its beginning in the Newburgh circuit. 

In 1789, Newburgh first appears in the minutes of 
the Conference. By a division of Flanders circuit, 
Newburgh circuit was formed, extending from Platte- 
kill and Marlborough on the north to Warwick on 
the south. (See list of " Classes," already given.) In 

1791, Newburgh stands first on the list of circuits, and 
is followed by Wyoming, New York, New Bochelle, 
and Long Island, which compose the district. In 

1792, Wyoming, Tioga, Newburgh, Flanders, Eliza- 
bethtown, and Staten Island circuits composed the 
district. 1794, Herkimer, Otsego, Delaware, Saratoga, 
and Albany circuits were added to the district. 1795, 
the district included Cambridge, Herkimer, Otsego, 
Delaware, Saratoga, Albany, Newburgh, and Flan- 
ders circuits. 1796, Salem, Bethel, Burlington, Tren- 
ton, Freehold, Elizabethtown, Flanders, Newburgh, 
Delaware, Herkimer, and Albany circuits constituted 
the district. 1798, Albany, Herkimer, and Delaware 
circuits were taken out of the district. In 1801 the 
district, which had previously been known as the East 
Jersey District, received the name of the " New Jer- 
sey District." In 1802 the work was put into " Con- 
ferences," the Newburgh and Ulster circuits forming 



part of the New Jersey District of the Philadelphia 
Conference. A rearrangement was made in 1803, by 
which the Albany District was formed, embracing the 
Newburgh, Ulster, Delaware, Albany, Albany City, 
and Saratoga circuits. In 1804 the district was taken 
from the Philadelphia and placed in the New York 
Conference. It then embraced the Black River, 
Western, Herkimer, Saratoga, Montgomery, Albany, 
Delaware, Ulster, Newburgh, and Albany City cir- 
cuits. In 1805, Haverstraw was added. In 1808 the 
district was cut down to the Albany City, Albany, 
Schenectady, Montgomery, Delaware, Ulster, New- 
burgh, and Haverstraw circuits. In 1810 the name 
was changed to the Hudson River District, and re- 
mained under that title uutil 1832, when it was di- 
vided, the southern portion receiving the name of the 
Newburgh District, embracing the following charges 
and circuits : Catskill, Saugerties, Kingston, Marble- 
town, Sullivan, Montgomery, Rossville, Gardnertown, 
New Windsor, New Paltz, and West Point. The 
various stations, which had previously been preach- 
ing-places in connection with contiguous charges, ap- 
pear in the published minutes at dates as follows: 
New Windsor, 1809 ; Kingston, 1822; Bloomingburgh, 
and name changed to Montgomery, 1824; New Paltz, 
1831 ; Catskill and Saugerties, 1835 ; Rossville and 
Gardnertown, 1832; Rdndout, 1836; Sugar Loaf, 
1837 ; North Newburgh, 1838 ; Milton and Marlbor- 
ough, 1840; Monroe, 1845; Goshen and Southfield 
Mission, 1847 ; Esopus, 1848 ; New Paltz Landing 
and New Paltz, 1850; Newburgh Second Church, 
1852 ; West Newburgh and Eddyville, 1863 ; Chester, 
1854; Kingston Second Church, 1856; Milton, 1858; 
Glasco, 1859; Cornwall and Little Britain, 1863; 
Warwick, Bellvale, Highland Mills, and Walden, 
1866; Washingtonville, 1867; Florida, 1868; Salis- 
bury Mills, 1869 ; West Newburgh, 1870 ; Port Ewen, 
1873; Galeville, 1874. The district extends north- 
ward as far as Saugerties, southward to New Milford, 
westward to Goshen and along the Wallkill Valley, 
northerly and easterly to Hudson's River. While cov- 
ering a considerable portion of Ulster, it fails to em- 
brace the entire county of Orange, and the following 
statistics must of course be received in connection 
with this fact, viz. : It has 36 charges ; 52 churches, 
valued at $364,400; 30 parsonages, valued at $68,100; 
7845 members ; 57 Sabbath-schools, with a roll of 6268 
scholars and 925 teachers. The following is a list of 
the presiding elders of the district from 1787 : 

1787, Thomas Foster; 1788-89, James O. Cromwell ; 
1790, Thomas Morrell; 1791-92, Robert Cloud; 1793, 
Jacob Brush ; 1794-95, Thos. Ware; 1796-98, John Mc- 
Claskey; 1799, Freeborn Garrettson; 1800-2, Solomon 
Sharp; 1803-6, Elijah Woolsey ; 1807-9-11, Henry 
Stead; 1811-14, Daniel Ostrander; 1815-18, P. R. 
Sanford; 1819-22, Eben Smith; 1823-26, Daniel Os- 
trander; 1827-30, Phineas Rice; 1831, M. Richardson; 
1832, William Jewett; 1833-34, M. Richardson; 1835 
-38, Phineas Rice; 1839, William Jewett; 1840--42, 

Daniel Ostrand«r ; 1843-46, M. Richardson ; I847-5 
William Jewett; 1851, Stephen Martindale; 1852-5. 
A. M. Osbon; 1855-58, L. M. Vincent; 1859-6 
Phineas Rice; 1862-65, William H. Ferris; 1866-61 
A. M. Csbon; 1869-72, Joseph B. Wakeley ; 1873-7( 
J. Y. Bates ; 1877-80, John P. Hermance. 

The history of the eflForts for the introduction ( 
Catholicism in this State during the colonial era poi 
sesses a deep interest, embracing as it does the inci 
dents of the French and Indian wars, which wer 
waged from 1687 until the termination of FrencI 
rule in Canada. The work was commenced in 160i 
and was attended with considerable success amoni 
the more northern Indian tribes. The effort for th 
conversion of the Six Nations, however, met witl 
very little encouragement until after the accession 
James II. to the throne of England, who instructe 
the governors of the province to extend to the FrencI 
missionaries every facility for the prosecution of th< 
enterprise. The privileges thus granted were 9001 
employed by the French to secure the ascendancy 
their own national interest among the Iroquois, am 
compelled even James himself to materially modify 
the zeal which he had manifested for the propagatioi 
of the faith which he professed. The accession 
William and Mary was followed by an entire changi 
in the policy of the English goverament. So grea 
had been the inroads upon the trade of the Englial 
with the Indians, and so palpable the influence of Uu 
French priests in that direction, — so materially ha( 
the alliance between the English and the Iroquoii 
been weakened, and so essential was the continuana 
of that alliance to England, — that even the toleratioi 
of Catholicism was forbidden, not through any feel' 
ing of hostility tfe that form of religion in itself coD' 
sidered, but from political reasons. The most seven 
repressive measures were adopted ; every Catholic 
priest coming voluntarily into the province was pun- 
ishable with death. This law remained in force until 
after the commencement of the war of the Revolu- 
tion, when it was so far relaxed, by the terms of the 
first constitution of the State, as to permit freedom ol 
opinion to all who should subscribe the oath of alle- 
giance. The appeal which was made to Ireljind fw 
aid in the war, and the subsequent assistance of Cath- 
olic France, materially affected Jhe prejudices of the 
people, and made it possible to engraft upon the 
Federal Constitution of 1787 the full and complete 
equality of all religious faiths. Although the door 
was thus thrown open, Catholic authorities made 
little effort to propagate their faith until after th« 
Irish rebellion of 1798, which sent many CatholiJ 
emigrants to America. In 1808, Pope Pius Vtt 
erected Baltimore into an archiepiscopal see, with 
four suffragan sees, of which New York was one.* 

• The flrat priwt stationed in New York I'itj wiia Rer. CluirlM Wlul". 
an Irisli Franciscan, who had been chaplain in the French flMt ond)' 


. 137 

The first bishop of New York, Eev. Luke Concanen, 
died soon after his consecration, and before he entered 
upon his duties. His successor, Rev. John Conelly, 
was consecrated in 1814, and among his first work 
was that of establishing missions along Hudson's 
River, ostensibly "to prevent the children of Catho- 
lics conforming to the persuasions of their neigh- 
bors." In his diary occurs the following: "Jan. 
29th, 1818. — I answered the Rev. Arthur Langdill's 
three letters and sent him said Indult, and addressed 
the letter to the care of Mr. Mclntyre, New Burg." 
Rev. Langdill and Rev. Dr. Ffrench (the latter in 
1817 and the former in 1818) were the first Catholic 
missionaries in Orange County, and at Nevvburgh, in 
1826, St. Patrick's Church, the first Catholic church 
in the county, was organized. There are now fifteen 
churches and missions in the county, viz. : 

St. FauPs, BulWille^ attended from MoDtgumeiy. 

St. Thomas*, Curuwal], Rev. Stephen Mackin, Rev. Jamea Kelly. 

, Goshen, Kev. John Keogau, Rev. S. J. Byrnes. 

St. Mary't), Greenwood, attended from SufTernB. 

Sacred Heart, Higliiand FulK Rev. Terrauce J. Early. 

St. Joseph's, Middletuwn, Rev. Peter Prendergast, Rev. John Clancy. 

, Middlehope, attended from Milton. 

Holy Name of Mary, Montgomery, Rev, Patrick Brady. 

, Monroe, attended from Goshen. 

St. Patrick's, Newburgh, Rev. Joseph F. Mooney, Eev. Hugh McCabe. 
St. Mary's, Newbargh, Rev. Michael Phelan, Rev. M. Lane. 
Holy Name of Jesus, Otinville, attended from Middletown. 
Immaculate Conception, Port Jervis, Rev. E. J. Flyun, Rev. Michael 

St. Stephen's, Warwick, attended from Goshen, 

, Waahiiigtonville, attended from (.'ornwall. 

, West Point, attended from Highland Falls. 

, New Windsor, attended from Newburgh. 

The academy of Our Lady of Mercy is located at 
Balmville, in Newburgh, and St. Patrick's parochial 
school is connected with St. Patrick's Church in the 
city of Newburgh. 

Though not among the earliest of the sects in the 
county, members of the Society of Friends, " or the 
people called Quakers," have an early and honorable 
record in its annals. A considerable colony located 
in the old precinct of Cornwall prior to the Revolu- 
tion, and soon after its close we find them in the 
northwestern part of the town of Newburgh, and in 
the adjoining towns of Plattekill and Marlborough, 
in Ulster, both of which towns were originally cov- 
ered by the precinct of Newburgh. From the pre- 
cinct of Cornwall wTe have the towns of Cornwall and 
Monroe, and in the former are two meeting-houses, 
and in the latter one. The Friends of Newburgh 
unite with their brethren of Pleasant Valley in a 
meeting-house at the latter place. The original 
meeting-house in Cornwall was erected about 1790. 
The grounds on which it stands were deeded in 1789, 
by Langford Thorn, to Joseph Thorn, Nicholas Town- 

Admiral De Grasse. After the war he settled in this country. His 
brother. Dr. Joseph Whalen, purchased lot No. U of the Schuyler Patent 
in Montgomerj-, April 1, 1788. He was the father of the late Joseph V. 
Whalen, of Montgomery, 


send, and William Titus, in trust for the " Cornwall 
Monthly Meeting." David Sands, a noted preacher 
of the sect, may be said to have been the founder of 
the society here. A division of the sect in 1827 
resulted in the " Hicksite" and the " Orthodox" 
branches, the former retaining the old building, and 
the latter erecting a meeting-house of their own iu 
1828 or 1829. 


The religious and benevolent societies of the sev- 
eral towns of the county have not been few in num- 
ber, nor without influence. It is believed that the 
county is older in the introduction of Sabbath-schools 
and Bible societies than its contemporaries. The first 
in the field was the Orange County Bible Society, 
which was organized in Goodwill Church on the 11th 
of June, 1811, over four years prior to the organiza- 
tion of the American Bible Society. At its first pub- 
lic meeting a constitution was adopted, and the 
following officers appointed, viz. : Rev. Andrew King, 
president; Rev. Moses Frceligh, first vice-president; 
Rev. Mathusaleh Baldwin, second vice-president ; 
Rev. John Johnston, secretary ; Rev. Arthur I. Stans- 
bury, clerk ; Dr. Charles Fowler, treasurer, and nine- 
teen other managers. As first constituted it was a 
Bible and Tract Society, but in 1816, when the Amer- 
ican Bible Society was formed, it became auxiliary to 
it, ceased its tract operations, and assumed the name 
of the Orange County Bible Society. 

Previous to the year 1835 the amount of money 
collected and expended by the society in its opera- 
tions cannot be stated with any degree of accuracy. 
In the report of 1832 it is stated that the amount col- 
lected up to June of that year, from 1816, was $3902, 
making an average for each year of $240, which had 
been paid over to parent society in remittances for 
Bibles, or in donations. The amount collected up to 
June, 1847, including the amount already given, was 

A complete list of the officers of the society is not 
contained in its record book, and hence we cannot 
give the names of the successors of Dr. King and his 
associate founders. Traditionally stated, the presi- 
dency was held by Rev. Dr. King, Rev. Mathusaleh 
Baldwin, Johannes Miller, Hezekiah Howell, Moses 
Crawford, and William Phillips, prior to 1834, since 
which time the officers have been as follows : 

1834. — Gen. James W. Wilkin, president ; Hon. 
Nathan H. White, first vice-president ; Capt. Andrew 
Wilson, second vice-president; Robert Denniston, 
corresponding secretary ; John Wilson, recording sec- 
retary'; Gen. Charles Borland, Jr., treasurer. 

1835-36. — Andrew Wilson, pre.sident; Samuel 
Millspaugh, first vice-president ; Jonathan Bailey, 
second vice-president; Daniel T. Wood, recording 
secretary ; Peter A. Millspaugh, treasurer ; Robert 
Denniston, corresponding secretary. 

1837. — Jonathan Bailey, president; John B. Hor- 



ton, first vice-president ; Nathaniel Brewster, second 
vice-president ; Robert Denniston, corresponding sec- 
retary ; Rev. M. N. McLaren, recording secretary ; 
Dr. P. A. Millspaugh, treasurer. 

1838-39.— David Hanford, M.D., president ; Charles 
Fowler, M.D., first vice-president; James Little, sec- 
ond vice-president ; Robert Denniston, corresponding 
secretary ; Rev. M. N. McLaren, recording secretary ; 
P. A. Millspaugh, M.D., treasurer. 

1841. — Charles Fowler, president; James Little, 
first vice-president; George Phillips, second vice- 
president ; James D. Bull, corresponding secretary ; 
Rev. Isaac C. Beach, recording secretary ; P. A. Mills- 
paugh, treasurer. 

1842. — Theo. L. Jackson, recording secretary; no 
other change. 

1843. — Joseph B. Howell, second vice-president; 
no other change. 

1844. — Andrew Wilson, president ; Joseph B. How- 
ell, first vice-president ; Jesse Bull, second vice-presi- 
dent ; Theo. L. Jackson, recording secretary ; James 
D. Bull, corresponding secretary ; P. A. Millspaugh, 

1845. — Samuel Wait, first vice-president ; no other 

1846-47. — James Wood, president ; Jesse Bull, first 
vice-president ; William Houston, second vice-presi- 
dent; James D. Bull, corresponding secretary; Theo. 
L. Jackson, recording secretary; P. A. Millspaugh, 

1848-49. — Robert Denniston, president; William 
Houston, first vice-president ; Moses Sawyer, second 
vice-president; James D. Bull, corresponding secre- 
tary; Theo. L. Jackson, recording secretary; P. A. 
Millspaugh, treasurer. 

1850. — Rev. W. D. Snodgrass, corresponding secre- 
tary ; no other change. 

1851. — John S. Crane, M.D., treasurer; no other 

1852. — H. M. Hopkins, second vice-president ; no 
other change. 

1863-54. — Alexander Thompson, president; Na- 
thaniel Webb, -first vice-president; Jesse C. Stewart, 
second vice-president; Theo. L. Jackson, recording 
secretary ; Rev. W. D. Snodgrass, corresponding sec- 
retary ; John S. Crane, treasurer. 

1855-56. — Robert Denniston, president; Andrew 
Wilson, first vice-president ; Jesse C. Stewart, second 
vice-president; Rev. W. D. Snodgrass, corresponding 
secretary'; Theo. L. Jackson, recording secretary; 
John S. Crane, treasurer. 

1858-65.— William S. Webb, president; Samuel J. 
Wilkin, first vice-president ; Charles W. Reevs, second 
vice-president; Rev. S. W. Mills, corresponding sec- 
retary ; Theo. L. Jackson, recording secretary ; John 
S. Crane, treasurer. 

1866-67.— William S. Webb, president; Robert 
Denniston, first vice-president ; Hugh B. Bull, second 
vice-president ; Rev. S. W. Mills, corresponding sec- 

retary ; Theo. L. Jackson, recording secretary ; John 
S. Crane, treasurer. 

1868-69.— Hugh B. Bull, president; A. H. Sinsa- 
baugh, first vice-president; William Evans, second 
vice-president ; Rev. S. W. Mills, corresponding sec- 
retary ; Theo. L. Jackson, recording secretary ; John 
S. Crane, treasurer. 

1870. — Augustus F. Schofield, president ; William 
J. Groo, first vice-president; Selah R. Corwin, second 
vice-president ; Rev. S. W. Mills, corresponding sec- 
retary; Rev. R. Howard Wallace, recording secre- 
tary ; David Redfield, treasurer. 

1871-72. — Rev. W. D. Snodgrass, president ; A. H. 
Sinsabaugh, fl;fst vice-president; William Evans, 
second vice-president ; Rev. S. W. Mills, correspond- 
ing secretary ; Rev. R. Howard Wallace, recording 
secretary ; David Redfield, treasurer. 

1873-76.— Rev. W. D. Snodgrass, president ; Wil- 
liam J. Groo, first vice-president ; Selah R, Corwin, 
second vice-president; Rev. R. H.Wallace, recording 
secretary ; Rev. S. W. Mills, corresponding secretary ; 
David Redfield, treasurer. 

1879. — Rev. W. D. Snodgrass, president;. John L. 
Servin, first vice-president ; Selah R. Corwin, second 
vice-president ; Rev. S. W. Mills, corresponding sec- 
retary; Rev. R. Howard Wallace, recording secre- 
tary ; David Redfield, treasurer. 

The Newburgh Bible Society was organized Sept. 
9, 1818, when a constitution was adopted and the fol- 
lowing officers elected, viz. : Jonas Storey, president; 
Isaac Belknap and Joseph Clark, vice-presidents; 
Rev. John Johnston, corresponding secretary; Charles 
Miller, recording secretary ; Benjamin F. Lewis, 
treasurer. The society still has an active existence. 

The Young Men's Christian Association of New- 
burgh was the first society of this class. It was or- 
ganized Sept 15, 1858, — Arthur Potts, president. The 
present association is its successor. The Young Men's 
Christian Association at Goshen was organized in 
1866. Present officers: C. E. Millspaugh, president; 
J. H. Staats, corresponding secretary. The Young 
Men's Christian Association at Warwick was organ- 
ized in 1869. Present officers: Edwin S. Colwell, 
president ; George A. Sanford, corresponding secre- 

Religious societies more directly connected with 
some one of the several churches will be noticed Id 
the town where located. 


The Newburgh Home for the Friendless was organ- 
ized in the autumn of 1861, under the title of the 
Newburgh Union Female Guardian Society. In 186J 
it was incorporated by a special act of the Legisla- 

St. Luke's Home and Hospital, of Newburgh and 
New Windsor, is also an incorporated institution. 
It was organized Nov. 4, 1874, by ladies connected 
with the several churches. While the Home for the 



Friendless cares for " friendless or destitute girls under 
fourteen and over three years of age, and boys under 
ten and over three, until permanent homes can be 
secured for them," St. Luke's provides" a home for 
the aged and the infirm, and a hospital for thesick." 
Both are creditably managed, and both, with similar 
institutions elsewhere, are silently but effectually ed- 
ucating the public to more humanitarian views in 
making provision for the support of those who may 
be objects of public charity. 

Without entering into details of the many benevo- 
lent societies in the county at the present time, we 
notice briefly the Masonic and Odd-Fellows' lodges. 

Authoritative Masonry in the State of New York 
dates back to the appointment of Daniel Cox, of New 
Jersey, Provincial Grand Master of the Provinces of 
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, June 5, 
1730. Lodges were constituted in New York City 
and in other parts of the province under this author- 
ity, and worked under the English ritual until 1776, 
when, by the outbreak of the Revolution, a new order 
of things came into existence. One of the results of 
the period was the organization of what were known 
as military lodges on the part of officers and others 
connected with the American army. The first of 
these, American Union Lodge, was warranted by 
Richard Gridley, Esq., Grand Master of Masons of 
Massachusetts, Feb. 13, 1776, with authority to hold 
a lodge in the American army, then located at Eox- 
bury, Mass. Soon after receiving their warrant the 
portion of the army with which the members of the 
lodge were connected removed to New York, where, 
by permission of the Deputy Grand Master of the 
province, they assembled and petitioned the said Dep- 
uty Grand Master to confirm the warrant given them 
by the Grand Master of Massachusetts. Their peti- 
tion was not complied with, but a new warrant was 
granted them under the name of Military Union 
Lodge, No. 1. " This lodge was located," says John G. 
Barker, in his " Early History of Masonry," " on the 
Hudson River, near West Point, during the summer 
of 1779, and at Newburgh from 1781 to 1783. The 
roll of the lodge is headed ' Members of Military 
Union and American Union Lodge.' " 

From Hayden's "Washington and his Masonic 
Compeers" we t.ake the following : 

" Many Military Lodgss existed in tlie army at ttiis period, but the 
records of moat of tlieiu are lost. So well established had these camp 
lodges become, and so beneficial to the brethren, that, in providing the 
necessary conveniences for the troops in their quarteiB on the Hudson at 
this time, an or hall was built, one of the purposes of 
which was to serve as a lodge-room for Military Lodges. It was a rude 
wooden structure, forming au oblong square, forty or sixty feet, was one 
story in height, and had but a single door. Its windows were square, 
unglazed openings, elevated so high as to prevent the prying gaze of the 
cowans. Its timbers were hewed, squared, and numbered fur their places, 
and when the building was finished it waa joyously dedicated. . . . 
American Union Lodge met ih this room on the 24th of June, 1782, 
preparatory to celebrating the festival of St. John the Baptist, and pro- 
ceeded from thence to West Point, where they were joined by Washing- 
ton Lodge, when a procession was formed at the house of Gen. Pattei son, 
its first Master, and both lotlgiv proceeded from thence to the ' Colon- 

nade,* where a dinner was provided and an oration delivered by Col. 
John Brooks, Master of Washington Lodge, and afterwards Governor of 
Massachusetts. American Union Lodge then returned to their room and 
closed in good time."=^ 

The present Grand Lodge dates from Sept. 19, 1783. 
It was some years before its authority was fully es- 
tablished. Some of the old provincial lodges re- 
tained their charters, and, in addition to this, the 
military lodges had organized (1781) a, Grand Lodge 
of their own. About five years after the regular 
Grand Lodge was organized (June 4, 1788), a lodge 
was warranted by it at Newburgh, under the title and 
number of Steuben Lodge, No. 18, and other lodges 
in the county soon followed. From records in the 
Grand Lodge and from newspaper files and other 
sources the following list has been compiled, which 
may or may not embrace all the lodges organized in 
the county prior to 1826 : 

Steuben Lodge, No. 18. — Warrant granted June 4, 
1788; constituted at Newburgh, Sept. 27, 1788. Its 
charter was applied for by F. A. Morris and nine 
others. Its first officers were Ebenezer Foote, W. M. ; 
Francis Anderson Morris, S. W. ; Peter Nestell, J. W. 
Charles Clinton and Derick Amerman were its first 
adjoining members. Ebenezer Foote, Levi Dodge, 
and Charles Clinton were P. M.'s in 1797. The lodge 
was in quite a flourishing condition for a few years, 
but after 1792 it seldom held a meeting. The last 
mention made of it in the minutes of the Grand 
Lodge is 1800, but it seems to have had a nominal 
existence in 1806, as it is referred to in the petition 
for Hiram Lodge, in which it is said that the lodge 
had not had a meeting in the past five years. Its 
charter and minute-book are now in the archives of 
the Grand Lodge. Gen. Baron Steuben was an hon- 
orary member. 

St. John's Lodge, No. 21. — Constituted at Warwick, 
March 26, 1790. The following were its officers (date 
not given) : John Smith, W. M. ; Wm. Holly, S. W. ; 
Abm. Dolsen, J. W. ; E. DuBois, Sec. ; Abm. Ge- 
nung, Treas. 

Orange Lodge, No. 45. — Warranted April 12, 1796, 
with the consent of St. John's Lodge, No. 21. Con- 
stituted at Goshen by John Smith, P. M. of St. John's, 
and Eben. Foote, P. M. of Steuben. Wm. Thompson, 
W. M. ; Seth Marvin, S. W. ; Anthony Dobbin, 
J. W. 

Montgomery Lodge, No. 71.— This lodge was con- 
stituted at Montgomery, June 6, 1798, by G. M. De 
Witt Clinton, assisted by P. M.'s Levi Dodge and 
Chas. Clinton, of Steuben Lodge. John Smith, W. 
' M. ; Jas. Fitzgerald, S. W. ; Ebenezer Howe, J. W. 
; Warrant surrendered prior to June, 1818. 

St: James' Ijodge, No. 65.— Constituted at Middle- 
I town, Jan. 6, 1798. Warrant surrendered prior to 
; June, 1818. 

« The building referred to was long known as " The Temple." It was 
situated on the camping-ground in New Windsor, and is more particu. 
larly referred to iu the history of that town. 



Olive Branch Lodge, No. 102. — Constituted at Min- 
isink, June 9, 1808.* 

Hiram Lodge, No. 131. — Constituted at Newburgh, 
Feb. 19, 1806. Jonathan Fisk, W. M. ; Chas. Baker, 
S. W. ; John E. Drake, J. W. ; P. McKenna, Sec. 
This lodge was the successor of Steuben Lodge, No. 
18. Its liistory was specially marked by its participa- 
tion in the reception of Lafayette at Newburgh, in 
1824. Its charter was surrendered Dec. 10, 1834. 
Revived in 1842 as No. 92. Peter F. Hunn, W. M. ; 
Minard Harris, S. W. ; James Belknap, J. W. ; D. 
W. Gridley, Sec. Charter surrendered in 1845. 

Mount Moriah Lodge, No. 189. — Chartered at Wall- 
kill, Dec. 6, 1809. Asked remission of dues to Grand 
Lodge in consideration of having built a commodious 
lodge-room. Petition refused, Dec. 2, 1812. 

Lawrence Lodge, No. 230. — Chartered at Ward's 
Bridge, Montgomery, May 16, 1814. Officers installed 
by W. M. J. B. Reynolds, of Hiram Lodge, of New- 

Washington Lodge, No. 220. — Blooming-Grove, June 
10, 1813. Officers installed by W. M. J. B. Reynolds, 
of Hiram Lodge. 

Corner-Stone Lodge, No. 231. — Chartered at Mon- 
roe, May 26, 1814. 

Jerusalem Temple Lodge, No. 247. — Charter granted 
Sept. 9, 1815. Constituted at Cornwall, October 5th, 
by James B. Reynolds, W. M. of Hiram Lodge, at 
the house of Ebenezer Crissey. Warrant officers: 
Wyatt Carr, W. M. ; Abraham Mead, 8. W. ; South- 
erland Moore, J. W. December 23d the following 
officers were chosen : Wyatt Carr, W. M. ; Abraham 
Mead, S. W. ; Southerland Moore, J. W. ; Nathaniel 
Clark, Treas. ; Samuel H. Purdy, Sec. ; William Wil- 
liams, S. D. ; Stephen Coleman, J. D. ; Obadiah 
■Smith, Jr., Sr. M. C. ; Isaac B. Titus, Jr. M. C. ; Lewis 
Patterson and John Arnold, Stewards; and Hugh 
-Gregg, Tyler. William A. Clark succeeded Wyatt 
•Carr in 1820. Mr. Clark was followed by Jonathan 
JMorrill. In 1824, Oliver Farrington was elected 
JMaster, and held that position until April 22, 1826, at 
which time the record stops. Mr. Beach's " Corn- 
wall, " from which the record of this lodge is taken, 
adds : " In the summer of 1826 the communications 
ceased, and the lodge became dormant for a period of 
forty-five years, until revived in the winter of 1871 by 
a few old Masons, who obtained permission to meet 
under its old name and number. July 27, 1872, the 
old lodge was revived with a new number (No. 721), 
and constituted with its original paraphernalia."t 

* There ib a discrepancy in dates between the record entry in the 
Grand Lodge mioutes and the dates given in au oflicial list of lodges 
prepared in 1818, in the case of this and several other warrants. The 
date in the latter is here given, although known (from other sources) to 
be inaccurate. The petition for Olive Branch Lodge was made Dec. 7, 
1803, and the record shows that it paid dues to the Grand Lodge from 
Dec. 27th of that year. 

t When the lodge suspended, the parapherqalia were taken in charge 
by Mr. John H. Lane, and on his death, in 1863, they were preserved by 
Mr. Dyer Brewster. They are now seen in the lodge-room, and excite 
the wonder of visiting brethren. — BeacVi Comwall. 

Hoffman Lodge, No. 300. — Constituted at Wallkilj 
Dec. 3, 1818. Its name was taken from Martin Hoff- 
man, D. G. M., who, in consideration thereof, pre. 
sented to it a Bible in 1818. This Bible is now in um 
in Hoffman Lodge, No. 412, of Middletown. The 
first officers of the lodge were John Kirby, W. M. • 
Stacey Beakes, S. W. ; Isaac Otis, J. W. ; Isaac Mills 
Treas. ; George Hill, Sec. ; Chas. Anderson, Tyler. 
The lodge closed its existence in 1832. 

In addition to the foregoing, the following charteis 
were granted : 

Orange Mark Lodge, No. 51, Goshen. — Warrant is- 
sued, Feb. 8, 1809, to William Elliott, William A. 
Thompson, and Edward Ely. 

Orange Chapter, No. 33, Minisink. — Warrant issued, 
Feb. 6, 1812, to Uriah Hulse, James D. Wadsworth, 
and Malcomb Campbell. 

Hiram Mark Lodge, No. 70, Newburgh. — Warrant 
issued, Feb. 3, 1812, to Sylvanus Jessup, James Wil- 
liams, and George Gordon. Warrant was forfeited 
Feb. 8, 1816, on account of non-payment of dues to 
the Grand Chapter. 

Jerusalem Temple Chapter, No. 52, Newburgh.— 
Warrant issued, Feb. 6, 1817,, to James B. Reynolde, 
William Ross, and William P. Lot. Warrant for- 
feited, Feb. 10, 1821, for non-payment of dues to 
Grand Chapter. J 

The old Masonic lodges shared the fate of their 
associates in other parts of the State under the Anti- 
Masonic movements, which had their origin in the 
alleged abduction and murder of William Morgan, at 
Batavia, on the night of Sept. 11, 1826. Morgan, it 
will be remembered, was about to publish a book dis- 
closing the then obligations and ceremonies of the 
first degrees of the order. To prevent this, it was 
charged, a conspiracy was formed which resulted in 
his murder. Efforts were made to detect the guilty 
parties, but without success, and in the end the entire 
fraternity was charged with guilty participation in 
the offense, although the Masons always denied that 
Morgan had been murdered, or that the body which 
was identified as his was so in fact, but simply used 
as " a good-enough Morgan until after the election." 
An excited and prejudiced Anti-Masonic feeling 
sprang up, which not only carried the order down, 
but effected changes which have had more or less of 
political influence from that time to the present,— the 
Anti-Masons and the National Republicans, or an- 
cient Federalists, falling into alliance under Adams 
in 1828, and Clay and Wirt in 1832, against Jackson 
and the Democratic party, with whom the Masons 
found refuge against a persecution as bitter and heated 
as that which the Tammany Society had hurled 
against the Society of the Cincinnati and the Fed- 
eralists. What the latter would have become under 
its hereditary features had it obtained the control of 

\ Information by Cliarles H. Halstead, of Hudson River Lodgr, Ke»- 
burgh, to whom the writer is also indebted for many facts concenlm 
the early lodges. 



the government, or what Masonry would have become 
had it escaped the chastening which it received, is 
not a question to be raised now that both have been 
essentially modified; suffice it that Masonry, under 
changes in its obligations and ceremonies, has re- 
gained its original standing, although it is still re- 
garded with a traditional suspicion by many. 

Odd-Fellowship dates its existence in this country 
from Washington Lodge, No. 1, which was instituted 
at Baltimore, Md., April 26, 1819, under a charter 
obtained in England. A lodge had existed in New 
York prior to that time, but it had been disbanded. 
The Anti-Masonic excitement was a material aid to 
the introduction and permanent organization of the 
order, supplying, as it did, the loss which the Masons 
had sustained in the disbandment of their lodges, 
although it shared to some extent in the general dis- 
trust of secret societies. Its spread in New York was 
quite rapid until it was disrupted, in 1850, on the 
question of "new" and "old" constitution, and two 
State grand lodges were formed. Some years were 
spent in demoralization, but from this it has now fully 
recovered. Prior to this disruption the following 
lodges were organized in Orange County, viz. : 

Highland Lodge, No. 65, at Newburgh, 1842. 

Orange County Lodge, No. 74, at Newburgh, 1842. 

Middletown Lodge, No. 112, at Middletown, 1844. 

Chester Lodge, No. 138, at Chester. 

Wawayanda Lodge, No. 157, at Goshen. 

Freeman's Lodge, No. 1 70, at Montgomery. 

Beacon Hill Lodge, No. 203, at Canterbury. 

Hudson River Lodge, No. 281, at Newburgh, 1847. 

Myrtle Degree Lodge, No. 20, at Newburgh, 1845. 

Mount Carmel Encampment, No. 21, at Newburgh, 

Mount Hermon Encampment, No. 34, at Goshen. 

Kossuth Lodge, No. 129, at Newburgh, 1850, and 
Gray Court Lodge, at Chester, were organized after 
the disruption as " new'' constitution lodges. With 
the exception of Highland, No. 65, all the Newburgh 
lodges perished. Middletown, No. 112, and Free- 
man's Lodge, No. 170, of Montgomery, also escaped 
the general wreck. Since the reorganization fifteen 
lodges have been established, including Highland, 
Middletown, Freeman's, and three Rebecca Degree 



The bench and bar of the county have, from the 
earliest period in its judicial history, been composed 
of men of the highest professional rank in the eras in 
which they lived, and of whom many have their 
names written indelibly upon the annals of the politi- 
cal and general history of the province and of the 
State. In preparing an abridged review the mere 

mention of names and dates is the only tribute which 
we can pay to the memory of many eminent in the 
profession in times past, while of tfthers even our 
most complete sketches do not adequately convey an 
ample knowledge of their worthiness. Although a 
Court of Common Pleas and a Supreme Court were 
established in the original county in 1691, there is no 
record of proceedings until 1703, and it was some 
years later that the county had resident members of 
the legal profession. Indeed, there is an entire blank 
in existing records from 1703 to 1727, during which 
time litigation was apparently confined to the juris- 
diction of justices of the peace or to courts held else- 
where. It is with this latter year, therefore, that we 
commence our review.* 

1727. — Henry Wileman. He was formerly a 
resident of New York, where he was a coroner, and 
in 1701 a register in chancery. In 1712, in company 
with one Henry Van Bael, he received a patent for a 
tract of land in what is now the town of Montgomery, 
on which he founded the township plot of Wileman- 
town, in which he lived and died. He was the first 
resident attorney of whom we find any record. 

1729. — Phineas McIntosh. He was the holder 
of patented lands in the old precinct of the High- 
lands, his tract being in the original town of New 
Windsor. He was one of the partners in the town- 
ship of Newburgh plot in 1731, and erected his resi- 
dence there, which was known for many years as the 
" Mcintosh house." 

1734. — John Alsop. He located in New Windsor 
about 1724, and removed from the county about 1744. 
His son, John Alsop, Jr., was a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress of 1776, but resigned on the adop- 
tion of the Declaration of Independence. His daugh- 
ter was the mother of Governor John A. King. 

1735. — John Chambees. He was the son of Wil- 
liam Chambers, one of the resident holders of the J 
Chambers and Southerland Patent in New Windsor 
in 1712. He removed to New York in 1730, where 
he was appointed member of the Governor's Council 
(1752-63) and associate judge of the Supreme Court 
(1751-66). His contemporary. Judge Jones, says of 
him, in his " History of New York," " Mr. Chambers 
had been regularly bred to the law in the province, in 
all the courts of which he had practiced for a long 
course of years, with universal applause and the fairest 
reputation as an honest, upright man. He was at this 
time (1760) one of His Majesty's Council. His reli- 
gion was that of the Church of England, of which he 
was not only a zealous professor, but an ornament 
and an honor to the religion he professed." 

1741. — Vincent Matthews. He was the son of 
Peter Matthews. He located in the present town of 
Cornwall in 1721, having purchased the Van Dam . 

* Tho year prefixed ie that of admiasion to the bar of the county, as 
BhowD by the court records. In all cases the names of known non- 
residents of the county have been rejected. 



Patent, to which he gave the name of Matthewsfield. 
He was clerk of the county from 1726 to 1733, and a 
judge of Common Pleas in 1783. He was also colonel 
of Orange County militia 1738-58. 

1753.— Fletcher Matthews. He was a son of 
Vincent Matthews. Cadwallader Colden, Jr., of Ool- 
denham, son of Governor Colden, was admitted the 
same year. 

1759. — William Wickham, Goshen. 

1760. — David Matthews. He was also a son of 
Vincent Matthews. He removed to New York, where 
he was appointed mayor by Governor Tryon in 1776. 
He was the father of Vincent Matthews (2), who was 
admitted in 1790 and removed to Rochester, where 
he was regarded as the " father of the bar of Western 
New York." 

1767. — George Clinton. He was the son of 
Charles Clinton, who located in New Windsor in 
1731. He studied with Judge William Smith ; was 
appointed clerk of Ulster County; was the first Gov- 
ernor of the State under the constitution of 1777, and 
died while Vice-President of the United States. It 
may with truth be said of George Clinton that he was 
to the State of New York what Washington was to 
the nation. In early life he gave promise of great 


activity and courage; he left his father's house and 
sailed in a privateer in the French war, and on his 
return demanded and received a place in the expedi- 
tion under his father and his brother ag*inst Fort 
Frontenac. At the close of the war he settled down 
to study under Judge Smith. In 1759 he was ap- 
pointed clerk of Ulster County, but held that position 
for only about one year. He took an active part in 
colonial politics, and was elected to a seat in the 

Assembly in 1760, serving until the close of that 
body under the English government. In the discnB- 
sions of that period no voice raised in the province 
was more consistent and firm in resisting the demands 
of the crown, nor was there of his contemporaries one 
whose energy and zeal was more devoted. In 1775 he 
was elected to the Continental Congress, and served in 
that body until after the adoption of the Declaration 
of Independence, that instrument, however, failing to 
receive, under instructions from the Provincial Con- 
vention of New York, either his vote or his signature. 
He was appointed a brigadier-general in the army of 
the United States in 1776, and during the earliet 
years of the war was active in military afiaira in New 
York, where he held, by virtue of appointment, com- 
mission as brigadier-general of militia ; subsequently, 
by virtue of his oflSce as Governor, he was com- 
mander-in-chief of the army and navy of the State. 
In the former capacity he was in the field with his 
brigade for the defense of New York City in 1776 ; 
and in the latter, held command of the forts in the 
Highlands at the time of their reduction by Sir Henry 
Clinton, Oct. 7, 1777, and marched to the defense of 
the Mohawk Valley in 1779. In April, 1777, he was 
elected Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, under the 
first constitution of the State, and was continued in 
the former office eighteen years. His duties were 
especially trying. The State was the battle-grouhd 
of the nation almost during the entire war of the 
Revolution ; invasions of the enemy swept in on the 
north and on the south, while the western frontiers 
were ravaged by savages and Tories ; yet during the 
darkest hours of the heroic struggle he held the helm 
with a firm hand and an inspiring courage. His 
duties after peace was established were not less trying, 
though of a different type ; poverty and distress were 
in his borders, and crude laws required shaping to the 
changed political relations of the people. That his 
administration was wise no one will question. He 
was president of the convention assembled at Pough- 
keepsie to consider the Federal Constitution in 1788; 
was again chosen Governor in 1801, and in 1804 was 
elected Vice-President of the United States, which 
position he held, by re-election in 1808, at the time of 
his death. In a sketch of this character nothing like 
justice to his public services can be rendered. He 
married Cornelia Tappen, only daughter of Petrus 
and Tyante Tappen, of Kingston, Feb. 7, 1770, and 
immediately thereafter took up his residence in New 
Windsor, where he remained until October, 1777, 
when, on the fall of the Highland forts, he haatily 
removed to Little Britain, and from the latter place to 
Poughkeepsie i n December. His children were Catha' 
rine, born in New Windsor, Nov. 5, 1770 ; Cornelia T., 
born in New Windsor, June 29, 1774 ; George W., 
born in Poughkeepsie, Oct. 18, 1778 ; Elizabeth, born 
in Poughkeepsie, July 16, 1780 ; Martha W., bom in 
Poughkeepsie, Oct. 12, 1783; Maria, born in Nevr 
York, Oct. 6, 1785. 



1770. — James Sayre, residence not known ; Thomas 
Smith, residence not known. 

1773. — William Thompson, Goahen. 

William Thompson was the son of William 
Thompson, who settled in the present town of Goshen 
at an early period. He was one of the representatives 
of the county in 1788, and was a State senator from 
1797 to 1800. In 1788 he was appointed first judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas of the county, and held 
the office one term. Of his descendants we have no 
other information than that a daughter married Dr. 
Nathaniel Elmer, of Warwick, and had Dr. William 
Elmer, of Goshen ; Dr. Nathaniel Elmer, of Denton ; 
Jesse Elmer, of Bellvale, and a daughter who married 
Robert Armstrong. 

John W. Smith, residence not known ; Balthazar 
DeHart, Goshen. He was an active man in the early 
part of the Revolution. 

1788.— James W. Wilkin, Goshen. 

1790. — James Everett, Goshen ; Phineas Bowman, 
Newburgh ; Reuben Hopkins, Goshen ; Samuel Boyd, 
New Windsor; Vincent Matthews (2), Cornwall; 
Thomas Cooper, Oliver L. Kerr. 

Phineas Bowman served in the war of the Revo- 
lution as captain in a Massachusetts regiment, but 
was usually addressed by the title of colonel. He 
came to Newburgh with the army, and either remained 
here after its disbandment, as was the case with sev- 
eral of his contemporaries in the service, or returned 
here not long subsequent to that event. He was a 
man of high legal attainments ; was admitted to prac- 
tice in the courts of Ulster County in 1790; rose rap- 
idly in his profession, and rendered his constituents 
valuable service, as a member of the Legislature of 
1798, by securing the passage of the law erecting the 
present county of Orange. During the last few years 
of his life, however, he lost character and fortune by 
habits of intemperance ; and his memory is now pre- 
served only through the medium of anecdotes arising 
from occurrences in which he was a principal partici- 
pant. The date of his death is not known. He left 
one daughter, Mary, who married Benjamin Ander- 
son. His wife, Mary, died March 22, 1813, in her 
fifty-eighth year, universally esteemed by all who en- 
joyed her acquaintance. 

Samuel Boyd was the son of Robert Boyd, the 
Revolutionary gun-maker of New Windsor. We be- 
lieve he removed to New York. 

1791. — Nicholas Evertson. 

1792.— Solomon Sleight, Newburgh; John Wick- 
ham, Goshen. 

1798. — George Clinton, Jr., son of Gren. James 
Clinton, of New Windsor; Benjamin Smith, Jr., 

1794.— Abraham L. Smith. 

1800. — Jonathan Fisk, Newburgh ; Stephen Jack- 
son, Newburgh ; C. F. Smith, James F. Smith. 

Jonathan Fisk, perhaps the most distinguished 
of the early lawyers of Newburgh, was born at Am- 

herst, N. H., Sept. 26, 1773. He was the son of Jona- 
than Fisk, who subsequently resided at Williamstown, 
Vt., and became a member of the Legislature of that 
State, and judge of probate, as well as the founder of 
that branch of the family of which the late James 
Fisk, of Erie Railroad fame, was a member. He left 
the home of his father at the age of nineteen years, 
and commenced the occupation of school-teacher, 
qualified, according to a letter of recommendation 
signed by Moses Bradford, Dec. 12, 1792, to teach 
"writing, English grammar, and arithmetic." We 
next find him at Ware, N. H., in 1795, with a certifi- 
cate stating that he had lived for several months in 
the family of Amos Wood, of that place, where he 
had " read Greek and Latin, and attended to other 
branches of study, by which he appeared well qualified 
to teach a school," and that he " maintained a good 
moral character." In 1796 or '97 he entered the office 
of Peter Hawes, in New York, and commenced the 
study of law. He was without other means of sup- 
port than such as his own industry could furnish, but 
he was enabled to complete his studies by occasional 
remuneration for services as an amanuensis, and by 
giving instruction to a class of young men in the 
evening. In 1799 he was admitted to practice in the 
Court of Common Pleas of Westchester County ; in 
1800, in the Supreme Court of the State, and during 
the same year, in the Courts of Common Pleas of the 
counties of Orange and Ulster. In 1802 he was ex- 
amined by Chief Justice Morgan Lewis, and " regu- 
larly admitted as a Counsellor of Law in all the courts 
of the State of New York/' Mr. Fisk removed to 
Newburgh, Feb. 4, 1800. In 1809 he was elected rep- 
resentative in Congress frojn the Sixth District, which 
was composed of the counties of Orange and West- 
chester, and again in 1814. Parties were then known 
by the titles of Democrats and Federalists. Mr. Fisk 
was a Democrat, and an ardent supporter of the ad- 
ministrations of Jefierson and of Madison. While in 
Congress he sustained the war of 1812, opposed the 
recharter of the Bank of the United States, proposed 
a plan for a national printing-office, and during his 
whole career he commanded the confidence of his 
friends and the respect of his opponents. 

In 1815 (March 21st) he was appointed by President 
Madison attorney for the United States in and for the 
Southern District of New York, and this appointment 
was renewed Jan. 6, 1816. He was very diligent and 
efficient in prosecuting those who evaded the law in 
regard to the sale of foreign merchandise without a 
license, and so exasperated did this class of offenders 
become that they threatened him with personal pun- 
ishment. Failing to intimidate him, they appealed 
to Congress on a question of fees, for the purpose of 
securing his removal from office. The subject was 
referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, who re- 
ported that, while Mr. Fisk's fees had been large, 
and in some instances unsustained by law, he had 
nevertheless been governed by the usage of the former 



incumbents of the office, and the subject died " on the 
table." He remained undisturbed until the expira- 
tion of Madison's administration, in 1820, when his 
successor was appointed. 

As a citizen, Mr. Fislc was highly esteemed. The 
town records, the files of the public journals, and his 
own manuscripts bear testimony to the commanding 
position which he occupied, and to the superiority of 
his abilities. The most important legal cases were 
submitted to his care, while on the various local ques- 
tions of the times his views received the highest con- 
sideration. In person, he was large, and of a presence 
that impressed all with whom he had intercourse with 
a sense of his superiority, — 

" A combination, and a form indeed, 
Wliere every God did seem to set his seal, 
To give the world assurance of a man 1" 

His wife was a lady of more than ordinary personal 
attractions, lively, witty, and not without fair literary 
abilities. His family record is as follows : Jonathan 
Fisk, born Sept. 26, 1773 ; died July 13, 1832. Sarah 
"Van Kleek, wife of Jonathan Fisk, born March 18, 
1773; died June 6, 1832. Children: Theodore S., 
found dead in the street in New York in 1854 or '55 ; 
James L., died at Pensacola in 1835 ; Delaphine R. E., 
married J. C. Bisbee, died July 22, 1846 ; Mary M.^ 
died June 8, 1822; and an infant son, who died at the 
age of two months. 

1801. — Jonas Storey, Newburgh; Isaac Hamilton, 
Newburgh ; William Ross, Newburgh. 

Jonas Storey was born in Norwich, Conn., July 
, 11, 1778 ; died Sept. 22, 1848. He was a graduate of 
Williams College; taught school at Poughkeepsie, 
and from thence removed to Newburgh, where he 
maintained for forty years a distinguished place 
among the members of his profession.- He was quite 
active in politics in the earlier part of his career, and 
the candidate for Cpngress of the Federal or anti-war 
. party in 1814, against Jonathan Fisk, by whom he 
was overwhelmingly defeated. He gave no little at- 
tention to religious matters, so much so indeed that 
he might properly be called a theologian as well as a 
lawyer. He retired from the active duties of his pro- 
fession a few years previous to his death, but the 
change was disastrous. His mind, released from its 
long routine of toil, appeared to turn inward upon 
itself, and reason forsook its throne. His wife was 
Mary, daughter of Isaac Schultz, of New Wibdsor. 
His children were, — 1. Henry E., who married Re- 
becca Cook, is now deceased ; 2. Edwin, who married 
Abbey Basset Clark, is now deceased ; 3. Helen E., 
who married Orville M. Smith, is now deceased ; 4. 
Mary B., who married Daniel Smith ; 5. Nathan S., 
■who married Harriet Smith, is now deceased. 

William Ross, perhaps the most prominent mem- 
ber of the class admitted to the bar in 1801, was the 
son of Robert Ross, of Rossville, Newburgh. He was 
elected member of Assembly in 1808, 1809, 1811, 1812, 
1813, 1814, and chosen Speaker of that body in Feb- 

ruary, 1811. During the same month he was ap- 
pointed a master in chancery. Hammond, in his 
" Political History of New York," speaks of him as 
an "honest and kind-hearted man," and as being 
" sincerely and warmly attached" to the Democratic 
party ; but affirms that he was vain and lacked real 
talent. In the absence of any knowledge upon the 
subject of Mr. Ross' qualifications, we cannot pro- 
nounce judgment for or against Mr. Hammond's criti- 
cism. Whatever may have been his failings he en- 
joyed the esteem and confidence of his constituents, ■ 
who sufficiently attested their appreciation of him by 
transferring him from the Assembly to the Senate, 
where he served from 1815 to 1822, and while in that 
position was designated by the Assembly as a member 
of the Council of Apportionment, and served from 
1816 to 1819. He died Sept. 5, 1830, in his fifty-fifth 
year. His wife (first), Mary S., daughter of John 
McLean, died March 31, 1812, aged twenty-six yeare. 
His eldest daughter, Mary McLean, married John F. 
Butterworth. His second wife was Caroline Middle- 
brook, of Connecticut. 

1802.— Henry G. Wisuer, Goshen; Walter Case, 

Henry G. Wisner. — Probably no name was more 
closely identified with the early history of Orange 
County in its relations to the New York Colony, for 
many years prior and subsequent to the Revolution- 
ary war, in the early development of its material fe- 
sources, and also as one of the founders of the Ameri- 
can republic, than that of Henry Wisner, grandfather 
of our subject, son of Hendrick Wisner, the first settler 
of the family in Orange County about 1714, and grand- 
son of Johannes Wisner, a subaltern officer in the 
Swiss contingent of the allied army commanded by 
the Prince of Orange against Louis XIV. of France, 
who came to America as a colonist, and settled on 
Long Island about the time of the Peace of Utrechtj 
concluded during the reign of Queen Anne, in 1713. 

Henry Wisner married Miss Sarah Norton, of 
Queens Co., L. I., and settled in Goshen, N. Y., where 
he acquired property and weight of character. He 
was elected and continued a member of the Colonial 
Assembly of New York from 1759 to 1769; was a 
member of the first county committee to consider the 
grounds of difficulty between Great Britain and her 
American colonies ; a member of the first Congress 
that convened at Philadelphia in the autumn of 1774, 
and signed the non-importation agreement ; was elected, 
with Peter Clowes, at the annual town meeting held 
at Goshen, April 4, 1775, a delegate to the ProvinciiJ 
Convention in New York City, and by that body,i)li 
April 21, 1775, he was chosen one of the delegates to the 
Second Continental Congress, where he took part in its 
patriotic measures, including the wonderfully fortu- 
nate selection of a commander-in-chief of the Ameri- 

can armies. 

In 1775, feeling the disadvantage the colonies labored 
under for want of ammunition, he applied himBOU 



to those necessary arts of making saltpetre and gun- 
Ipowder, and erected a powder-mill in the south end of 
Ulster County, which he soon after gave up to his 
son, Maj. Henry Wisner, and erected two other pow- 
der-mills in Orange County, in May, 1776. 

By letters dated Dec. 21, 1775, and March 28, 1776, 
addressed to the Provincial Convention, he strongly 
recommended to the country at large the consideration 
of this important subject. 

He was one of the committee appointed to report 
the first constitution of the State, and under it was 
chosen a State senator from the Middle District at the 
election in 1777, and served until 1782. 

In January, 1778, he was one of a committee of four 
to repair to the Highlands to fix on the place for build- 
ing fortifications ; the result was the erection at West 
Point of Fort Arnold and its outworks, including Fort 
Putnam, the impregnable key to the strategic lines of 
the army of the Eevolution. 

After the triumphal close of the Revolution the only 
public service of Henry Wisner was in the New York 
Constitutional Convention of 1788, which ratified the 
United States Constitution. 

Henry Wisner was a man, though without superior 
education, of a clear, strong mind, active and useful, 
devoted to his country, and very eflScient in its early 
councils, trusted by his fellow-citizens, and the com- 
panion and friend of its leading patriots. 

If his name has disappeared from the records of 
churches and the stones of graveyards, so that neither 
his birth nor death can be accurately fixed, and if it 
does not stand where it really belongs, among the 
original signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
it is not likely to be forgotten while many patriotic 
and honorable descendants remain, and while history 
still continues busy in hunting up the records of those 
whose hearts and lives contributed sensible support to 
the trembling tree of our national liberty when it was 
first planted and in danger from every breeze of selfish 
cowardice or calculating distrust. 

In 1779, Henry Wisner lost his younger son, Lieut.- 
Col. Gabriel Wisner, in the battle of Minisink, whom, 
'according to the account in Stone's " Life of Brant," 
that savage tomahawked after the battle. 

Gabriel Wisner married Elizabeth Waters, and his 
three sisters were Elizabeth, wife of John Denton; 
iMary, wife of Phineas Helraea; and Sarah, wife of 
Moses Phillips. 

I Henry G., son of Gabriel and Elizabeth (Waters) 
iWisner, was born on the homestead near Goshen, in 
1777. His wife was Sarah, daughter of Samuel and 
Phebe Talman, of New York, born in 1784, died in 
April, 1874, and whom he married in December, 

Their children are William H. ; Elizabeth, widow 
if John E. Phillips; Mary, wife of George C. Miller, 
)f New York ; Samuel T., died in infancy ; Frances, 
ivife of Hon. Ambrose Spencer Murray, of Goshen ; 
jabriel H., of New York ; Sarah A., wife of Joseph 

H. Coates, of New York ; Alma T., died unmarried ; 
George T., of Goshen ; and Martha. 

Mr. Wisner was prepared for college at Farmer's 
Hall Academy, Goshen, then conducted by the emi- 
nent teacher and lexicographer, Noah Webster, and 
was graduated at Princeton in the class of 1799, de- 
livering the valedictory oration. He read law with 
George Grifien, Esq., of New York, was admitted to 
the bar in due course of time, and opened an office for 
the practice of his profession in that city. 

About the year 1810, Mr. Wisner removed with his 
family, consisting of his wife and two children, and 
settled at Goshen, where he opened a law-office, and 
continued a.successful practice until his death, which 
occurred Feb. 20, 1842. Soon after his settlement at 
Goshen he was elected county clerk, and was the in- 
cumbent of that office during the war of 1812. 

As a member of the bar he stood among the first in 
his native county, while he had but few equals in the 
State. Possessed of a clear and lofty intellect, he was 
enabled to grapple successfully the most difficult ques- 
tions of law ; endowed with an unusual share of moral 
courage, he was induced on all occasions fearlessly to 
pursue the path of duty, regardless of popular favor, 
while a keen discrimination, with a graceful and con- 
vincing style in argument, rendered him a most able 
and successful advocate. 

In the discharge of his duty to his client he never 
forsook the path of honor nor sought to take undue ad- 
vantage of his adversary. His great legal knowledge, 
unbending integrity, and frank and honorable course 
\von for him the respect and esteem of his brethren of 
the bar, and gave great weight to his opinions with the 

As a citizen he was spirited and enterprising, always 
ready to contribute of his time, talents, and means to 
the advancemept of the public interest and to the good 
of his fellow-men. The spirit of benevolence ever 
prompted him to acts of kindness and charity. To the 
indigent he was, indeed, a friend and a counselor, whose 
aid was never invoked in vain. The generous im- 
pulses of a noble heart were obeyed without ostenta- 

As a Christian he was consistent, zealous, and de- 
voted ; and, in generous support and counsel, he was 
ever foremost in the promotion of every good work 
that would contribute to the advancement and pros- 
perity of the church. 

Walter Case, of Newburgh, was the son of Rev. 
Wheeler Case, of Duchess County, who has some rep- 
utation among antiquarians through his " Revolution- 
ary Memorials," embracing poems, published in 1778. 
He was member of Congress, 1819-21, and siirrogate 
of the county, 1823-27. He removed from Newburgh 
to Fishkill, where he died. His wife was Sarah, 
daughter of Jonathan Hasbrouck (2), of Newburgh. 
His grandson, Walter C. Anthony, is a practicing 
attorney in Newburgh, and is now serving his second 
term as district attorney of- the county. 



1804. — William W. Brown, Washingtonville. 

1805.— Charles Baker, Newburgh ; John Duer, Go- 
shen; Benjamin Anderson, Jr., Newburgh; Joseph 
J. Jackson. 

Benjamin Andehson, Jr., of Newburgh, had, we 
are told, his principal consequence from the fact 
that he married the daughter of Phineas Bowman. 
Charles Baker and John Duer were strong men, 
although Mr. Baker destroyed his opportunities 
through intemperance. He was a native of .Wind- 
ham Co., Conn. He graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1760, and immediately removed to Sullivan 
County, where he engaged in school-teaching. A 
few years later he became a student in the office of 
William Ross, at Newburgh, and after his admission 
to the bar returned to Sullivan County, and opened 
an office in Bloomingburgh. " He was," says Mr. 
Quinlan, " a man of undoubted talent, of more than 
average learning as a lawyer, and much addicted to 
original thought and expression. So unusual and 
amusing were his sayings that he was the central 
figure, to which all eyes were directed, in whatever so- 
ciety he appeared." His career is fully sketched in 
Mr. Quinlan's history. He removed from Sullivan 
County to Newburgh in 1835, and died there May 7, 

John Duer was one of the three sons of Col. Wil- 
liam Duer, of the army of the Revolution, and was 
born at Albany, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1782. His mother 
(Col. Diier's wife) was Catharine Alexander, daugh- 
ter of Maj.-Gen. Alexander (Lord Stirling), well 
known in Revolutionary annals. William A. Duer, 
the older brother of John, was a distinguished lawyer, 
and for many years judge of the Supreme Court cir- 
cuit of the State of New York. At the age of six- 
teen years John Duer entered the army, but aban- 
doned it after two years' service, and commenced the 
study of law at Goshen, whither his family had re- 
moved. Upon the completion of his studies he com- 
menced the practice of his profession at Goshen, 
where he was subsequently joined by his brother, 
Alexander Duer, who lived but a few years, and 
left two daughters, now Mrs. J. V. Beane and Mrs. 
David r. Gedney. He removed from Goshen to 
New York about 1820, and soon took a prominent 
position at the bar of that city. Upon the passage of 
the law providing for a revision of the statutes of the 
State, he was appointed a member of the commission 
charged with that important work. He was elected 
a justice of the Superior Court of the city in 1849, and 
in 1857 became presiding justice. He was the author 
of a valuable treatise 6n the "Law and Practice of 
Marine Insurance,'' which is regarded as authority 
pot only in the State, but by the bench and bar 
throughout the United States. He was also the au- 
thor of other works on legal subjects, and the editor 
of a series of Superior Court Reports. His death oc- 
curred Aug. 8, 1858. In person he was of tall and 
commanding stature, a noble and highly intellectual 

countenance, and possessed rare powers of forensic 
eloquence. An extraordinary fluent delivery, great 
command of language, and a rich, ftill, deep-toned 
voice, with a dignified, noble carriage, imparted to 
his style of eloquence a most impressive effect. While 
a resident of this county his peculiar qualiflcationj 
not only gave him high rank in his profession, but 
drew him into the politics of the times. In this field 
he unfortunately formed an alliance with the oppo- 
nents' of the war of 1812, and, notwithstanding his 
abilities, found himself in an overwhelmed minority. 
With others he sought to regain political standing by 
stepping to the front after the burning of the national 
capital (1815), but it was then too late. He was quite 
active in local undertakings, and gave tonetoGoehei 
society through his family associations and his per- 
sonal accomplishments. His wife was Annie Bun- 
ner, of the city of New York, sister to Rudolf Bunner, 
who was his first business partner after he located in 
Goshen. Another brother-in-law, Morris Robinson, 
the first cashier of the Bank of Orange County, was a 
son of Beverly Robinson, of the British army, whose 
father was Col. Beverly Robinson, one of the historic 
associates in the treason of Benedict Arnold. 

1807. — Edward Ely, Goshen; Benjamin T. Case, 
Herman Ruggles, Edward W. James. 

Edward Ely was member of Assembly in 1815, 
and surrogate from 1815 to 1820. 

1808. — Jonathan Cooley, Newburgh. He was 
a judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1815. 

1809. — Hezekiah Belknap, Newburgh; Rudolf Bun- 
ner, Goshen. 

Hezekiah Belknap was born in 1781, and died 
in 1814, his death following his election (April) to the 
next Assembly (1816), of which his name appears on 
the roll. 

Rudolf Bunner, the associate of John Duer, re- 
moved to Newburgh and subsequently to Oswego. 
He was representative in Congress from the Osw^ 
district, 1827-29. 

1810.— Samuel R. Betts, Newburgh; Gilbert 0. 
Fowler, Newburgh; David Ruggles, Newburgh; 
Beverly Kain, Montgomery ; Aaron Belknap, New- 

Samuel R. Betts was circuit judge in 1823. 

Gilbert O. Fowler was son of Dr. David Fow- 
ler, of Newburgh. He graduated with honor at Co- 
lumbia College, and subsequently pursued the study 
of law at Newburgh, with Solomon Sleight. He was 
licensed to practice in 1810 ; appointed master in 
chancery in 1816 ; judge of Orange Common Pleas in 
1828, and first judge of that court (in place of Samnd 
S. Seward) in 1833. In the autumn of 1833 hem" 
elected to the Legislature, and as a member of tW 
body was instrumental in securing the passage of the 
charter of the Highland Bank, and also of the Del* 
ware and Hudson Railroad. He was elected p«W 
dent of the Highland Bank on the organiMtion ol 
that institution, and occupied that position uMil hu 



death. He also held several important military com- 
missions : was aide-de-camp to Gen. Leonard Smith in 
1813 ; quartermaster of Thirty-fourth Brigade in 1815 ; 
aide-de-camp to the major-general of the second divis- 
ion of infantry in 1816; brigade major and inspector 
in 1818 ; brigadier-general of Thirty-fourth Brigade 
in 1826 (elected in 1825) ; and major-general of Fifth 
Brigade in 1827. Few men enjoyed to a greater de- 
gree the confidence of his fellow-citizens or more 
worthily performed the duties of the public stations 
which he held. He died in 1843. His sons were 
Isaac v., lawyer of New York ; James W., surrogate 
of the county, 1851 ; and David E., who served as 
quartermaster under Gen. Sherman. Isaac V. and 
David E. are now deceased. 

Aaron Belknap was of the old Belknap stock of 
Newburgh. Samuel R. Betts was associated with him 
in practice. Aaron Betts Belknap, of New York, 
recently deceased, was his only surviving son. 

1811. — Joseph H. Jackson, Goshen ; John Antill, 
Coldenham; John Neiffie, Montgomery; David W. 
Bate, Newburgh ; Charles White, Jr., Philo T. Rug- 
gles, Newburgh ; Thomas Swezey, Goshen ; Joseph 
Chattle, Mount Hope. 

David W. Bate was the most prominent lawyer of 
this group. Of his family history very little is known 
beyond the fact that he was son of James Bate, A. Q. G. 
of the army of the Revolution, and that he was born 
in Shawangunk, Ulster Co. During the war of 1812 
he was appointed brigade-major in Gen. Hopkins' 
brigade, and went to the lines. The dissolution of 
the brigade destroyed his useftilness in that station, 
and he volunteered under Gen. Hampton. In an en- 
gagement with the enemy under Gen. Provost (Oct. 
27, 1813) he was severely wounded, and recovered 
with considerable difiSculty. On his return from the 
army he resumed practice with William Ross (Ross 
& Bate), and continued in his profession until a short 
time before his death, as the senior member of the 
firm of Bate & McKissock. He was for several terms 
supervisor of the town, and was especially useful as a 
member of the board in the matter of the construc- 
tion of the present court-houses of the county. In 
1847 he was elected county judge under the new con- 
stitution, and served with credit to his profession. 
His first wife was Harriet M. Isaacs ; his second, Mrs. 
Polhamus, who survived him. He left no children, 
and the iulk of his property went to his nephew. 

1813. — Samuel W. Eager, Montgomery ; William 
W. Sackett, Newburgh ; John B. Booth, Goshen. 

Samuel W. Eager was a native of Montgomery, 
and he commenced practice there. He was a man of 
excellent natural and acquired abilities, but having 
been unfortunately appointed a justice of the peace 
when a young man, he acquired habits of indolence 
that were his besetting sin through life. He was 
elected to Congress for the unexpired term of Hector 
Craig in 1830. This, aside from local stations, — post- 
master at Newburgh, police justice of Newburgh, 

justice of the peace, etc., — was his only public official 
service. As a man and a citizen his character was 
blameless. Through his "History of Orange County," 
prepared in 1847, his name and memory have been 
preserved in many households in his native county. 
His wife was Catharine, daughter of John McAuley, 
a merchant of Newburgh. He had four sons, — John 
M., who practiced law in Newburgh, St. Louis, and 
New York ; Samuel W., now of Racine, Wis. ; Frank, 
and another. 

William W. Sackett removed from Newburgh 
to Sullivan County. He was more of a surveyor than 
a lawyer, and found in his new home successful em- 

John B. Booth, of Goshen, is referred to in another 
connection. He was surrogate of the county from 
1831 to 1840. 

1814. — Peter F. Hunn, Newburgh ; Charles Bor- 
land, Jr., Montgomery. 

Peter F. Hunn was the son of John S. Hunn and 
Margaret Frenau, and was born May 20, 1794, at 
Mount Pleasant, N. J. His ancestor, on his father's 
side, was from Holland. His grandfather, Thomas 
Hunn, married Catharine Van Emburgh, daughter of 
Peregrim Van Emburgh and Amelia Provost, the 
latter daughter of Bishop John Provost. On his 
mother's side he was a descendant of Andrfi Fresneau 
(now Freneau), who, with a large number of French 
families, left France on the revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes, in 1685, and settled in New Jersey. The 
editor and poet Freneau of the Revolutionary era 
was of this stock. He graduated at Columbia Col- 
lege, and studied law in the office of Nathan Sanford, 
afterwards chancellor of the State. His father having 
received the appointment of cashier of the Bank of 
Newburgh (1811), he removed to Newburgh with him 
and entered the office of Jonathan Fisk, where he re- 
mained until admitted to the bar, when he removed 
to Sullivan County and commenced the practice of 
his profession. He was subsequently surrogate, mas- 
ter in chancery, and district attorney of that county, 
the duties of which stations he ably and satisfactorily 
performed. He removed to Newburgh in 1837, where 
he remained until his death, pursuing his law practice 
and discharging the duties of justice of the peace. 
When not otherwise engaged he devoted attention to 
the construction and copying of maps, and perfected 
some which were valuable. He was a man of varied 
talents and attainments, and though he did not excel 
in any particular branch, he exhibited excellence in 
many. Had he not been a man of extreme modesty and 
diffidence — evils that formed a part of his very nature 
and attended him through life — he would have been 
eminently successful either as a lawyer or a surveyor. 
He enjoyed the respect of the community and all who 
had his acquaintance. He died July 31, 1847, in his 
fifty-fourth year. His wife was Maria T. Griffing, of 
Monticello, by whom he had five children, — Mary, 
Margaret, Catharine, Freneau (druggist in New York), 



and John T. (at one time clerk in Tradesmen's 

Chaeles Borland, Jr., of Montgomery, was a 
descendant of one of the early settlers (1738) of that 
town, and was for many years one of its most reputa- 
ble citizens. He was surrogate in 1844, and special 
surrogate in 1855. In 1821, and again in 1836, he was 
elected member of Assembly. 

1815.— Charles Monell, Goshen; Wheeler Case, 
Newburgh ; Charles Humphrey, Newburgh ; L. W. 
Ruggles; Samuel J. Wilkin. 

Charles Monell was a master and examiner \n 
chancery in 1830. He practiced at Goshen for many 
years. ^ ■ 

Wheeler Case and L. W. Ed&gles are not known 
to have practiced law in the county, a remark which 
will apply to others who were admitted to the bar. 

Charles Humphrey removed to Ithaca on the 
organization there of the Branch Bank of Newburgh, 
with which he was connected. He was member of 
Congress from the Tompkins district in 1825-27, and 
member of Assembly, 1834-36, 1842. His wife was 
Ann Eliza, daughter of Joseph and Sarah Belknap, 
of New Windsor, of which town his ancestor, John 
Humphrey, was one of the first settlers. 

1816. — Leonard Mason ; Charles H. Ruggles, New- 
burgh; AlexanderT.Bodle, Goshen; Al asunder Duer, 
Goshen ; Archibald Smith, Montgomery. 

Leonard Mason removed to Poughkeepsie. 

Charles H. Ruggles was circuit judge in 1831 ; 
residence, Poughkeepsie. 

Alexander Duer was the brother of -John Duer, 
and has already been spoken of. 

Alexander T. Bodle and Archibald Smith 
enjoyed no special reputation. ; 

1817. — George F. Tallman; Samuel G. Hopkins, 
Goshen. /f'^k j 

1818.— Thomas McKissock, Newb^jjl^' 'Albert S. 
Benton, Goshen ; Alpheus Dimmick, Gofhen ; James 
Dill ; Ogden Hoffman, Goshen. 

Thomas McKissock was the son of Thomas Mc- 
Kissock, of Ayrshire, Scotland, who settled in Mont- 
gomery prior to the war for independence. He was 
born in Montgomery about 1790, and at the proper 
age commenced the study of medicine. This profes- 
sion he abandoned, however, for that of the law, and 
entered the office of Ross & Bate in 1815. Subse- 
quently for many years he was associated with Judge 
Bate, his tutor, under the firm-name of Bate & Mc- 
Kissock. In 1847 he was appointed judge of the Su- 
preme Court to close up the business of that court 
under the old constitution, and discharged the duties 
devolving upon him with great credit. In 1849 he 
was elected representative in Congress. Very few 
inen enjoyed more fully the confidence of men of all 
parties, and none to whose legal opinions greater 
deference was conceded. Candor, ingenuousnes-i, 
manliness, and moral integrity were predominant 
traits in his character. His wife was Elsie, daughter 

of Joseph Belknap (Hister to Mrs. Charles Humphrey). 
She died in 1843. He had two children,— Thomas, 
who removed to St. Louis, and Sophia (Mrs. Low- 
den), who removed to Brooklyn. He died at St. An- 
drew's, aged seventy-sixty years, two months, and nine 

Ogden Hoffman. — The name of Ogden Hoffman 
deserves special notice among the eminent men who 
have conferred lustre upon the Orange County bar. 
Although for the last thirty years of his life a resident 
of the city of New York, he is justly claimed also by 
Orange County, from the fact that here he pursued his 
i legal studies, and commenced his brilliant professional 
' .career. Ogden Hoffman was the son of another very 
eminent lawyer, Josiah Ogden Hoflfman, and was born 
[ in the?«ity of New York in the year 1793. He had 
j commenced .studying in his father's office when the 
war of 1812, between the United States and Great 
I Britain, broke out, and at the first bugle-blast young 
I HofiFman entered into the service of his country as a 
midshipiman. He was the favorite midshipman and 
aide to the gallant Decatur, and acquitted himself so 
bravely as to have merited the highest encomiums of 
thai brave commander and his fellow-officers. He 
wais on board of the " President" with Decatur, iu 
January, 1815, when she was attacked by the " Endy- 
mion," "Pomona," "Taredos," and " Majestic," not 
far from the port of New York, and after an eight 
hours' fight compelled to surrender. Hoffman was 
sent to England as a pri^ner, and was there confined 
for six months. He subsequently served under De- 
catur in the United States frigate "Guerriere" (forty- 
four guns), in the war with the Algerines. In the 
battle with the Algerine ship, the " Mesora" (sixty- 
four guns), June 16, 1815, he was second in command 
of the cutter which first boarded the Algerine, and 
with his commdes was fighting the enemy on his own 
decks when tne other cutters came to their assistance. 
On leaving the navy he came to Goshen, and pursued 
his legal studies under John Duer, and immediately 
upon his admission to the bar took a high stand in 
his profession. He was soon appointed district attor- 
ney of Orange County (1823), and also represented 
that county in the State Legislature as member of 
Assembly for one term (1826). In 1826 he removed 
to the city of New York, where his brilliant talents 
soon commanded for him the highest position. He 
at first became a law partner of Hugh Maxwell. In 
1828 he was elected a member of the State Legisla- 
ture for New York City, and rendered material ser- 
vices in the revision of the statutes. From 1829 to 
1836 he held the office of district attorney by appoint- 
ment of the New York Common Council. He was 
then elected to Congress, and served two terms in the 
House of Representatives. In 1841 he was appointed 
to the office of United States district attorney for the 
I Southern District of New York by President Harri- 
j son. Again, in 1848, he was elected to Congress, and 
subsequently filled the office of attorney-general of 




the State from 1854 to 1855. His active and useful 
career was terminated, May 1, 1856, by death. Mr. 
Hoffman had no equal as an eloquent advocate, and 
combined in his composition all those engaging quali- 
ties of heart and mind which make up the character 
of the true gentleman. No man ever was more 
heartily loved by his fellows, or more sincerely 
mourned. During his residence in Goshen he mar- | 
ried Emily, daughter of Jonathan Burrill, who at 
that time was cashier of the Orange County Bank. 
She was one of three sisters very celebrated in their 
day for their beauty and attractions, one of whom, 
Frances, married Murray Hoffman, and the other, 
Caroline, became the wife of Henry Hone. The son 
of Mr. Hoffman, Ogden Hoffman, Jr., is United States 
district judge in California, and a second is Charles 
Burrill Hoffman, now living in the city of New 

Albert S. Benton was county clerk in 1838. 
Concerning him we have no other information. 

1822.— Gabriel W. Ludlum, Goshen; John W. 
Knevels, Newburgh ; John W. Brown, Newburgh. 

John W. Kneyels was the son of Dr. Adrian 
Knevels, of Santa Cruz, W. I., and came hither with 
his father, whose family was composed of John W., 
Isaac, Augustus, Granville, and Maria. He studied 
law under William Ross, and was for a time associ- 
ated with him. Subsequently he gave no little atten- 
tion to horticulture, established a nursery, and pub- 
lished a monthly under the title of Tablets of Rural 
Economy. He also edited the Newburgh Gazette, and 
embellished his editorial articles with Greek types. 
He failed in 1787, and removed to Fishkill, where he 
died. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel 
Cromeline Verplanck, and sister of Guliau C. Ver- 

John W. Brown was the strong man of the class 
of 1822. He was born at Dundee, Scotland, Oct. 11, 
1796 ; was brought to this country in 1801 by his 
father, who settled first in Putnam County, but soon 
afber removed to what is now known as West New- 
burgh, where he conducted a fulling-mill. Receiving 
a good common-school education, but evincing stu- 
dious habits and an inclination for the profession of 
law, he entered the office of Jonathan Fisk. For a 
time, both before and after his admission to the bar, 
he took considerable interest in military matters, be- 
came captain of the " Bell-Button Company," and 
subsequently colonel of the militia of the district. He 
was early appointed justice of the peace, and from 
1821 to 1825 was clerk of the board of village trus- 
tees. In 1832 be was elected member of Congress, 
and re-elected in 1834. He was a faithful, but not 
especially a brilliant, representative. In the political 
discussions following his last election he became a 
strong opponent of the " Albany Regency," which 
controlled the Democratic party. The Constitutional 
Convention of 1846 was the outgrowth of this dis- 
cussion, and in that Convention he took an active 

part as one of the delegates from Orange County. In 
1849 he was elected justice of the Supreme Court for 
the Second Judicial District for the term of eight years. 
In November, 1857, he was re-elected, and served an 
additional term of eight years, the last years of each 
term having been spent as an associate judge of the 
Court of Appeals. Not one of his decisions as judge 
was ever reversed by the Court of Appeals, notwith- 
standing the fact that in several instances doubtful 
and intricate points of law were involved. His de- 
cision in the case of the seven million canal loan was 
especially in opposition to a strong element in public 
opinion. Distinguished as he was as an advocate, he 
became far more distinguished as a judge. In many 
respects he was peculiar. Very few men had a keener 
appreciation of the value of money than he, and it 
was for this reason that he was a moderate man in his 
charges for legal services, and equally moderate in his 
expenditures. Penurious he never was, — the rapacity 
of many was not in his composition; had it been, 
abundant wealth, instead of a simple competency, 
would have resulted from his practice. He was a 
gentleman in the strictest sense, and all his business 
intercourse with his fellow-men was marked by the 
most thorough integrity. A strong man when aroused 
in any emergency, — one who could sway a jury and 
awe a mob, — he was remarkably kind and sensitive. 
His wife was Eliza, daughter of Selah Reeve. Chas. 
F. Brown, at present judge of the County Court, is his 

Samuel Jones Wilkin.— The progenitor of the 
Wilkin family in Orange County, N. Y., of whom the 
subject of this sketch is great-grandson, was John 
Wilkin, who was of Welsh birth, and settled at or 
near Enniskillen, Ireland, soon after the conquest of 
that country by William, Prince of Orange, in 1688. 
In 1728, with his wife and three children, William, 
James, and Ann, he settled in the town of Shawan- 
gunk, Ulster Co., N. Y. (now town of Montgomery, 
Orange Co.), on a tract of 500 acres of land. He had 
born to him, after his arrival in America, children, — 
John, George, Joseph, Jason, Jane, Elizabeth, Lydia, 
Mary, and Susan. He died in the occupation of his 

William, eldest sou, born Jan. 20, 1720, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Rogers, who married a 
Miss Ogden, and who removed from Rye, Westchester 
Co., and settled in Wallkill, when their daughter was 

After his marriage William Wilkin settled in Wall- 
kill. He was a man of limited education, but pos- 
sessed a strong mind, a retentive memory, and in 
those days of real log cabins he was very much 
esteemed by his neighbors, and often served them in 
settling their accounts when difficulties arose among 

He reared a large family of children, who married 
with members of the oldest and most respectable 
families of Orange County, and many of their de- 



sceadants have been prominent and influential mem- 
bers of society. The family of William Wilkin were 
among the early members of the Creeder Church at 

The children of William Wilkin were Sarah, John, 
William, Jane, Daniel, George, Gen. James W., 
Eobert, Joseph, and Elizabeth, most of whom lived 
to old age. 

One brother of William Wilkin, George, was taken 
prisoner at Fort Montgomery, and died in the old 
Sugar-House prison in New York during the Revo- 
lutionary war. 

Gen. James W., son of William Wilkin, was an 
influential citizen and lawyer during the early days 
of the Republic, and was prominently identified with 
the civil, political, and military history of Orange 
County nearly his whole life. He w^as graduated at 
Princeton under President Witherspoon. 

He was appointed captain-lieutenant of a com- 
pany of artillery in a brigade of Orange County 
militia, July 3, 1787, by Governor Clinton, and again 
March 16, 1792. He was appointed by the same Gov- 
ernor lieutenant-colonel of a regiment of artillery. 
May 19, 1803, and subsequently, by Governor Mor- 
gan Lewis, brigadier-general of the Second Brigade of 

He was appointed an attorney in the Ulster County 
Court of Common Pleas in 1789 by Judge Derk Wyn 
Koop, having been admitted to practice law in Orange 
County the previous year. 

He was State senator from the Middle District in 
1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, '11, 12, '13, and '14, and by 
virtue of his position as senator he was elected by the 
Assembly a member of the " Council of Appointment," 
Jan. 30, 1802, again on Jan. 30, 1811, and a third 
time Jan. 12, 1813. 

He was a member of Assembly from Orange in 
1808, 1809, and for the latter session was chosen 
speaker of the House. 

Gen. Wilkin was president of the Legislative caucus 
which nominated De Witt Clinton for President of the 
United States, and was a member of the Fourteenth 
and Fifteenth Congresses of the United States from 
Orange, and after the close of his Congressional career 
he served Orange County from 1819 to 1821 inclusive 
as county clerk, and also for several years as county 

He was a candidate against Rufus King for the 
United States Senate, and was defeated for the nomi- 
nation by a single vote. 

He was a large man of fine presence. He was a 
man of strictly moral character and temperate habits, 
and was one of the pillars of the Presbyterian Church 
at Goshen, of which he was for many years an elder. 
He was exceedingly courteous and polite in manners, 
and generally amiable, although possessing a terrible 
temper when aroused. He was always deferential to 
the ladies, for whom in general he entertained the 
highest respect. 

His wife was Hannah, daughter of Roger Town- 
send, of Goshen, who bore him the following chil- 
dren: William, a private secretary of one of the Gov- 
ernors of the State ; James W. ; Eliza Maria, wife of 
Wheeler Case, a lawyer at Goshen, and surrogate of 
Orange, 1823-27 ; Sally, who died unmarried ; Caro- 
line, wife of Hull Tuthill, a lawyer at Goshen, and 
after his death wife of John W. A. Brewster, of Maine, 
who died, leaving an only son. Rev. Charles A. Brew- 
ster, of Newark, N. J. ; Samuel J., subject of this 
sketch ; Frances, wife of John L Thompson, of Go- 
shen, who has one son. Rev. J. J. Thompson, a grad- 
uate of Princeton College. 

Samuel J., son of Gen. James W. Wilkin, was bom 
at Goshen, Dec. 17, 1793, and died March 11, 1866, in 
his native place, where he resided his whole life, ex- 
cept a short time, about the year 1838, spent in the 
city of New York, where he resided and practiced his 
profession ; but owing to failing health he was obliged 
to return to his native county. 

He married, July 18, 1816, Sarah G., daughter of 
Col. David M. Westcott, one of the early journalists 
of Goshen. She was born May 29, 1796. 

Their children were Mary, wife of Joseph G. Ellis, 
of Mobile, born Oct. 14, 1817, died shortly after her 
marriage, Oct. 10, 1842 ; Col. Alexander, born Dec. 1, 
1819, was a lawyer in New York City. He served as 
captain in the Mexican war, and in 1849 settled at 
St. Paul, Minn., and resumed the pract